The Importance Of Waste Management To Environmental Sanitation

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

The Importance Of Waste Management To Environmental Sanitation


Abstract


Sanitation is an important foundation for health, economic development and well-being hence waste management (Bartram &Cairncross2010; WSP 2010).The perception of household waste as unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards it management. Waste management is therefore defined as the collection, storage, transportation, processing, treatment, recycling and final disposal of waste. The study was conducted in the AMAC Area of FCT. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of household solid waste management practices to the environmental sanitation in the AMAC Area.

The study employed a descriptive cross sectional study design and used mixed methods such as quantitative and qualitative for data collection. The sample size for the study is 384. The sampling method used was simple random sampling method. Data was analyzed using stata version 13.the study reveals that more than half (52.30%) of the waste generated by households are food debris, (28.60%) are plastic waste and (19.10%) for that of bottles and cans.

More than half (73.4%) of the participant dispose their waste indiscriminately and that of designated site contributed to (26.6%). Majority of the respondent engages in inappropriate practices (57.0%) of household solid waste management practices whiles that of appropriate practices contributed to 43.0% in the study. It was discovered that gender, level of education, monthly earnings, residential unit and household sizes were significantly associated with household solid waste management practices (p<0.05).

In conclusion Socio-economic, behavioral and institutional support factors were potential factors influencing household solid waste management practice. Intensive education of the public, provision of bins and piles of containers, enforcement of waste management laws could help contribute to good household waste management practices.


Chapter One


Introduction

“Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.”
If you think about the coming years, you’ll understand why waste management is important. It’s like constant contaminated oxygen for all we know. It plays a major role in our lives and the environment in general. It’s like living in a room with sections that contain the waste as well as the fresh air. How long will you be able to survive? We live in a world that needs to be protected. For a healthier, hygienic environment, it’s important that wastes are managed properly.


1.1 Background of the Study

Davies (2008) defined household wastes as unwanted or unusable materials that emanate from numerous households which can be liquid, solid or gaseous in nature, and hazardous or non-hazardous depending on its location and concentration.

Rouse (2008) defined Solid waste as material which no longer has any value to its original owner, and which is discarded. The main constituents of solid waste in urban areas are organic waste (including kitchen waste and garden trimmings), paper, glass, metals and plastics. Solid waste may be divided into two broad categories depending on its origination: municipal solid waste (produced by various institutions, businesses, and homes) and industrial solid waste. This study will focus on municipal solid waste that is generated by homes (households). Solid waste is the non-liquid and non-gaseous products of consumption and production activities of human beings. It takes the form of refuse, garbage and sludge.

Waste management can be defined as the collection, storage, transportation, processing, treatment, recycling and final disposal of waste. Systems need to be simple, affordable, and sustainable (financially, environmentally and socially) and should be equitable, providing collection services to poor as well as wealthy households (Rouse, 2008) Sanitation is an important foundation for health, economic development and well-being hence waste management (Bartram &Cairncross2010; WSP 2010).

Babayemiet (2009), Solid wastes are composed of organic solid waste, plastics, metal, wood, glass/ceramics among others generated in the household.

Solid wastes are classified based on its origin, risk potential, or characteristics. Based on origin, solid waste can be classified into food waste, rubbish, ashes and residues, agricultural waste, municipal waste, industrial process waste, and demolition and construction wastes. With regards to characteristics, it also classify as biodegradable and non – biodegradable. In addition, based on its risk potential, again it can be categorized into hazardous and non-hazardous wastes (CED, 2003). However, solid wastes are usually classified based on their sources (from which they emanate). Based on this bench mark, it can be categorized into domestic or household, commercial, institutional, industrial, municipal services, construction and demolition, agricultural wastes.

Waste can take many different forms: solid, liquid, gas, or energy in the form of heat or noise; and the way they are going to be handled, stored, and disposed can expose the environment and public health to risks (Zhu et al., 2008).
One of the many impacts of rapidly increasing urbanization and economic development can be witnessed in the form of heaps of municipal solid waste. Where intense human activities concentrate, such as in urban centers, appropriate and safe solid waste management (SWM) are of utmost importance to allow healthy living conditions for the population (Zurbrügg, 2002).

Urbanization with inadequate waste management practices, specifically, widespread disposal of waste in water bodies, dumping inside the road and uncontrolled dump sites aggravates the problems of generally low sanitation levels across the African countries including Nigeria (UNESCO, 2009).

According to Hwa (2007), solid-waste management is a major challenge in urban areas throughout the world. Without an effective and efficient solid-waste management program, the waste generated from various human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health hazards and have a negative impact on the environment. In developing countries, the approach to managing waste has mainly focused on getting rid of the trash, with very little or no attention paid to waste minimization or recovery efforts (Demanya, 2006). If a household can find a nearby site simply to dump the waste, it has solved its disposal problem, regardless of the cost. This dumping may impose on others.

The leachate from the dump sites can also enter water bodies and pollute them with poisons and pathogens. Children are sometimes found playing and defecating onto the rubbish dump bare-footed. In addition to this, children are the most vulnerable to diarrheal diseases in areas where sanitation is generally poor and it accounts for 760,000 deaths of children under five every year (WHO, 2013).


1.2 Problem Statement

In Nigeria the generation of waste has been increasing over the years. For instance in 1979, the percentage was 1.4% which rose to 4% in 1993,1996 it increased to 5% and 1999 and 2000 to 8% (Quartey et al 2015).

It has been observed that the residents of AMAC area of the FCT usually practice crude dumping. The common form of households waste disposal in the area is reported to be public dump (open space) contributing to 38.3% (FCT Statistical Service, 2012).

The common form of solid waste disposal in the district is thrown onto the street or outside 44.8%. Some of them defecate into polythene bags and deposit them as litters in the environment. Dump sites are located at the outskirt of most towns and villages in the Area. Insects that serve as vectors of communicable diseases are attracted to them and may spread pathogens (FCT Health Statistical Service, 2012).

The main factors contributing to poor waste management includes inadequate supply of skip containers use for storing wastes, lack of routine collection of wastes, poor methods of waste management, and inadequate resources for waste management institutions to effectively collect the waste generated.

The consequences of improper waste management practices at the household level are increasingly becoming unbearable in the area. Most of the diseases including Malaria, Cholera, Typhoid fever, Diarrhea, Worm infestation and others, reported at health facilities in the Area are sanitary related.

In view of the above observations, it is necessary for this study to assess the factors influencing poor waste management practices and the importance of proper waste management practices in the AMAC Area of the FCT Abuja.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective is to assess the importance waste management practices in the AMAC Area. Specifically, the Objectives are:

  1. To determine proportion of waste generated by household due to solid waste in the AMAC Area
  2. To determine the methods of household waste disposal in the AMAC Area
  3. To assess waste management practices in the AMAC Area.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Over the years, waste management practices in households have been an intractable problem for the Authorities of AMAC Area of FCT. According to a media report, most residents within AMAC Area of FCT have vehemently rejected the proposal by Authorities of the district to establish refuse dump sites/ landfill sites and latrines in those areas.

This is a clear indication that the district is saddled with a great solid and liquid waste Management problem. However the residents‟ attitude towards solid and liquid waste management is influenced by certain factors. The study seeks to reveal the influential factors such as socio-economic factors, behavioral factors and institutional support factors on household solid waste management practice in the AMAC Area of FCT.

In so doing, the study sought to create awareness and inform policy makers regarding household solid waste management practice by providing information to be used by the residents, district assembly, district health directorate and the institutions supporting household solid waste management practices in the district.
It is therefore necessary to undertake this study to ascertain waste management practices at the household level in the AMAC Area of FCT.


1.5 Research Questions

The study will proffer solution to the following research questions

  1. What is the proportion of waste generated by household due to solid waste in the AMAC Area?
  2. What is the methods of household waste disposal in the AMAC Area?
  3. What is the waste management practices in the AMAC Area.

1.6 scope of the study

The study will be carried out in the AMAC area of the fct Abuja. It will target the household solid waste management practices and its importance to environmental sanitation.


1.7 Operational Definition

Waste

Is the unwanted material or substance that is left after you have used something

Solid Waste

Is the non-liquid and non-gaseous products of consumption and production activities of human beings

Household

Refers to individuals eating from the same pot and share similar characteristics usually with the father been the household head.

Household Solid Waste

Is the non-liquid and non-gaseous products of consumption and production activities of human beings in a household.

Household Head

Refers to the heads of a household which can be male or female.


Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The study sought to assess solid waste management practices and environmental sanitation in the AMAC Area of FCT. The study was specifically to:

  1. To determine proportion of waste generated due to household solid waste in the AMAC Area of FCT.
  2. To determine the methods of household waste disposal in the AMAC Area of FCT. To assess waste management practices in the AMAC Area of FCT.

At the end of the study, it was discovered that gender, level of education, monthly earnings, residential unit and household sizes were potential factors influencing a respondent perception towards household solid waste management and method of household waste disposal.

Furthermore, the study has shown that majority of the respondents in the study engages in inappropriate household solid waste management practices.

Therefore, socio-economic factors (educational level, income and household size), behavioral factors (attitudes and method of household solid waste disposal) and institutional support factors (receptacles used to store solid waste, dumping site of solid waste and policies) were potential factors influencing a respondent household solid waste management practices.


5.2 Recommendation

Considering the findings and discussion of the study, the following recommendations are made to help individuals, communities and the country as a whole to solve the issue of household solid waste management practices.

  1. There should be intensive education regarding the disposal, methods and the diseases associated with household solid waste management practices.
  2. There should be provision of enough dustbins, skip trucks and piles of containers
  3. The country should adopt an alternative such as recycling and combustion, which entailed the controlled burning of waste from which electricity could be generated.
  4. There should be collaboration among the Environmental Protection Agency, private sector players and research institutions to ensure proper waste management.
  5. There should be creation of a special fund for waste management.
  6. There should be strengthening and enforcement of Solid Waste Management Regulation and Policy in Ghana
  7. Measures should be taking before, during and after disposal of waste such as effective collection and disposal systems to minimize the adverse effects on the environment.
  8. The Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology needed to take complete charge of the waste management situation and institute scientific measures to manage waste, such as the construction and management of well-engineered landfill sites to provide a safe alternative to uncontrolled dumping.
  9. Various relevant legislations for the control of waste enacted should be strengthened.
  10. To address the waste management problems, there should be introduction of incentives such as subsidies, concessionary loans and tax exemptions to encourage investment in equipment, research and training on waste management.

The Importance Of Waste Management To Environmental Sanitation


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