Improvement Of Bearing Capacity Of Sandy Soil By Grouting

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Improvement Of Bearing Capacity Of Sandy Soil By Grouting


Abstract


This project work is on improvement of bearing capacity of sandy soil by grouting. The sample was collected along Iree-Obagun road and subjected to various tests such as Compaction test, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Atterberg Limit Test, Liquid Test, Plastic Limit Test, and Sieve Analysis Test. In relation to the subject matter, view of some scholars and authors were reviewed and the data collected which are presented and analyzed accordingly. Conclusion and recommendation are made at the end of this research. However, the research work is not on itself as it is recommended for further studies.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Historical Background of Grouting
  • 1.2 Aims and Objectives
  • 1.3 Scope of the Study
  • 1.4 Limitation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Strength improvement of densification
  • 2.3 Grouting techniques
  • 2.4 Grouting materials
  • 2.5 Shear strength of grouted soils
  • 2.6 Compressive strength
  • 2.7 Permeability studies on grouted sandy soils

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.1.1 Compaction Test
  • 3.1.2 California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
  • 3.1.3 Atterberg Limit Test
  • 3.1.4 Plastic Limit Test
  • 3.1.5 Sieve Analysis Test

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.1 Sieve Analysis Test Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The construction of structure on weak ground often requires the soil to be improved in order to ensure the safety and the stability of surrounding buildings. The ground improvement in granular soils can be achieved by different methods such as vibro-floatation, compaction piles, and compaction with explosives, excavation and replacement, grouting e.t.c. The selective of the most suitable method depend on a variety of factors, such as: soil conditions, required degree of compaction, types of structure to be supported, as well as site specific considerations available time for completion of the project, availability of equipment and materials e.t.c. Soil compaction can offer effective solutions for many foundation problems and his especially useful for reducing total settlement in sand. Sandy soil means most of the soil particles are bigger than 2mm in diameter. It gives good water drainage and has a low capacity to hold nutrients. Sandy soil does not hold moisture very well. It is granular and consists of rock and mineral particle that are very small.

Therefore, the texture is gritty and is formed by the disintegration and weathering of rocks such as limestone, granite, quartz and shale. Is also easier to cultivate it if it is rich in organic materials but then it allows drainage more than needed. This results in over drainage and dehydration of the plant in summer. It warms very fast in the spring season. Grouting on the other hand is a process whereby stabilizes either in the form of suspension or solution is injected into sub surface soil. Sandy soil is the largest particle in the soil when you rub it, if feels rough. This is because it has sharp edges and it does not hold many nutrients.


1.1 Historical Background of Grouting

The development and history of compaction grouting over the last 30-40 years as been established by many distinguished researcher, design engineer and design contractor. Many technical papers are been published dealing physically with the issues surround compaction grouting design such as: “compaction grouting, 1973”, “planning and performing compaction grouting” 1974. These and other important reference are the main stream basis of knowledge for the highly specialize engineering and construction technique know as compaction grouting. The compaction grout method as some unique features which allow distinct advantages over other remedial method of geo-technical construction.

In many distances growth is the only viable solution. Some of the advantages include: Economic: Many time compaction grouting is the only feasible solution to foundation settlement problems, other than demolishing the structure and re-building with expensive deep foundation technique. Minimal disturbance: During the grouting operation, destructure may remain occupied and in service. Minimal risk: Compaction grouting offers minimal risk of catastrophic structural failure while re-leveling structure. Other are: Minimal geotechnical exploration, provide greater support for structures, cost factor e.t.c.


1.2 Aim And Objective

  1. To determine the nature of the sandy soil particles.
  2. To determine the degree of the sandy soil compatibility.
  3. To carry out the improvement of sandy soil through grouting.
  4. To carryout some laboratory test on sandy soil such as compaction test California bearing ration (CBR) test, atterberg LIMIT test, liquid limit test, Plastic limit test, sieve analysis test in comparing the effectiveness of grouting system.

1.3 Scope of the Study

This research is focused on the quality and improvement of bearing capacity of sandy soil by grouting.


1.4 Limitations of the Study

The limitations of this study are:

Time Factor:

Limited time that does not permit to carryout many practical.

Area Of Study:

This project is limited the technical study of sandy soil properties.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

From the practical carried out, it indicate that the relative density by different method but most importantly grouting.

The values of safe bearing capacity computed from the results conducted on samples of the sandy soil of different experiments at different relative densities.

Shows that the maximum safe bearing capacity achieved by maximum compaction in the laboratory is only 39.45% that may not be sufficient for foundations but can be adequate for concreted wall and slab.

Some of the improved soil can be reused for construction projects. When additives such as cement are used during soil improvement, they both increases the bearing capacity of soil for construction works.

The soil that help the engineer in docring the intended materials to be used in stabilizing the soil.

The share straight of the soil will determine the type of permanent the soil can be used for.

When the bearing capacity of soil is known, the lead to be imposed it will be calculated.

The optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of soil will be used in cognizance of the compaction test before any work carried out on the filed.


5.3 Recommendation

It is quite possible to make use of sandy soil without grouting but increase where there is loose sandy soil, grouting is recommended to make it srong and increase the strength and bearing capacity of the loose sandy soil.

The selection of the stabilization method should be based as much as possible on the compositional elements of the soil (grain size distribution clay content, organic matter, area contents) type of clay, and the physicochemical characteristic of the region. The above factors will exit in predicting the performance a given stabilizing admixture well in the vance before laboratory test on actual work is committed, which may results and end waste of resources.

In order to increase the number of alternative for the selection of the sandy soil materials, the uses of soil survey maps, geological map and geophysical tools notably electrical resist and reaction subsume should be considered.
The standard that have prescribed for soil in temperate regions should be used cautiously in deterring the stability of sandy soil for use in construction most often the soil properties are changed during sample preparations and bead to the rejection of lateric soil. This would not have otherwise performed satisfaction in the field. This may also leads to prescribing wrong sterilization methods on the other good sandy soil.


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