Improper Management Of An Abattoir Its Effect And The Way Out
This study was carried out to investigate improper management of an abattoir its effect and the way out using Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. To achieve this objective, ten research questions were formulated to guide the study. The data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected with the help of a well-structured questionnaire of two sections administered to respondents in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The collected data were analyzed with tables and simple percentages to analyze the research questions. All data were coded using SPSS software. The study concluded that abattoir activities and management have direct and indirect effects on the built-up environment and health of people especially residents in abattoir vicinity. It is however recommends that abattoir should be excluded from facilities to be located within residential neighbourhood. It should be included and treated as among industrial land use or agricultural land use and for abattoir planning and construction, regulations controlling the movement and slaughter of live stocks, the availability of service and staff in abattoirs should be made.
1.1 Background of Study
Abattoir is derived from the French name which is commonly known as a slaughter house in the United States and much of the English speaking world. A slaughter house is a place where animals are butchered for food; it is very unpleasant but necessary because of our modem human food chain is connected with it. Through criticism of slaughter house do arises from time to time.
Slaughter house are tightly regulated by the government to day, but this was not always the case. In the 19th century, some cities began enacting sanitation reform to try and clean up slaughter houses and individual butchers, who dumped animal remains in near by water system and let the blood run out in the street. Eventually, strict government regulations further sanitized slaughter houses to the point where today they are relatively clean considering the work done there.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Obviously, the level of maintenance of hygiene in abattoir is very poor.
Improper management and non health education was being given to abattoir workers on the importance of good hygiene practices.
Worker with rough hands and legs go to the slaughter house to slaughter meat. The implication of this is spread of disease to man. During these processes meat get contaminated by meat handlers.
There were blockage in some part of the drains, with in the abattoir, and this will form the breeding ground for flies, rats and other germs found in the environment.
Improper management of abattoir is another problem in the environment. Workers in the abattoir practices poor personal hygiene that is putting on dirty clothes which remains from months to month with be wash. They do not wash their hands before and after the toilet and their finger nails are long and not clean.
Also poor environmental sanitation is another problem in which indiscriminately, dumping of refuse provides opportunities for flies breeding and food for scavengers.
1.3 Significance of Study
It is the researchers hope that the findings of this project will bring about better attention for workers in this abattoir and other related occupations. This study will also help to intensified the action of safety officers towards adequate health education at all stages of the production processes the improvement of working standards through organized control of those factors in our working environment which tends to exercise deleterious effect on man’s physical development, health and survival. This will in no doubt reduce ill-health among members of community, reduce the prevalence of some food borne diseases and some water borne diseases in Nigeria population.
It is possible that this research study will be of great benefit not only to the worker in abattoir but also to the aquatic life and the general citizenry, health inspectors and those whose field of interest is primarily with health, safety and welfare of worker also stand to benefit from this laudable and timely research work.
1.4 Study Objectives
The objectives of this study include the following.
- To identify those factors which contribute to improper management of an abattoir
- To asses the level of personal hygiene practices among worker.
- To make appropriate recommendations to improve the existing standard.
- To find out the nature of hazard in the abattoir.
- To examine the health and welfare services provided by employers of this abattoir.
- To render useful recondition on the subject matter based on its findings.
1.5 Research Questions
A research study without research question is unfocussed and a random empirical wandering. The researcher therefore formulated the following questions.
- Can continuous dumping of high level of abattoir waste lead to eutrophication?
- Can periodic health and safety education help to reduce the incident of water borne disease?
- Can frequent continuity of improper management of an abattoir lead to our break of disease.
- Can abattoir be perfectly maintained?
- What are the negative impacts that the discriminate disposal of effluent from abattoir has posed to the occupants of Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area?
- Can the wastewater disposed from abattoir lead to an outbreak of epidemic?
- What can be done to ensure sanitary disposal and maintenances of abattoir?
- Can abattoir waste lead to atmospheric pollution?
- Can indiscriminate dumping at abattoir waste on land lead to soil leaching or soil salinity.
- Can indiscriminate dumping of abattoir waste lead to underground and surface water pollution?
1.6 Limitation of the Study
There is no study undertaken by a researcher that is perfect. The imperfection of any research is always due to some factors negatively affecting a researcher in the course of carrying out research. Therefore, time constraint has shown no mercy to the research. The limited time has to be shared among many alternative uses, which includes reading, attending lectures and writing of this research, also distance and its attendant costs of travelling to obtain information which may enhance the writing of this study was a major limitation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further studies based on the findings of this study.
This study was carried out to investigate improper management of an abattoir its effect and the way out using Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. To achieve this objective, ten research questions were generated to guide this study. A well-structured questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather data from 150 respondents in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area. Out of this number, 120 (80%) copies of questionnaire were appropriately completed and returned for data analysis.
The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentage and tables to analyze the research questions. All data were coded using SPSS statistical package. The findings revealed that:
- Continuous dumping of high level of abattoir waste lead to eutrophication.
- Periodic health and safety education help to reduce the incident of water borne disease.
- Frequent continuity of improper management of an abattoir lead to our break of disease.
- Abattoir can be perfectly maintained.
- The negative impacts discriminate the disposal of effluent from abattoir has posed to the occupants of Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area.
- The wastewater disposed from abattoir lead to an outbreak of epidemic.
- Management be done to ensure sanitary disposal and maintenances of abattoir.
- Abattoir waste lead to atmospheric pollution.
- Indiscriminate dumping at abattoir waste on land leads to soil leaching or soil salinity.
- Indiscriminate dumping of abattoir waste lead to underground and surface water pollution.
Based on the findings of this study and subsequent recommendations, it is concluded that abattoir activities and management have direct and indirect effects on the built-up environment and health of people especially residents in abattoir vicinity. The study indicated negative impact of abattoir activities on air and water qualities of residents within abattoir vicinity especially abattoir where special or effective waste disposal system is not practiced. The health quality of residents living in abattoir vicinity was revealed to be reduced due to effect of pollutants from abattoir activities located in their neighbourhood. It was noted that children outdoor recreation in abattoir vicinity was also limited. Therefore, there is need to control abattoir as strictly as industries have been controlled in matter of location and management in Nigeria.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:
- Abattoir should be excluded from facilities to be located within residential neighbourhood. It should be included and treated as among industrial land use or agricultural land use.
- For abattoir planning and construction, regulations controlling the movement and slaughter of live stocks, the availability of service and staff in abattoirs should be made. For large abattoir, provision should be made for separate livestock market for sheep, goat and cattle, fresh water pumping station or storage and waste treatment plant. The abattoir management system should include a waste management plan designed for abattoir operation Legislative measures are also necessary.
- Laws and rules on zoning, land use, and waste regulation to control the location and management of abattoirs should be made. The government should enforce existing laws related to abattoir and new ones. Design criteria and sitting restriction which include setbacks from neighbours and buffer must be specified.
- Measures to protect against encroachment into buffer by property developers should be provided. Rules requiring odour abatement plans and provision of environmental impact assessment for abattoirs should be enforced.
- Licensing of abattoir, certification of all operators as well as training of employees involved in abattoir activities should be made. In addition, public awareness and enlightenment on possible impact of pollution from abattoir wastes should be embarked upon by relevant agencies and public participation to be included in the development of policies for abattoir management.
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