Improving Technologies For Inland Aquaculture In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Fishery and Aquaculture

Improving Technologies For Inland Aquaculture In Nigeria


Abstract


Fisheries and aquaculture continue to be a very important source of food, employment and revenue in many countries. The growth of commercial aquaculture has brought with it more intensified methods of production. Against a continuing background of diminishing and over-exploited aquatic resources, aquaculture has been widely held up as panacea to the problem of providing a growing world population with ever increasing amounts of fish for consumption.

While innovative aquaculture involves the applications of new and more effective ways, technologies, strategies and solutions for aquaculture management, there may be interventions related to breeding and farming techniques, aquatic environment management, disease control or animal health monitoring, nutrition and feed management of the cultured organisms, genetics and biotechnological tools which directly or indirectly play roles in improvement of aquaculture production in an environment-friendly and sustainable manner. Aquatic Resource and their sustainable management for biodiversity conservation constitute a multifaceted complex system. The challenges are manifold.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.6 Scope / Limitations Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concept Of Aquaculture
  • 2.2 The Systems Of Commercial Aquaculture In Nigeria
  • 2.3 Importance Of Fish To Human
  • 2.4 Overall Objectives Of Aquaculture

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Data And Sources
  • 3.3 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Analysis And Discussion

  • 4.1 Present Status Of Research For Fish Breeding
  • 4.2 Breeding And Genetic Improvement
  • 4.3 Health Management (Effectively Combat Emerging Diseases)
  • 4.4 Feed Development (Quality, Safe Feeds And Efficient)
  • 4.5 Opportunities And Strategies For Aquaculture Improvement

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Inland aquaculture is a technology driven industry which relies heavily on research to develop new and improved species and the appropriate technology for commercial production. At present, inland aquaculture in Nigeria is dominated by finfish and exciting new industry initiatives are presently underway that are exploring the culture of indigenous shellfish farming. However, despite these enterprises there is considerable scope for the sector to diversify further as a way of improving the production in the sector. In fact, expanding and improving the species base can be regarded as a prerequisite for the development of a globally competitive industry as well as for bringing appropriate technology to the small-scale, community-based operation. Nigeria is by far the most important state for the direct human consumption of fish, owing to a mixture of large population and relatively high per capita consumption levels.

It’s costal fisheries resources are depleted or close to depletion, so little growth could be expected from capture fisheries. Therefore inland aquaculture production must improve and increase to meet the further demands of the population. The present study is intended to highlight some directions that could help arrive at more widespread and improved fisheries prosperity. There is now burgeoning knowledge, wide range of tool and scientific and technical approaches including insights into social, economic and cultural conditions. Inland aquaculture has relied on hatchery-produced seed which does not lead to overfishing of wild stocks. Overfishing has been reported in connection with tropical marine fish and shrimp culture, causing depletion of wild stocks (Beveridge and Phillips, 1990). The amount of seed available is not always enough, causing ponds to remain un-stocked, thus providing mosquitoes and snails with ideal habitats. This can increase the prevalence of schistosomiasisand malaria, as well as other mosquito-transmitted diseases such as filariasis. Fish seed production is a specialized farming system practiced by skilled farmers only.

An increasing number of hormones and growth promoters are used to change the sex, productive viability and growth of cultured organisms. It is capital intensive and time consuming. A fingerling production technique involves a series of breeding and feeding activities that can be grouped under several successive operational stages. Aquaculture activities are being carried out with floating cage made from reinforced foams. These reinforced foams have excellent resistance to a wide range of chemicals and solvents and is compatible with water and solvent based coatings and adhesives, polyester and epoxy resin-based coatings. Rigid polyurethane foam is highly impervious to fungi and mould growth, non-fibrous, odourless and non-tainting.

The first attempt at fish farming and inland aquaculture was in 1951 at a small experimental station in Onikan, Lagos, where different tilapias were cultured while modern pond culture started with a pilot fish farm in Panyam, Plateau State for rearing the common/mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio following the disappointing results with Tilapia culture. The success led to the establishment of fish farms at Buguma in Rivers state, Abagana in Anambra state and Agodi Garden farm in Ibadan. Although, the major species cultured include fin-fish (tilapias, catfish, and carp), catfishes of the family, Clariidae are the mostly farmed fish. Since the culture of Clarias gariepinus through hypophysation was initiated in Western Nigeria in 1973 (Elliot, 1975), the procedure has been widely practiced throughout Nigeria.

The Clarias (Clarias anguillaris and Clarias gariepinus) and Heterobranchus (Heterobranchus longifilis and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) clariid catfish, are the most important fish species used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria. This species has shown considerable potential as a fish suitable for use in intensive aquaculture. This fish grows rapidly, it is disease and stress resistant, high fecundity, sturdy due to the presence of arborescent air-breathing organ and highly productive in polyculture, ability to grow on a wide range of natural and low cost artificial foods and ability to withstand low oxygen and pH levels (Zheng et al., 1988; Fagbenro et al., 1993). Sarotherodon galileaus, Tilapia zillii, Tilapia guineensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Oreochromis niloticus are the cultured tilapia species. However Oreochromis niloticus appears to be more popular among fish farmers. It is a popular species, endemic to most part of the country and grown by many farmers in inland aquaculture (Maluwa and Costa-pierce, 1993). This species has cultural advantages characteristics such as ease of production, ready acceptance of artificial feed, fast growth, and adaptability to a wide range of environmental conditions.

One of the major problems in tilapia culture is its highly prolific nature having early maturity which results in stunted populations because energy is being diverted to gonadal development instead of somatic growth (Gale et. al., 1999). Current advances in aquaculture production have been achieved through the application of genetic principles which includes selective breeding, hybridization, chromosome manipulation, sex reversal, gene transfer and polyploidy (Aluko and Olufeagba, 1999). Hybridization has been used to increase growth rate, manipulate sex ratios, produce sterile animals, improve flesh quality, increase resistance, improve tolerance to environmental extremes and improve a variety of other traits that make aquatic animals production more profitable (Dunham et al., 2001).

Hybridization between species can also result in offspring that are sterile or have diminished reproductive capacity. The more distantly related the two species, the greater likelihood of their hybrid being sub-viable or sterile (Chevassus, 1983). The hybrid cross between Heterobranchus and Clarias species is receiving considerable attention in Nigeria’s aquaculture industry. These hybrids have been reported to show heterosis (Madu et al., 1992; Salami et al., 1993). Aquaculture has the unique opportunity and responsibility to conserve natural (wild) populations while maintaining desirable production traits as disease resistance, fast and efficient growth, increased product yield, and lower input costs. Therefore, to support the growth of aquatic food consumption, domestication and genetic improvement of the cultivated species is a critical R&D need


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Inland aquaculture is dependent on progressive science and technological innovation to be competitive in world seafood markets, sustainable in development, and compatible with evolving social expectations. Productive aquaculture will require building a next generation of human capacity in diverse scientific fields to find solutions to scientific, economic, social, and management needs of aquaculture systems, natural resources, and 21st century communities. Public education and understanding of new areas of science, contemporary issues, and performance of diverse aquaculture systems create a scientifically literate population leading to sound policy-making. Science-based information, integrated with new information delivery systems, offers new outreach opportunities to the public and the aquaculture community. However, this study is looking into how there can be improvement in technologies used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the technologies been used for inland aquaculture in Nigeria.
  2. To identify the improvements in technologies been used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria.
  3. To identify the factors hindering improvement in technologies for inland aquaculture in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the technologies been used for inland aquaculture in Nigeria?
  2. What are the improvements in technologies been used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria?
  3. What are the factors hindering improvement in technologies for inland aquaculture in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The findings from this study will expatiate on the modern technologies that can be adopted in the industry of inland aquaculture in Nigeria with the aim of bringing improvement to the sector.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.6 Scope / Limitations Of The Study

This study will cover all the modern technology been used in inland aquaculture industry all over the world. It will also cover the level of practice of inland aquaculture in Nigeria.

Limitation Of Study
Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Fisheries are wild and domesticated renewable resource. Therefore to ensure longevity and prosperity, specific policies to keep the nation’s natural resources available over very long-term should be a high priority. The collapse of many marine fisheries and the explosion of freshwater aquaculture have lifted the importance and precarious nature of aquatic biodiversity. Much of the impetus for this awareness has come from fishing communities whose way of life is changing radically as aquatic biodiversity is lost. These communities need to be key participants in development research on aquatic biodiversity. However, it is important to realize that, while communities rely on aquatic resources for their livelihoods their appreciation of the importance of biodiversity may be very low.

Nevertheless, local fishing communities often have traditional knowledge of great value for management. Community leverage in management negotiations is much improved by knowing distribution, occurrence and status of their local species. Communities can also become participants in biological studies needed to improve management of stocks. Local and indigenous groups can be pivotal in valuing and maintaining aquatic biodiversity. Naturally, communities take interest in responsible management once they are aware of the consequences of losing their livelihoods. Small-scale fisheries are a powerful inducement for conservation and sustainable use of aquatic biodiversity. Especially in freshwater habitats, fishing communities may be the best advocates for sustainable use. Their advocacy can be multiplied by giving them the tools to negotiate more effectively with the other sectors whose influence on habitat is likely more detrimental to aquatic biodiversity than is fishing. These tools are technical (for example, better knowledge of catch and effort) and socio-political (for example, negotiating skills).

Inland water fisheries are mostly small-scale and play a larger role in supporting communities in developing countries than do marine fisheries. However, inland fisheries are poorly documented, and detailed knowledge of freshwater species is still concentrated in academic institutions. Increased investments need to be made in identifying and managing freshwater aquatic biodiversity in developing countries. Special attention should be paid to tropical floodplain fisheries, including collection of better harvest statistics (which can be used to gauge the health of fisheries and biodiversity). Development investments should be made in collective action to increase local participation in fisheries management. However, there should be a clear understanding of boundaries between the biological and social sciences. First, biologists must understand their own limitations in working with communities, and thus respect the role of social science in encouraging those communities to help biologists gather information on the fisheries; and, just as importantly, their role in empowering communities to negotiate with the rest of society. Social scientists must in turn recognize the importance of good scientific understanding of fish populations and their response to outside pressures, and the limited interest of fishing communities in becoming fish biologists or managers. Aquatic biodiversity research are characterized by a very high requirement for multi-stakeholder input (because of the multiple impacts on the resource), and participatory management of local fisheries is a major theme of most fisheries symposia today.


5.2 Recommendation

Because aquatic ecosystems are affected by so many human actions in addition to fishing, cross-sectoral linkages should be built into all aquatic development research, either explicitly, through inclusion of other sectors, or through promoting local awareness of the project and its issues. Ideally, a commitment to cross-sectoral communication will require a good knowledge of the other actors involved globally in issues affecting aquatic resources since progress made in an area is dependent on progress made in the others. Programs to protect native species can help preserve genetic resilience in the face of invasions of alien species, whether accidental or introduced for aquaculture. Access to information can help managers make informed decisions: on reform in governance, new methods of pollution control, benefit-sharing, identifying protected areas, preserving mangroves and wetlands.

Aquaculture may involve the building of roads into remote coastal communities and the construction of cooling facilities, and such improved infrastructure can help those same communities export native fish that currently go to waste on the beaches during peak harvest times. Coastal and Marine Management can protect these mangroves from erosion and pollution, or from pressure placed on fragile ecosystems by uncontrolled tourism or unregulated aquaculture. Linkages and governance affect how genetic diversity can be preserved and used, and they ensure sustainability of project results. Participatory management depends on forging linkages and alliances. Investing in projects and programs that promote the building of inter-sectoral linkages and the development of systems of governance allows community participation in aquatic resource management. Finding ways to bring together technical experts, managers, communities, indigenous people and representatives of other sectors that affect aquatic biodiversity should be a priority.


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