The Need To Improve Teacher Quality In Technology Education Programme In Nigerian Universities

Final Year Research Project and Seminar Material on Technology Education

The Need To Improve Teacher Quality In Technology Education Programme In Nigerian Universities


Abstract


This study was aimed at assessing the need to improve teacher quality in technology education programme in Nigerian Universities. Three(3) specific objectives, research questions and null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the ex-post-facto research design. The population of the study comprised of all the teachers in three universities in the study area which include, the University of Abuja, Nile University of Nigeria and Baze University Abuja. The instrument for data collection for the study was an observation schedule. Three experts validated the instrument. The reliability coefficients of 0.83, 0.87, and 0.87 were obtained for clusters A, B and C respectively. The overall reliability index was .85. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviations to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using t-test statistic at 0.05 level of significance. The findings, based on the research questions, among others indicated that:Male and female primary school teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programme to a great extent; Learning objectives are effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programme to a great extent; Male and female primary school teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programme lessons to a great extent; There was a significant difference on the extent to which male and female teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programme; There was a significant difference in the extent to which learning objectives are effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programme; and There was no significant difference on the extent to which male and female teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programme lessons. The study concluded that every teacher should be periodically exposed to symposiums to sustain their teaching efficiency and to strengthen them on the area of their deficiency such as ability to carry out experiments, interpret result of the experiment, improvisation by constructing things, grouping students to accomplish a given task, consideration for individual difference, ability to set induce the pupils to new ideas, ability to generate desirable learning feedback, ability to cover the three behavioural objective of learning, simulation method, peer tutoring method and cooperative learning method among others.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Concept of Technology Education Programme
  • 2.3 Concept of Teacher
  • 2.4 Concept of Assessment
  • 2.5 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.5.1 The Competency Based Teacher Theory by Mcdonald (1974)
  • 2.5.2 Stufflebean’s Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) Model (1971)

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the priority sector for every well-meaning society. It is a process by which individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes, which enable them to develop their faculties in full. Quality education enables individuals to contribute to the development of the quality of their lives, communities and the nation as a whole. This is why in Nigerian, education is regarded as an instrument “per excellence” for effecting national development (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2004). Danmole (2011) noted that education has remained an instrument of change and national development. Education is therefore a social process and medium for the acquisition of relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes for survival in a challenging and changing world.

Technology education is a very important subject that can promote national development. This is because no nation can develop without recording successes in science and technology. According to Kaplan (2002), electricity, aircraft, telephone, television, computers and other form of machinery could not have been invented without Technology education. In this sense, modern gadgets in all aspect of human comfort are inventions of science and technology. This therefore implies that a nation that lacks the necessary Technology education will have to depend on other developed nations for the existence of its people. Such a nation cannot be said to be independent because it has to depend on the whim and caprices of other nation with the necessary Technology education. A nation without Technology education will experience difficulties in feeding its people because even agriculture requires the application of Technology education (Omatayo,Ihereme & Maduewesi, 2008). Thus, the importance of science and technology to national development cannot be underestimated.

Science and technology are two concepts that seem very interrelated. According to Esseysafe (2017), science is the study of knowledge which can be made into a system and which depends on seeing and testing facts, while technology is the practical application of scientific knowledge. Technology education has been defined by some researchers. According to Omiko (2016), Technology education is an introductory course to the study of the sciences in senior secondary schools. It involves the study of elementary biology, anatomy, earth/solar system, ecology, genetics, chemistry, physics and engineering as a single science subject in the Junior Secondary school (Nwafor, 2012). This implies that, Technology education is a subject that prepares the students for the study of core science subjects like Physics, Chemistry and Biology at the senior secondary school level.

Technology education offers the basic training in scientific processes and skills required for human survival, societal transformation and sustainable development. These skills according to Kearsely (2005), include: subject mastery skill, observational skill, questioning skill, communication skill, feedback skill, experimentation skill, result interpretation skill, problem analysing skill, organization skill and improvisation skill, which the author identified to be paramount to the success of teaching and learning of Technology education. FRN (2004) identified the scientific skills to include observation, manipulation, classification, communicating, inferring , hypothesizing, experimenting, interacting with data and formulating models; Given that Technology education has continually brought about positive changes in our society and the world as a whole, even our everyday life appears to be controlled by science and technology. Hence sustainability of scientific skills required for teaching Basic science of technology is of great important. That is why today student require a wider scope of knowledge and competence to cope with the changes at a time when there are persistent deficiencies in Nigerian educational system (Omofonmwan, 2007; Omatayo, Ihereme & Maduewesi, 2008; Onyeachi, 2008; Jaiyesba, 2009; & Alaba, 2010).

In spite of the overwhelming importance of Technology education and the laudable curriculum that has been designed for the subject at the basic education levels, the nature, practice and product of Technology education education as reflected in students’ academic achievement has continued to be discouraging (STAN, 2002; Omatayo, Ihereme & Maduewesi, 2008). According to Akpan (2012), the structures and appropriate activities that foster effective implementation of the curriculum are either inadequate or lacking in Nigerian schools. Furthermore, Afuwape and Oriola (2017) observed that among the myriad of challenges of Technology education teaching in Nigeria are the issues of teacher quality and development, lack of enough specialist teachers; dearth of relevant support materials for teachers and inadequate supervision and mentoring of teachers. Consequently, the academic achievement of students in Technology education has been underwhelming. In the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja Nigeria for instance, evidence gathered on the academic achievement of students transiting to junior secondary school (JSS) shows that only 48%, 44%, 45%, 38% and 41% of the students passed well or had good results to be given admission into junior secondary schools and basic science was one of the subjects that recorded higher number of failures from 2013-2017 (Primary Education Board, Statistics Unit, FCT Abuja, 2017). The cause of this higher number of failures may be as a result teachers or learners related factor but to the best of the researcher knowledge is yet to be figured out. This trend of below-average performance has become a serious issue for all stakeholders to ponder on.

Teachers’ qualitymay tell a lot about how student develop in Technology education. This is because no matter how laudable a curriculum is planned, its success will depend mainly on the characteristics of the teacher as they determine what happens during teaching and learning (Igbokwe, 2009). Kolawole (2011) asserted that for student to show interest or not, like or dislike any subject, it depends on the teachers and how effective the teachers are. Kolawole further explained that the implementation of any curriculum depends on the quality of teachers and their effectiveness in the teaching and learning process.

Teachers are instrumental in the curriculum implementation process. Iherebere (2010) views teachers as trained individuals that translate educational objectives to the students through teaching and learning process. According to Iherebere, the teacher is also expected to interpret the contents and learning experiences as stated in the curriculum. In this study, teachers can be viewed as individuals who are trained in the theory and practice of the teaching profession to be able to impart knowledge to the learners. High learning outcomes can be regarded as an indication of Teachers’ quality.

Teachers’ quality is a recurrent concept in education literature. Teacher quality, according to Altaf (2012) typically refers to a collection of characteristics, competencies and behaviours of teachers at all educational levels that enable learners or students to achieve desired learning outcomes, which may include the attainment of specific learning objectives as well as the broad goals. In the same vein, Prasad and Prasad (2005) views Teachers’ quality as the attribute of teachers who possess the capacity or potential of having positive impact on students’ learning, behaviour and attitudes. To Mattero (2015), an effective teacher must possess the qualities of creating a learning environment and ability to successfully deliver instruction. Good and Brophy (2003) described an effective teacher as one who is committed work, manages the classroom well and provides a positive role model for the students to identify with. For the purpose of this study, Teacher quality is the teacher’s ability to be creative, organise, stress key ideas and have a holistic control of classroom activities.

An effective teacher is enthusiastic, shows warmth, works towards self-improvement in teaching, possesses skills in human relationships and can adapt his or her skills to achieve specific instructional objectives (Anderson, 2001). From these definitions and explanations, Teacher quality has to do with the abilities and competencies exhibited by the teacher during teaching and learning in order to promote learning outcomes and consequently, achieve some predetermined objectives or goals. Effective teachers are those that possess the knowledge and skills needed to attain the goals and must be able to use that knowledge and those skills appropriately if these goals are to be achieved. According to Bern (2004), an effective teacher is one who adequately plan the lesson to deliver and who employs appropriate teaching methods and strategies in transmitting the right knowledge, skills and abilities to learners in expectation of higher learning outcomes. Anderson (2001) also reasoned that teachers must ask themselves not only what they are going to teach but also what their students should be learning; how they can help them learn it; and why it is important to learn it.

Teachers as a factor are an issue that affects students’ effective learning which has however received a lot of attention by researchers, but with mixed findings. Studies have revealed that teachers’ variables such as years of teaching experience, level of academic attainment or academic qualification, teachers-students ratio, teachers attitude, teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and remuneration affect learning outcome (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Ewetan, 2010; Akinsola, 2010; Odiri, 2011; Akpo, 2012; Daso, 2013;). In addition, Tella (2008) also reported that teachers’ educational qualification is another variable that is seen to affect learning outcomes. Nonetheless, other studies found that these teachers’ variables have no significant influence on learning outcomes (Ayodele & Ige, 2012; Yara & Surumo, 2012). This contradiction in the findings therefore necessitates other research efforts in other to provide enough empirical evidence for drawing reasonable conclusion about these variables. For instance, among the variables, teachers’ qualification has been adduced to have serious influenced in the teaching and learning process.

Teachers’ qualification is characterized by the level of education attainment and certificate acquired by teachers that qualify them to teach at a given level of education. Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) viewed teachers’ qualification as a number of academic and professional certificates and or degrees that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school and even tertiary institution. A study by Illugbusi, Falola and Daramola (2007) showed that teachers’ qualification count significantly with respect to improving students’ learning. Adeyemi (2008) also reported that higher teachers’ qualification increases their awareness of diversifying search for new ideas, new commitments and new pedagogies that will facilitate teaching and learning. Furthermore, Okey (2012) observed that teachers’ qualification is directly related to teachers’ ability to plan lessons, address divergent students’ responses, teaching effectiveness, teaching methods and their ability to stimulate learning among learners. This implies that teachers’ qualification may influence the teaching and learning of Technology education.

Since, teachers’ qualification has been viewed as the certificates or degrees obtain by teachers after undergoing necessary educational programmes and trainings to become teachers, probably the variations in the qualifications of tertiary institution teachers may affect their effectiveness in teaching Technology education. Moreover, in Nigeria, both teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are employed to teach at the primary and post tertiary institution levels (Ahiazu & PrinceWill, 2011). Academically qualified teachers, according to Edu and Kalu (2012) are those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A. and M.A. among others while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education. Such teachers certificates include TCII and NCE or and degrees like B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed, among others. These differences in qualifications may likely influence the teaching of Technology education positively or negatively. Thus, it becomes necessary in a study like this to find out the moderating influence of teachers’ qualification on their effectiveness in teaching Technology education at the tertiary institution level. Teachers’ qualification can be referred to as the highest certificate acquired by a teacher or the highest level of education attained by the teacher upon which he or she is employed to teach. Apart from teachers’ qualification, another variable that may influence Teachers’ quality is their gender.
Most literature have however, shown that most tertiary institution teachers are not usually adequately prepared for teaching Technology education (Oloube, Egezor & kpolovie, 2008; & Onyeachi, 2008; & Easton & David, 2009). Some literature said that some tertiary institution teachers are equipped in teaching Technology education (Kearsley, 2005, Mcber, 2ooo). Some researchers have also mentioned that despite all the effort and expenditure made by the government of Nigeria and other relevant stakeholders in the education sector for proper implementation of school curriculum, the teaching of Technology education in tertiary institutions has been poor and disappointing (Agboghoma, 2005; Agboghoma, 2009). This could be due to teachers’ lack of the required skills or abilities for effective teaching of Technology education at this level of education which can have negative effect on students’ learning in the subject. However some researchers have argued that poor achievement of students in Technology education could be as a result of learners factors (Moghadan, 2009, John 2010, Nikky 2013).

Worthy of note is that, poor foundation in Technology education at will likely lead to failure or poor achievement of students in science subjects and disciplines at higher levels of education. Hence, considering the critical role played by teachers in the teaching and learning process and particularly in the teaching of Technology education in Nigeria universities, it becomes necessary to periodically conduct an assessment of teachers’ quality in teaching the subject, which is the essence of this research.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of proper teaching of Technology education at the tertiary institution level cannot be overemphasized. This is because no nation in the world can develop in science and technology without laying a good foundation in Technology education at the tertiary institution level or its equivalent as it prepares her young citizenry for careers in science and technology related fields. Hence, many developing nations, including Nigeria are expected to lay much emphasis in proper teaching and learning of Technology education.

However, despite the overwhelming importance of Technology education and the laudable objectives of the subject as stated in the curriculum, some researchers have reported that the structures and appropriate activities that foster effective implementation of the curriculum are still either inadequate or lacking in Nigerian schools and this makes the teaching of the subject to be poor and disappointing. Some literatures tend to show that most tertiary institution teachers are usually not adequately prepared for teaching Technology education. Some researchers have mentioned the myriad of challenges of Technology education teaching in the country to include the issues of teacher quality and development, lack of enough specialist teachers, dearth of relevant support materials for teachers, inadequate supervision and inadequate mentoring of teachers. While other researched opined that learners’ factors such as poor study habits, lack of interest, lack of motivation and home influence could also lead to poor academic achievement of students in learning of Technology education in FCT in Abuja. These among others factors could have affected the academic achievement of students in Technology education particularly in FCT Abuja and this has become a serious issue to all relevant stakeholders.

The question then is whether teachers are effective enough in teaching the subject. Many researchers have adduced that teachers’ qualification and gender have high influence on the teaching of Technology education whereas others reported in disagreement. This disagreement in findings calls for further research in order to generate more empirical evidences on this issue.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess the need to improve teacher quality in technology education programme in Nigerian Universities.

Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Determine whether teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programmein Nigerian Universities;
  2. Determine whether learning objectives are effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programmein Nigerian Universities;
  3. Determine whether Male and female teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programmein Nigerian Universities;

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. Do teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programmein Nigerian Universities?
  2. Are learning objectives effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programmein Nigerian Universities?
  3. Do Male and female teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programmein Nigerian Universities?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. HO1 There is no significant difference in the extent male and female teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programmein Nigerian Universities
  2. HO2 There is no significant difference in the extent learning objectives are effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programme
  3. HO3 There is no significant difference in the extent male and female teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programmelessons

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the findings of this study will add credence to McDonald’s competency based teacher theory and the Stufflebeam’s Context Input Process Product Model upon which the study is anchored. It stresses the clarification of goals and objectives and advocates structured observation as a means of discovery whether the goals and objectives have been achieved or not. Therefore, findings from this study could add credence to this model.

The finding of this study will create awareness to Technology education teachers on the various and appropriate methods and techniques for teaching Technology education. This awareness will make students to be taught Technology education by the teachers using the appropriate methods and techniques. Teacher of Technology education will also find the finding of this study as an unavoidable guide in their daily teaching business. It is believed that the study will make them professionally balanced in discharging their duties and in result-oriented approaches.

It is expected that the study will highlight findings in the area of Technology education Teachers’ quality, preparedness as well as the method adopted which will be made available to ministers of education, UBEC, school administrators, supervisors and inspectors when published in Journals online or when kept in the libraries. This will provide information on the actual problems on ground regarding the factors hindering Technology education teacher’s effectiveness in teaching Technology education. It is also expected that the study will yield data which will enable the government, through her agencies, to take appropriate steps toward ensuring that Basic Science teachers are well equipment to teach Technology education.

The study would also reveal to government and school management, through conference proceedings about the areas that need attention and intervention and the appropriate intervention required. It would also provide information whether there is need to embark on training of teachers through workshops, more conferences, seminars, and fellowship grants.

Finally, the study would serve as a source of information for others who may wish to embark on research from a related perspective in this field of study. This work would provide them direction and guideline for their study and indeed serve as an additional reference material for further studies.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study sought to assess the need to improve teacher quality in technology education programme in Nigerian Universities. Precisely, the focus of this work will be on technology education programme for Nigerian Universities in FCT. The variables used are the required skills for teaching technology education programme in Nigerian Universities; effective useof learning objectives to plan lessons in technology education programmein Nigerian Universities; and encouragement ofstudents to participate in technology education programmein Nigerian Universities;


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher selected limited universities in FCT since all the Nigerian Universitiescould not be exhausted.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teacher:

Is a person who teaches, especially in a school. The primary role of a teacher is to deliver classroom instruction that helps students learn. To accomplish this, teachers must prepare effective lessons, grade student work and offer feedback, manage classroom materials, productively navigate the curriculum, and collaborate with other staff.

Teacher Quality:

Refers to the characteristics that teachers possess and teaching quality refers to what teachers do in the classroom to foster student learning.

Technology Education:

Is the study of technology, in which students “learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology”. As a field of study, it covers the human’s ability to shape and change the physical world to meet needs, by manipulating materials and tools with techniques.

University:

Is an institution of higher learning providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to assess the need to improve teacher quality in technology education programme in Nigerian Universities. In chapter four, the researcher essentially presented the results of the study derived from the analyses of the data collected.

The following findings emerged.

  1. Male and female primary school teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programme to a great extent.
  2. Learning objectives are effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programme to a great extent.
  3. Male and female primary school teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programme lessons to a great extent.
  4. There was a significant difference on the extent to which male and female teachers possess the required skills for teaching technology education programme.
  5. There was a significant difference in the extent to which learning objectives are effectively used by male and female teachers to plan lessons in technology education programme.
  6. There was no significant difference on the extent to which male and female teachers encourage students to participate in technology education programme lessons.

5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings, it was concluded among others that

  1. Teachers are effective in technology education programme universities in Federal Capital Territory Abuja. However, teachers are not effective in the following areas: ability to carry out experiments, interpret result of the experiment, improvisation by constructing things, grouping pupils to accomplish a given task and consideration for individual difference among pupils. Hence, the need to improve these aspects of teacher effectiveness for quality assurance.
  2. Learning objectives are effectively used by teachers to plan lessons in technology education programme to a great extent though not effective in the following areas: ability to set induce the pupils to new ideas, ability to generate desirable learning feedback and ability to cover the three behavioural objective of learning.
  3. Technology education programme teachers in universities encourage students’ participation in technology education programme lessons.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. Every teacher should be periodically exposed to symposiums to sustain their teaching efficiency and to strengthen them on the area of their deficiency such as ability to carry out experiments, interpret result of the experiment, improvisation by constructing things, grouping students to accomplish a given task, consideration for individual difference, ability to set induce the pupils to new ideas, ability to generate desirable learning feedback, ability to cover the three behavioural objective of learning, simulation method, peer tutoring method and cooperative learning method among others.
  2. The required skills should be one of the compulsory requirements for teachers’ promotion and up grading in technology education programmes.
  3. Adequate attention should be paid to student related factors to learning such as motivation, study habits, interest among others.

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