The Importance Of Shipping To The Economic Development Of Nigeria

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The Importance Of Shipping To The Economic Development Of Nigeria


Abstract


The study investigates the impact of Ocean shipment trade on Nigeria’s economic development, covering the period, 1976-2006. Ocean shipment trade in thousands of tones served as the independent variable in all the three hypothesis defined while, the gross domestic product Nigerian value of external reserve served as the dependent variable.

The three hypotheses were actually tested for the following conclusions to be reached:

  1. Shipment export trade has actually exerted a positive effect on the economy as a whole.
  2. Shipment Export Trade exerts a significant positive effect on the level external reserve in Nigeria.
  3. Akin to the two revelations above, the Shipmen Export Trade exerts a significant effect on the level of Nigeria’s external debt payment, especially for the period under investigation, 1976-2006.

The findings of this study therefore, bring to the limelight the need for the following recommendations:
With the perceived weak institutional setting, there is therefore the need to improve the institutional setting in order to boost external trade contribution to the economic as a whole. Even though Shipment Export has been found to contribute positively to the economy generally, whether in terms of contribution to gross domestic product, external reserve or external debt payment, one is tempted to say that more contributions would have been recorded with strong institutional setting. Similarly, the poor transparency and corruption that appear to be endemic in our country call for concerted effort to make for an improved performance.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Statement Of Research Problems
  • 1.3 Objective Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance/Justification Of The Study
  • 1.7 Scope Of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation Of Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.0 The Global Evolution Of Containerization
  • 2.2.1 Shipping Trade In Nigeria
  • 2.2.2 Importance Of Shipping Trade In Nigeria Economy
  • 2.2.3 Trends In Shipping Economics
  • 2.2.4 Overview Of Shipping Markets –The Current Trend
  • 2.2.5 The Global Evolution Of Containerization
  • 2.2.6 Container Traffic Performance
  • 2.2.7 Ownership Of Merchant Navy Fleet
  • 2.2.8 Opportunities For African Maritime Countries
  • 2.2.7 Importance Of Maritime Trade In Nigeria’S Economy

Chapter Three

Research Design And Methodology

  • 3.1 Definition Of Area And Population Of Study
  • 3.2 Sources Of Data
  • 3.3 Procedure For Data Analysis
  • 3.4 Operational Definition Of Variables/Hypotheses Testing
  • 3.4.1 Hypothesis 1
  • 3.4.2 Hypotheses 2
  • 3.4.3 Hypotheses 3
  • 3.5 Test Of Significance
  • 3.5.1 Test Of Model Significance – Anova
  • 3.5.2 Test Of The Model; Coefficient Of Determination And The F-Test Approach
  • 3.5.3 Test Of The Significance Of The Explanatory Variables
  • 3.6 Assumptions Of The Linear Regression Model

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis And Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Data Analysis And Hypotheses Testing
  • 4.3.1 The Influence Of Shipment Export Trade On Economic Development
  • 4.3.1.1 Test Of Model Significance – Anova Method
  • 4.3.1.2 Test Of Model Significance, R2+ Method
  • 4.3.1.3 Test Of The Significance Of The Explanatory Variable
  • 4.3.2 The Influence Of Shipment Export Trade On Nigeria External Reserve
  • 4.3.2.1 Test Of Model Significance –Anova Method
  • 4.3.2.2 Test Of Model Significance – R2 Method
  • 4.3.2.2 Test Of Model Significance – R2 Method
  • 4.3.3.1 Test Of Model Significance – Anova Method
  • 4.3.3.2 Test Of Model Significance, R2
  • 4.3.3.3 Test Of The Significance Of The Explanatory Variable
  • 4.4 Discussion Of Results
  • 4.4.1 Hypothesis One
  • 4.4.2 Hypothesis Two
  • 4.4.3 Hypothesis Three

Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings

  • 5.1 Summary Of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background

Shipping has for a long time been recognized as one of the strong catalysts for socio-economic development. Back in 1776, Adams Smith noted that ’’A business working in a country town without links to the outside world can never achieve high levels of efficiency because its small market will limit the degree of specialization”.

Because distances, it has since the ancient times been at the fore front of opening up of the world and thus a major driver in of the process of globalization. Shipping, especially container shipping has been both a cause and effect of globalization. Container shipping could lay claim to being the world’s first truly global industry.

In fact container shipping could claim to be the industry which, more than any other, makes it possible for truly global economy to work, it connects countries, markets, business and people, allowing them to buy and sell on a scale not previously possible. It is now impossible to imagine world’s trade, and ultimately our lives as consumers, without container shipping.

Shipping has led to a phenomenal growth in world merchandise trade, which has consistently grown faster than output. In 2006, goods loaded at ports worldwide are estimated at 7.42billion tonnes, up from 5.98 billion tonnes 2000. The value of total world export increased from US$6,454 billion in 2002 to US$40,393 billion in 2005 representing an increase of 64 per cent.


1.2 Statement Of Research Problems

The maritime industry is international in nature and is acknowledged to be a very dynamic component in the socio-economic configuration of any given maritime nation. Nigeria is no exception. Even land-locked countries such as Mali and Burkina –Faso in West Africa also hinge, their economic fortunes on the maritime sector relying as it were on the port on Abidjan for import and export transactions. One major problem that has continued to plague the industry in Nigeria is the issue of adequate policy formulation and implementation, hence the contribution of shipping trade to economic growth has therefore being a subject of debate.

In traditional maritime nations such as United Kingdom, U.S.A, the SSA , the Scandinavians, Other European Countries among others, the factors of time, power planning, co-ordination and implementation of clear-cut policies through government intervention largely account for the enviable levels of efficiency, sophistication and monumental success in their maritime activities especially in respect of its contribution to economic growth.

The reverse appears to be the case in Nigeria as the fortunes of the industry have continued to suffer progressive catastrophe over the years. A very near example is the fact that the Nigerian National Shipping Line (NNSL) which took delivery of 19 (nineteen) brand new tonnages from European shipyards in 1979 and 1980, has not only lost all her vessels but has been liquidated altogether. This is complicated by the inability of governments of different types to float an indigenous national carrier up till date.

Therefore, the basic questions that will agitate the mind of the researcher include the following.

  1. What has been the trend and pattern of shipping or maritime trade in Nigeria?
  2. What are the causes of the trends in the shipping trade?
  3. What has been the impact of shipping trade on economic growth in Nigeria using economic indicators of Gross Domestic Product (DPD), External Reserves and Debt Services payment as yardsticks?

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The central objective of this study is to empirically determine the impact of ocean shipping export trade on Nigeria’s economic development. Specifically, the study intends to accomplish the following:

  1. To determine the relationship between ocean shipping export trade and Nigeria’s gross domestic product.
  2. To ascertain the influence of ocean shipping export trade on Nigeria’s external reserve.
  3. To determine whether ocean shipping export trade significantly influences the level of external debts payment.
  4. To isolate policy constraints towards the effective use of ocean shipping export trade to boost economy and proffer policy recommendation.

1.4 Research Questions

Having stated the above objectives, we therefore, consider the following research question for the study?

  1. What is the nature of relationship between ocean shipping export trade and Nigeria’s economic development?
  2. To what extent has ocean shipping export trade influenced the level of Nigeria’s gross domestic product?
  3. What is the influence of ocean shipping export trade on Nigeria’s foreign exchange reserve?
  4. To what extent has ocean shipping export trade influenced Nigeria’s debt service payment?
  5. What are the policy constraints toward the effective use of ocean shipping export trade receive in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

In order to carry out an adequate research work, and to analyze the relationship of the needed variables, we shall make the following hypotheses: H0:1 Three is no significant relationship between ocean shipping export trade and the Gross Domestic product.

  • H0:2: There is no significant relationship between ocean shipping export trade and external reserve.
  • H03: There is no significant relationship between ocean shipping export trade and external debts payment.

1.6 Significance / Justification Of The Study

There is no gain saying the fact that the issue of economic growth and development is one of the most sensitive issues in Nigeria of today. One reason for the sensitivity of this issue is the scenario of abject poverty in the land of surplus as in the case in Nigeria. The reason for this boils down to the fact that every reasonable Nigerian level of underdevelopment. The generation yet unborn is even saddled and sold to economic slavery because of the present level of poverty and penury.

A research work on such a sensitive matter as the relationship between economic development, external reserve, debt payment and ocean shipping export trade in Nigeria, is therefore at this time a necessity. The need to provide a lasting solution to the problem of underdevelopment, abject poverty, tribal clashes, Niger Delta Youth economic growth scenario, management of our abundant natural work is therefore a task that must be done and hence a justification for this research work. Hence, this study is significant.


1.7 Scope Of Study

This research work aims at covering an overview of the nature of the relationship between the ocean shipping export trade and economic development in Nigeria, giving special attention to the some indicators of economic growth in Nigeria – gross domestic product, external reserve and external debt payment. References would be made to other countries which are relevant to this research work. The study also covers a period of 31 years, 1976-2006.


1.8 Limitation Of Study

The research work has been intended to have an overview analysis of the Nigerian ocean shipping export trade in relation to it economic development and growth.

It would assess the concept of ocean shipping export trade in relation to the current level of economic growth given special attention to relationship between ocean shipping export trade and some indicators of economic growth.

However, due to time constraints and lack of good data base and information sources in Nigeria and worst still because of lack of the research work could not cover all the economic growth information of the country.


Chapter Five


Summary Of Findings

5.1 Summary Of Findings

This study investigated the impact of Shipment Export Trade on Nigeria’s Economic Development, covering the period, 1976-2006. three major hypotheses were formulated and tested with these objectives in mind.

  1. To determine the nature of relationship between Shipment Export Trade and the level of gross domestic product in Nigeria.
  2. To ascertain if Shipment Export Trade exhibits a significant relationship with the level of External Trade in Nigeria.
  3. To determine whether a significant relationship exists between Shipment Export Trade and the level of External Debt payment in Nigeria.
  4. To determine whether the Shipment Export Trade contributes significantly to Economic Development.
  5. In all cases, the hypotheses proved significant even at 0% alpha level or 100% confidence level, thus, suggesting that Shipment Export Trade exerts a significant influence on the levels gross domestic product, external reserve an external debt payment, respectively for hypotheses one through three.

5.2 Conclusion

The study is on the impact of Shipment Export Trade on economic development of Nigeria, covering a period of thirty –one years from, 1976-2006. Three hypotheses were actually tested for the following conclusions to be reached:

  1. Shipment export trade has actually exerted a positive effect on the economy as a whole.
  2. Shipment Export Trade exerts a significant positive effect on the level external reserve in Nigeria.
  3. Akin to the two revelations above, the Shipmen Export Trade exerts a significant effect on the level of Nigeria’s external debt payment, especially for the period under investigation, 1976-2006.

5.3 Recommendations

The findings of this study therefore, bring to the limelight the need for the following recommendations:

  1. With the perceived weak institutional setting, there is therefore the need to improve the institutional setting in order to boost external trade contribution to the economic as a whole. Even though Shipment Export has been found to contribute positively to the economy generally, whether in terms of contribution to gross domestic product, external reserve or external debt payment, one is tempted to say that more contributions would have been recorded with strong institutional setting.
  2. Similarly, the poor transparency and corruption that appear to be endemic in our country call for concerted effort to make for an improved performance.
  3. It has also been observed that information is grossly inadequate in the export trade. Hence, the need to improve the market information, especially in the areas of reporting and disclosure standards can hardly be over-emphasized. For instance, it appears disturbing that there seems to very wide gaps between what the Nigeria’s actual export receipts and the export targets. At best, this portends or lends further credence to the seeming over-orchestrated corrupt practices in high places in Nigeria.
  4. Above all, there is need for policy makers to be consistent, both in terms of formulation and policy implementation.

The Importance Of Shipping To The Economic Development Of Nigeria


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