Importance Of Reinforcement Concrete In Modern Building

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Importance Of Reinforcement Concrete In Modern Building


The purpose of this study is to study the importance of using a reinforced concrete in today’s modern building so as to erect structures that can last the test of time and withstand every bit of effects against it. This research design provides a quick efficient and accurate means of assessing information about a population of interest. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. Data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences).

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Reinforced concrete structures are one of the most popular structure systems. Many architecture students are using reinforced concrete structure systems for their designs. But there are many cases where they design structurally questionable buildings because they are trying to express their design ideas with limited knowledge about R.C. Design. Frequently the structural member design would not be their primary focus. Although there is the possibility that excessive structural considerations may disturbing their search for unique designs, basic structural calculation is important for design. Structurally sound solutions can make their design concepts closer to reality.

Unfortunately most architecture schools concentrate their curriculum on visual design education rather than a balanced education of design and structure. The balanced education does not mean equal class time for structural and design classes. But it is essential that students can at least discriminate that their design has a reasonable structure. Many students use the commonly available books on architectural graphic standards as a reference. But they are not applicable to many different conditions. Furthermore, reinforced concrete structures need a lot of calculations and different condition inputs because it is a composite material of concrete and steel.

The Reinforced Concrete Structure Design program (RCSD), which has been developed for this thesis, can help architecture students and users to analyze their designs and understand structural fundamentals. Although there are many reinforced concrete structure programs, most programs are targeting advanced level users who have a background in structural engineering.

The RCSD program is for beginner level users such as architecture undergraduate and graduate students with limited knowledge about structures. For this, it provides a graphical input method and a step-by-step calculation procedure to help users. With this program, it is possible for the user to design basic structural parts such as slab, beam, column and footing. Also the program is based on the American Concrete Institute Code. The ultimate goal of this program is that users can analyse their own designs using this program and determine structural proportions of their design idea.

Portland cement concrete containing higher-strength, solid materials to improve its structural properties. Generally, steel wires or bars are used for such reinforcement, but for some purposes glass fibers or chopped wires have provided desired results.

Unreinforced concrete cracks under relatively small loads or temperature changes because of low tensile strength. The cracks are unsightly and can cause structural failures. To prevent cracking or to control the size of crack openings, reinforcement is incorporated in the concrete. Reinforcement may also be used to help resist compressive forces or to improve dynamic properties.

Steel usually is used in concrete. It is elastic, yet has considerable reserve strength beyond its elastic limit. Under a specific axial load, it changes in length only about one-tenth as much as concrete. In compression, steel is more than 10 times stronger than concrete, and in tension, more than 100 times stronger.

During construction, the bars are placed in a form and then concrete from a mixer is cast to embed them. After the concrete has hardened, deformation is resisted and stresses are transferred from concrete to reinforcement by friction and adhesion along the surface of the reinforcement. Individual wires or bars resist stretching and tensile stress in the concrete only in the direction in which such reinforcement extends. Tensile stresses and deformations, however, may occur simultaneously in other directions. Therefore reinforcement must usually be placed in more than one direction. For this purpose, reinforcement sometimes is assembled as a rectangular grid. Bars, grids, and fabric have the disadvantage that the principal effect of reinforcement occurs primarily in the plane of the layer in which they are placed. Consequently, the reinforcement often must be set in several layers or formed into cages. Under some conditions, fiber-reinforced concrete is an alternative to such arrangements. See Composite beam, Concrete, Concrete beam, Concrete column, Concrete slab, Prestressed concrete

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

The researcher come to notice that most of the building that get collapsed are structures erected during the late 1980s, and these structures where not built using reinforced concretes, unlike those that are designed and built even as early as of 1900s have not even shown weakness and loss of strength. Going by that analysis, the researcher seeks to create and analysis the importance of using reinforced concrete in today’s modern building so as to erect structures that can last the test of time and withstand every bit of effects against it.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The researcher seeks to establish the essence of using a reinforced concrete in today’s modern building, also, to make a comparative analysis of reinforced concrete and concrete, the strength, loads and durability. With the use of reinforced concrete on building, the following seems to be a characteristic of such buildings which the researcher seeks to highlights its importance too.

  1. High relative strength
  2. High toleration of tensile strain
  3. Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, moisture, and similar factors
  4. Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures.
  5. Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress.

1.4 Definition of Terms

Reinforced Concrete:

Reinforced concrete (RC) is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets.


Concrete is a composite material composed of aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement which hardens over time. Most use of the term “concrete” refers to Portland cement concrete or to concretes made with other hydraulic cements, such as ciment fondu. However, road surfaces are also a type of concrete, “asphaltic concrete”, where the cement material is bitumen.


pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 – 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water


Reinforced Concrete Structure Design program


Toleration in this study is the amount of time a reinforced concrete can withstand the test of time and moisture

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Concrete technology has advanced considerably since the discovery of the material by the Romans more than 2000 years ago. A brief history of developments that resulted in the current day RC is provided. The advantages and drawbacks of concrete as a construction material are listed. Cement is the most important ingredient of concrete as it binds all the other ingredients such as fi ne and coarse aggregates. The cements that are in use today include OPC, rapid hardening Portland cement, low heat Portland cement, sulphate-resisting Portland cement, PSC, PPC, and ternary blended cement. The making and properties of these various types of cements are briefly discussed. The three grades of cement and their properties are also provided. The fi ne and coarse aggregates occupy about 60–75 per cent of the concrete volume (70– 85% by mass) and hence strongly influence the properties of fresh as well as hardened concrete, its mixture proportions, and the economy. Mixing water plays an important role in the workability, strength, and durability of concrete. Hence, their properties and use in concrete are briefly discussed. As we now use a variety of chemical and mineral admixtures to improve properties of concrete, a brief introduction to them is also provided. It is important to realize the chemical interaction of these admixtures with the ingredients of cement, as they may ultimately affect the performance of concrete. Proportioning of concrete mixes, as per the latest IS 10262:2009, is described. Hydration of cement and heat of hydration are also described. In addition to the ordinary concrete, we now have a host of different types of concretes, such as RMC, HPC, SCC, SLWC, AAC, FRC, DFRC (which include ECC, UHPC, SIFCON and SIMCON), polymer concrete, and ferrocement. They are used in some situations to achieve strength and durability. When reinforcing steel (often called rebar) is placed inside a concrete mass (they are often placed in the tension zone, as concrete is weak in tension), the solidified mass is called RC.

Though traditionally mild steel was used as rebar, a number of different types of rebars are now available and include hot rolled HYSD, hard drawn wire fabric, TMT bars, and TMT CRS bars. The mechanical properties of these steel bars are also provided. A brief description of the corrosion of steel bars, which is mainly responsible for the deterioration of RCC structures all over the world, is also included. Corrosion may be mitigated by the use of fusion-bonded epoxycoated rebars, galvanized rebars, FRP bars, basalt bars, or TMT CRS barsin order to get quality concrete, careful mixing, placing, compacting, and curing of concrete is necessary at site. Forms should be removed only after concrete has gained sufficient strength to carry at least twice the stresses it may be subjected to at the time of removal of forms. Important properties of concrete such as workability of concrete (usually measured by slump test), compressive strength (measured by conducting tests on carefully made and cured cubes or cylinders on the 28th day), stress–strain characteristics, tensile and bearing strength, modulus of elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio are discussed. Expressions for finding compression strength at any day, modulus of elasticity, and tensile, shear, bond, and bearing strengths, are provided as per Indian codes and compared with the provisions of the US code. Discussions on strength under combined stresses and shrinkage, temperature, and creep effects are also included. Various non-destructive tests performed on concrete to assess the strength of existing structures are also listed. Two examples are provided to explain the mix proportioning of concrete.

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