The Improvement Of Poor Reading Skills Through The Use Of Phonic And Word Recognition Strategies
1.1 Background of the Study
Reading ability and linguistic skills are inextricably linked. Numerous studies have discovered a beneficial association between extensive reading and strong academic achievement. This enables individuals to broaden their vocabulary and so acquire information in other academic topic areas, both in the target language (L2) and in their home tongue (Short, 2018). In this respect, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted a study to determine the level of reading competence among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s member nations (OECD, 2016). According to the findings, just 12 of 42 nations have achieved development since 2000. The others have either decreased their outcomes or maintained their proficiency level. These findings compel educators to evaluate the various factors that impact students’ L1 literacy acquisition in addition to that of a foreign language (OECD, 2016).
By definition, language is an intricate web of acquisitions and reacquisitions that expands a communication realm. It straddles the boundaries of languages, including practically every cognitive skill of man, who is its sole bearer. Its acquisition requires the development of four skills: listening and speaking on the one hand, and reading and writing on the other. While listening and speaking are the most fundamental and hence most crucial language abilities, reading and writing demand the greatest amount of attention and a deliberate learning process. Reading is another critical venue for Akwanya’s encounters with language. As with hearing, reading entails a variety of attitudes, from reading a newspaper to reading a poetry. There is a transformation that occurs when one becomes a participant in an activity (Akwanya, 2019).
Ironically, reading ability is learned via practice. However, when a kid has a bad reading habit, teachers prefer to focus on the subject and require the child to reread portions numerous times so that the paragraph is memorized. The suggestion is that such a teacher is overlooking the fact that reading requires an infinite number of actions and subtleties, some of which may be the basis of reading difficulties.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are a variety of factors that might conspire to prevent a child from learning to read fluently as a language skill. From a mild form of dyslexia to a full-blown condition of dyslexia (Akwanya, 2019). When a teacher is confronted with this situation; a child who is having difficulty reading or who has an aversion to the exercise and skill, it is sometimes quite stressful for the instructor. This is largely because the entire educational process is predicated on this ability, without which the learning process, even in the most capable youngster, becomes terminally halted (Amos, 2014). And each unique circumstance necessitates a unique set of tactics for resolution. This is the issue that motivated the current study project: to investigate the efficacy of phonics and word recognition techniques in developing low-level reading abilities.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary objectives of this study is to analyze the improvement of poor reading skills through the use of phonic and word recognition strategies. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:
- To determine if phonic and other word recognition strategies be used in improving poor reading skills.
- To examine the extent phonic and other word recognition strategies are used in schools.
- To examine the challenges of using phonic and other word recognition strategies in schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
- Can phonic and other word recognition strategies be used in improving poor reading skills?
- To what extent is phonic and other word recognition strategies used in schools?
- What are the challenges of using phonic and other word recognition strategies in schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research will endeavor to provide a viable alternative to inadequate reading abilities. As a result, it will be critical for all institutions of basic education. Governmental school boards tasked with the task of updating its curriculum and modules may consult this research and use its findings into their own work. Not to mention, teacher training programs.
Finally, this study will go further in helping researchers with more information on the effects of social media on student’s academic performance.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be focused on analyzing the improvement of poor reading skills through the use of phonic and word recognition strategies. Specifically, it will focus on determining if phonic and other word recognition strategies be used in improving poor reading skills, examining the extent phonic and other word recognition strategies are used in schools and examining the challenges of using phonic and other word recognition strategies in schools.
Teachers and pupils of nursery schools in Lokoja, will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Improvement is the process of a thing moving from one state to a state considered to be better, usually through some action intended to bring about that better state. The concept of improvement is important to governments and businesses, as well as to individuals.
Technically, reading is one of the four language skills where a language user tries to derive meaning or codes of meaning from a graphical representation of thought. The aim of this skill is to communicate through the written medium or merely to gain and understanding of thought preserved in the written form.
Phonics is the scientific study of sounds. It is the method of teaching learners of a language how to read and pronounce words correctly from correct pronunciation of letters to letter groups up to the syllabic level. It tries to show learners how to associate the graphical representation of letters and words with the sound version of those words.
Word recognition, according to Literacy Information and Communication System is “the ability of a reader to recognize written words correctly and virtually effortlessly”.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does systematic phonics and word recognition instruction improve reading achievement?
Although the relation of systematic phonics and word-recognition instruction to reading achievement is a much debated topic, any enlightened discussion by advocates of such instruction emphasizes that it must be only a part of a total program of instruction (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998).
What are some phonics strategies to use?
Phonics strategies to use include reading and practicing cvc words. After vowels, cvc words are the next big phonics strategy to focus on. CVC words are words that start with a consonant, have a vowel in the middle, and end in a consonant. Being able to read a single-syllable word gives you building blocks to read multisyllabic words.
Are supplemental phonics and word recognition programs accessible?
Many teachers will be using supplemental phonics and word-recognition materials to enhance reading instruction for their students. In this article, the authors provide guidelines for determining the accessibility of these phonics and word recognition programs.
What are the benefits of phonics for children with reading disabilities?
Children with reading disabilities benefit from a sequence of phonics instruction that permits them to apply the relations they learn to the reading of words and simple stories (Carnine, Silbert, & Kameenui, 1997; Chard, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998). Phonics instruction is usually categorized as explicit or implicit.