Inadequacy Of Biology Teachers In Some Selected Secondary School

Biology Education Project Material

Inadequacy Of Biology Teachers In Some Selected Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state. The study was specifically set to determine the extent of the availability of qualified Biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state, determine the extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state, and investigate the factors that influence the inadequate availability of biology teachers in Ovia North East Edo state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-sqaure statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of the availability of qualified Biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state is low. The study also revealed that the factors that influence the inadequate availability of biology teachers in Ovia North East Edo state includes: inadequate availability of qualified teachers, polities in recruitment process, favouritism, bribing, and inability to pay qualified teachers. Therefore, it is recommended that schools should place more emphasis on the development of teachers qualifications and quality through training, seminars and workshops in order to improve students’ performance. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Biology as a science is defined as a scientific study of living organisms. It is therefore a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and taxonomy. It have several branches; including the two big branches of Biology which are botany (the study of plants) and zoology (the study of animals), morphology (the study if external structure of living things) physiology (the study of how living things function), Ecology (the study of relationship between living things and their environments), Genetics (the study of how living things inherits characters from their parents) Cell Biology (the study of cell structure and functions).

In addition, Biology being a branch of science plays a vital role in providing knowledge of relevant concepts, scientific skills, environment and natural phenomena. It helps to develop science process skills and scientific attitude (Adeosun 2009). It is the study of natural phenomena and environment which results from curiosity of man (Nlewem, 2018 ). It has been structured to equip the students with the knowledge of relevant concepts and scientific skills (Adepoju (2016). Biology is all the knowledge of living things that has come to us from the past. It is therefore the science of life.
Beyond that, Biology Education is an application of principles of education in teaching and learning of Biology. It is also the act of teaching and training in order to inculcate or transfer the knowledge of Biology to students. ( Okenyi 2018 ). It is a process of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes in Biology to a learners at any level. Also, it gives the learner a sound academic knowledge, skills and ample opportunity to apply this knowledge.

Biology education is the act of teaching and learning in order to inculcate or transfer the knowledge of Biology to the student (Okenyi, 2018 ). Educating people in science especially Biology has been widely acknowledged as a way of promoting economic development, eliminating poverty and introducing social welfare (Nwagbo, 2005). As a matter of fact, science education in Nigeria has faced various problems over the years,. The school curriculum offers a child-centered teaching-learning approach as students are encouraged to take up the science related subjects including biology, which occupies a unique position in the school curriculum and is central to many science related courses (Aina 2018 ).

However, In Nigeria, the inclusion of science subjects in the school curriculum is to promote national development as the nation adopts more science oriented policies and programmes in education (Oriahi et al., 2010). Poor performance of students is mainly due to lack of motivation for teachers; poor infrastructural facilities; attitude of students to learning; lack of teaching skills and competence by science teachers; and lack of opportunities for professional development of science teachers (Braimoh and Okadeyi, 2018 ; Olaleye, 2002). Other factors include syllabus, teacher’s qualifications, workload, experience and disposition, general lack of teaching skills and ineffective style of delivery of subject matter are also identified as some of the causes (Adepoju, 2016). Scientific issues involve the teaching of biological concepts through technology so as to develop science through interesting contexts. The inclusion of science-technology-society (S-T-S) issues in the school curriculum (Osborne and Collins, 2000) will achieve the engagement of students in problem solving activities.

Conceptually, teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature one which designed to further the education of the latter”. Morrison (1934), Dewey (1934) expressed this concept of teaching by an equation. “Teaching is learning as selling is to buying”. In the same manner, John Brubacher (1939), describe teaching as an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which there are gaps or obstructions which an individual will seek to overcome and from which he will learn in the course of doing so”.Also, B.O. Smith defined teaching as “Teaching is a system of actions intended to induce learning”. Ideal teaching refers to the teaching and learning process as it is expected to take place in a classroom in an ideal situation.

However, actual teaching is the teaching and learning process that actually takes place in the classroom in relation to the prevailing academic and environmental conditions. Quality teaching is the process of continuously improving teaching and learning in order to bring desirable education goals in the school system. It is the principal measure of the effectiveness of education and the most attribute to suffer. Teaching and learning are improved continuously and maintained to bring the desired goals (Aminu, 2015). Quality teaching in biology is crucial for developing scientifically literate citizens and improving economic productivity for sustainable development. It enhances students achievement and strengthens public confidence in schools. Quality teaching helps students to attain a deep conceptual understanding (Aminu, 2015). Quality teaching helps teachers to focus on the educational improvement of learners through the integration of adequate knowledge of the curriculum content areas, functional pedagogic skills, critical reflective teaching, empathy and commitment to the educational process and the acquisition of managerial competencies within and outside the school context. Furthermore, qualified teachers of biology are knowledgeable about biology, they create an environment in which students are regarded and treated as active learners. Teaching and learning of biology involves teachers’ knowledge of subject matter and teaching pedagogy (Ball and McDiarmids, 2010).

Fortunately, it is a fact that Biology is the commonly chosen science subject of most secondary students are confirmed by the west Africa Examination council (WAEC) record. In accordance with the National Policy on Education of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (NPE, 2015) and the National Curriculum for Senior Secondary Schools published by the Federal Ministry of Education (2015), it is imperative that biology instruction in Secondary School is designed to cultivate fundamental scientific competencies among students, thereby equipping them for the practical implementation of technology.

Also, in accordance with the National Policy on Education of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (NPE, 2015) and the National Curriculum for Senior Secondary Schools published by the Federal Ministry of Education (2015), it is imperative that biology instruction in Secondary School is designed to cultivate fundamental scientific competencies among students, thereby equipping them for the practical implementation of technology. Despite the implementation of the Biology Curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools some decades ago, the nation continues to face a deficiency in technological advancements that might enhance environmental comfort and quality of life. It might be inferred that the execution of the curriculum may be inadequate, since the intended goals are not being realised. It is important to acknowledge the findings of previous studies (Akpan, 2016; Ajayi, 2020) which highlight the many issues encountered by biology instructors. These concerns mostly revolve around the inadequacy of instructional materials, equipment, and laboratory facilities. According to Ugwu (2018), there are four primary challenges that may be identified as constraints in the field of biology education. These challenges include inadequate compensation for biology instructors, an extensive curriculum that covers a large amount of information, insufficient availability of specimens and equipment, and inadequate training of biology teachers. Similarly, Ajayi (2020) posited that labs equipped with essential amenities play a crucial role in facilitating the teaching of biology for educators. The insufficiency of specimens and equipment for practical activities is a contributing factor to a circumstance in which the teacher must make an effort to provide limited resources in order to adequately prepare students for their certificate examinations administered by both the West African Examinations Council and the National Examinations Council, potentially for the first time. The above challenges has therefore prompted the researcher to assess the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The subject of biology is often chosen by a significant number of pupils at the secondary school level, serving as a foundational link to many disciplines such as chemistry, physics, mathematics, information science, and others. Nigerian Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education demand a high standard of performance for admission into scientific and science-based fields, including but not limited to science education, agricultural science, and medical sciences. Despite extensive attempts to enhance students’ academic achievement in the field of biology, however, empirical evidence indicates a persistently high incidence of failure in public exams (Ndioho, 2017). The significant rate of failure in biology education can be attributed to several critical issues and challenges faced by biology teachers. These challenges include, but are not limited to, the lack of availability of necessary biology equipment, insufficient time allocated for teaching, large class sizes, limited access to new technological devices, ineffective teaching strategies, inadequate funding, shortages of professionally qualified biology teachers, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, and a lack of proper curriculum development. Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to investigate and assess the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s overall purpose is to investigate inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state. The study, on the other hand, was focused on achieving these precise goals.

  1. Determine the extent of the availability of qualified Biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state.
  2. Determine the extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state.
  3. Investigate the factors that influence the inadequate availability of biology teachers in Ovia North East Edo state.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the extent of the availability of qualified Biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state?
  2. What is the extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state?
  3. What are the factors that influence the inadequate availability of biology teachers in Ovia North East Edo state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following are tested in this study:

  • Ho: The extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state is low.
  • Ha: The extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the government as they are the ones responsible in the policy making concerning education, it will also improve the extent to which the government provide biological science laboratory and other teaching resources that will aid the teaching of Biology.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school. Hence, the study will determine whether qualification contribute to the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school, find out whether lack of proper curriculum development contributes to the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school, examine whether lack of teaching and learning facilities contributes to the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school and investigate whether available resources contribute to the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school. Geographically, the study is delimited to some selected secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Inadequacy:

The state or quality of being inadequate; lack of the quantity or quality required.

Biology:

The study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin, and distribution.

Teacher:

A person who teaches, especially in a school


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state. The study was specifically set to determine the extent of the availability of qualified Biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state, determine the extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state, and investigate the factors that influence the inadequate availability of biology teachers in Ovia North East Edo state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent of the availability of qualified Biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state is low.
  2. The extent of the inadequacy of biology teachers in some selected secondary school in Ovia North East Edo state is high.
  3. The factors that influence the inadequate availability of biology teachers in Ovia North East Edo state includes: inadequate availability of qualified teachers, polities in recruitment process, favouritism, bribing, and inability to pay qualified teachers.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Schools should place more emphasis on the development of teachers qualifications and quality through training, seminars and workshops in order to improve students’ performance.
  2. There should be room for motivation and reinforcement for teachers as a way of making sure that they are motivated for effective teaching and educational practices.
  3. Teachers should be trained and re-trained through workshop and seminars to meet up with new challenges in the teaching profession.
  4. Good working environment should be provided such as classrooms, adequate teaching and learning materials for pupils and teachers effective teaching and learning processes.

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