Importance Of Mandatory Industrial Training For Polytechnic Students

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management (OTM)

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management (OTM)


This study is designed to determine the impact or contributions of the students of office technology and management derive from students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and to investigates the hindrances if any, the students of office technology and management encounter in the course of gaining practical knowledge, pre qualification or pre-graduation experience has become an often – quoted criteria on for manpower selections as required by all employers. In keeping to this requirement most employers search for persons who have had enough on-the-job experience to fill certain positions in the establishment. In order to carryout the research, two research questions were stated.

  1. What are the major impacts or contributions that students from office technology and management derived from students’ industrial work experience scheme {SIWES}?
  2. What hindrance the students of office technology and management encounter in the course of gaining the practical knowledge?

A cross- sectional survey design was used to obtain data. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire having three options. The major findings include:

  1. Every institution should set up coordinating units as advised by the industrial training fund (ITYF) so as to reduce the communication gap between the students and institutions.
  2. The induction/orientation of students should be organized to involve the institution, the industrial training fund (ITF) and employer. In that induction course, every information concerning the students must be made available to them.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Limitation and Delimitation of the study
  • 1.7 Research Question

Chapter Two

Review Of Literature

  • 2.1 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.3 Placement of students and code of conduct of Students during Industrial Training
  • 2.4 The Role of Relational Bodies on students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)
  • 2.5 Challenges Students Faces During Industrial Training
  • 2.6 The relationship between ITF and accounting education
  • 2.7 Summary

Chapter Three

Design And Procedures For Research Wok Or Methodologies

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population for the Study
  • 3.3 Sampling and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Procedure for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Method of data Analysis

Chapter Four

Results of Data Analysis

Chapter Five

Discussion Of The Results And Summary Of Report

  • 5.1 Discussion on findings
  • 5.2 Recommendation, Summary and Conclusion
  • 5.3 Summary and Conclusion
  • Reference

Chapter One


In this chapter, the researchers present the background to the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research questions and/ or Hypothesis (es).

1.1 Background To The Study

Industrial attachment is a system whereby a student before graduating is sent to an industry or a training centre to have practical experience on the job. It is either for a year, six months or two months depending on which categories of students are involved. At the training centre, only the practical aspect of the course is emphasized, that is, attention is paid to technical skill development.

In other words, industrial attachment as applied is to the undergraduate a form of practical training in industry where the student is expected to acquire professional practical experience and scale in the activities of a particular industry or establishment and having a physical feeling of those things learnt in theory.

Industrial attachment as it is called to day is the brain child of the industrial training fund (ITF) otherwise known as students’ industrial work. Experience scheme (SIWES) which was introduced by the industrial training fund (ITF) since 1973.

According to Awan (1979) the industrial training fund (ITF) was established in Decree NO.47 of 8th October 1971 with the aim of “promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce with a view to generating a pool of indigenous trained man power sufficient to meet the needs of the Nigerian economy”.

Before the beginning of this scheme, various institutions made their own arrangement with industries/companies where their students go to hare the practical experience to enable them match theory with practice. The pioneer of these private institutional arrangements was institute of management and technology-(IMT) Enugu.

It was the first of the three manpower training and development agencies created by the federal military Government during the 2nd National Development plan period (1970-1974). The other bodies were the Nigerian count for management development (NCMD) and Administrative Staff Collage of Nigeria (ASCORL).
According to Ayoade (1994), the provision of the above decree which established the industrial training fund (ITF) empowered it among other things to.

  1. Encourage employer to train and retain their workers.
  2. Provide facilities for industrial training in general.

It is in realization of this noble role that the industrial training fund in 1973 launched the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES). The idea was to use facilities in industry and commerce to supplement institutional education and training, because of huge financial burden which this scheme placed on ITF. The fund in 1979 decided after due consideration to terminate the scheme. This decision was without prejudice to the consequences of their action on the students and their staff who had already seen the scheme as the only hope of preparing students very meaningfully for the worked of work.

In order to sustain the expectation of the students and the need for manpower development in the nation, the federal military government continued to fund the scheme from 1980 to 1984 through the National Board for technical Education (NBTE). The supervision of the scheme was once more passed over to the industrial training fund (ITF) in 1985, while the funding remained the responsibility of the federal Government.

The scope of the fund left with administrative functions is limited to college of technology, and Education, University of technology and Polytechnics all over the nation.

1.2 Statement Of The Problems

The need for work experience has become an often mentioned criterion for man power selection as required by all employers. Evidence has shown that students in industrial training come back to complain adversely on the lag existing between industrial experience or practical aspect of their studies with what is obtainable in the classroom, and the need to fill this gap is inevitable if the required manpower

needed/expected of our students from accountancy should be acquired and harnessed. These calls for the need for our curriculum planners and implementers to look into the problem the students encounters while in industrial training (IT) so that there will be a similar relationship with what nis obtained in theory and that obtainable in their practical experience.

Therefore, efforts should be made by lecturers handling most of these courses like financial accounting, taxation, mathematics or business mathematics, auditing and investigation, computer and other management courses etc to see that the students will not mess themselves up while in their industrial training.

1.3 Significance Of The Study

This research project will be of benefit to the students, Government and business houses in general.
It is expected that the study will provide data on the benefits, problems associated with industrial attachment and recommend solutions to these problems. The information should be useful to industries that show negative attitudes towards the Programme thereby making it easier for the students to secure attachment. Also to highlight to the students the expected relationship that should exist will between them and the business houses.

This study will also be helpful to lecturers in accounting and other management studies that produce their students IT to have focused on the current development in the industries so that students experience in the classroom will be in line with what they will see as the practical.

Aspect of their studies. Government agents/agencies can still make use of this work to advise industries on the need to be fully involved in this Programme and ensure that the aim of this programmed is not a mere book aim but an achieved aim if the need for man power development should rule the day.

Other readers/researchers in accountancy will also find this work useful when they will need to do further research work on industrial training Programme which will serve as a word of encouragement to students of accounting education during their IT and also a motivator to those takes active part in training and job inter play.

1.4 The Purpose Of The Study

The main purpose of this study is to:

  1. Ascertain the role of industrial training in accounting education.
  2. Examine the strength and weakness of the programme which warrants its continuation.
  3. Find out whether coordinating units are established in the institutions selected and if they are functioning well.
  4. To ascertain whether the employers accept all the students for industrial attachment as stipulated in ITF Decree No 47 as amended in 1990.
  5. Determine how often the supervision staff of ITF visit the students on attachment.
  6. Find out whether students involved are given orientation course prior to their attachment.
  7. Identify how often allowances are being paid to the students and supervisors.

The students will in no small measure intensity and identify the various aims and objectives of the Programme and make necessary recommendations based on the findings.

1.5 Scope Of The Study

The researchers feel that what is obtainable in these places that organize the Programme so far is the same everywhere. Also the financial involvement and time constraint were factors considered by the researchers.

1.6 Limitation And Delimitation Of The Study

The researchers feel that Owerri Urban is suitable for this study because there are many schools that send students out on industrial work experience scheme (SIWES). We have four higher institutions in Owerri but the researchers used only two namely, Alvan Ikoku Federal Collage of Education Owerri and Federal Polytechnic Nekede

1.7 Research Questions

For the purpose of this study, the researchers formulated the following research questions.

  1. What are the major benefits that students of accounting education derive from students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES)?
  2. What are the strength and weaknesses of the Programme?
  3. What is the role of dose supervision and observation during the SIWES Programme?
  4. Are student trainees accepted by every organization where they are posted for SIWES Programme?
  5. Is improper orientation before the Programme a factor that leads to lots of mistakes on the part of the student during the Programme?

Chapter Five

Discussion Of The Result And Summary Of Report

5.1 Discussion Of Finding

The fist research question sought to find out whether the students industrial work experience scheme contributes to the practical development of the accounting students.

Finding show that students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) contributed to the practical development of accounting students, this evidence to proved in table 1 where 90% of the respondents agreed on this issue. This is supported by the opinion of Obiazi (1984) in chapter two who believed that the industrial; attachment was a great effort on the part of the Nigeria universities to produce well based proficient and skilled graduates who can produce devices and machines especially in the engineering filed.

The second research question which seeks to find out whether proper and adequate equipment during the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) Programme leads to the attainment of the trainee educational objectives. The findings have shown that it leads to the attainment of the trainee educational objectives since 96.7% of the respondents agreed on the issue.

This is in support by Nwosu (1977) who views that:

“Coupled with this lack of facilities in some establishment it lack of competent training officer. It is quite clear that students attached to places like these can stay whole period without gaining anything useful. This is because they can fumble on trying to apply too much of the theory that they know to practical problems with very little or no success without any guidance and direction ….”

The third research question seek to find whether students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) exposes the students to the realities of the business world. Findings revealed that SIWES expose students to the realties of the business world since 83.3% agreed that exposes students and this is consisted with the view of Ayoade (1994) who noted that “SIWES offers an opportunity for students to interact with workers of various cades in industries and this interaction increase their understanding of the job and functions of these professional staff.”

Finding also show that lack of close observation and supervision during the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) leads to waste of time and unnecessary expenditure by the students. This is the period in table IV where 56.7% agreed on this issue. This is supported by Aluo (1988:4) when he said that some colleges do not even care to send supervisors to inspect their students if the places where the students are located are far. The industrial attachment scheme has been abused the more by the fact that there are students who do not even care where they are attaching themselves. A student, who is studying engineering for instance might at6ch himself with any advertising firm so far the firm agrees to give him some allowance.

The fifth research questions, which seeks to find out whether the duration of the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) program is adequate for the acquisition of practical knowledge. The findings have shown that the duration is not enough since 40% of the respondents disagreed on the duration.

The sixth research questions seek to know whether proper exposure of accounting trainee students to the business world as a result of the student as industrial work experience scheme (SIWES). Findings revealed that proper exposure of accounting students to the business world is as a result of SIWES since 58.3% of the respondents agreed. This is supported by Ilo (1991) statement in chapter two that it is on record that every eligible students in this country has benefited from the scheme and thus trend seem as to be on the increase. This is because the number of participating institutions is on the increase resulting in the increase in number of participating students.

The multiplier affect of the scheme includes improved performance of our young graduates in various places of employment as well as the do it yourself culture which is gaining ground very fast among the youths, especially graduates of institutions of higher learning.

Table VII shows that student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) enhances job acquisition of accounting students after school. This is exemplified by 65% of the respondents who agreed.

Table VIII shows that suitable equipment leads to efficiency creativity and industrious on the part of the trainee since 96.7% agreed on this issue.

In table IX, when respondents asked whether is better for the students to choose whether to do their SIWES Programme than to be posted by the school. Findings shows that it is better that way then to be posted by the school since 70% agreed on the issue this is not consistent with the opinion of Awan (1979) who believe tha6t it is better for the student to be posted by the school than for students to choose where to do their SIWES Programme.
Findings also show that students are not accepted by every organization where they are posted for SIWES Programme, this is proved in table X where 66.7% disagreed that students are accepted by every organization where they are posted for SIWES Programme. This is consistent with the view of Obiazi (1984) and Nwosu (1981). In this statement, Obazi maintained that the attitude of companies to the students on industrial training is an issue that required serious consideration. Some companies especially foreign owned companies do not like to accept students for industrial training giving all kinds of frivolous excuses while some make life difficult for industrial; attachment students. According to Nwosu “the problem of ITF is non acceptance of the students by the company he is posted”.
The eleventh research question seeks to know whether lack of co-operation between the students trainee and the employer of the organization leads to poor performance by the students. Findings have shows that lack of the students. Findings have showed that lack of cooperation leads poor performance since 83% agreed on the matter.
Table XII shows that inadequate instruction before the Programme exposes the trainee to a lot of mistakes during the Programme since 70% agreed. This is supported by Iro4egbu (1984) statement in chapter two where he maintained that most students totally misuses the period and some of them see it first as a money making time while others see it as time to relax ands indulge in business.

5.2 Recommendation, Summary And Conclusion

A number of influences have been synthesized by the analysis in chapter four. The views of number of writers have also been revealed. As a reflection of all these, the investigation cannot resist the urge to give the following recommendations:

  1. Every institution should set up coordinating unit, as advised by the industrial training fund, so as to reduce the communication gap between the students and the institutions.
  2. The induction/orientation of students should be organized to involve the institutions, the ITF and the employer in that field, every information concerning the students should be made available to him/her.
  3. The logbook issued to the students at attachment by institutions and ITF supervisors responsible, during supervision and not in their officer at the end of the attachment.
  4. Lecturers should be involved in this program since some students come back to their institutions complaining that the practical aspect of the study are nit totally in line with the theory aspect of their studies.
  5. Since the benefits of SIWES is not one sided, the management of our industries, will be gaining more than they can lose by giving students the chance of being trained and encouraged them by sharing with institutions their responsibilities on the students. This could be done by way of providing accommodation for the students by paying them an up-keep allowance, and also by allowing them to make use of their initiative while on training by not causing them unnecessary embarrassment which could lead to frustration and lack of self confidence.
  6. Industry based supervisor should endeavor to guide the students theory their attachment by enforcing that aspect of the discipline that is associated with strict compliance to the attachment Programme.
  7. Students are advised to refrain from indiscriminate change of attachment as it disrupts the Programme and attachment.
  8. Government should endeavor that they provide students with modern technological equipment that are obtainable in most of our industries so that students will not be a novice to the use of these equipments.
  9. While students are going through this programme to enhance their academic standard and get ready for the world of business, the lecturer handling most of the course in accounting should as well undergo orientation or research and attend workshop and seminar to keep abreast of current trend in the world of business so that what they will be teaching in the classrooms will be in line with the practical aspect of the course so that students will not be embarrassed whenever they go on industrial training programme.
  10. Federal government should refer to Decree No. 47 section 7A (1) (b) I section 7(A) (2) and fine any ministry, company or parastatal that fail to offer students places for the attachment.
  11. ITF should be providing insurance cover students on attachment and improve on paying students and supervisor allowance for motivation.

The objective of the study is to highlight the impacts or contributions the students form accounting education derive from students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES), the strength and weakness of the programme that warrant its continuation. In doing this, the researchers have in mind certain limitations that would make it impossible to cover all schools in the area and finally decided to choose two schools out of four higher institutions in Owerri.

In order to gather data, twelve questions were produced and dispatched to sixty students from the chosen schools, the information gathered were tallied and converted into percentage from which inferences and conclusions were made.

It is however obvious that student’s industrials work experiences scheme (SIWES) has helped the accounting students in many ways especially in the attachment of their educational objectives, acquisition of practical knowledge and job acquisition. It will also lead to efficiency, creativity and industrious on the part of the students.
Solving the problem of skills acquisitions by graduates of Nigeria technical/vocational education is a reason for the establishment of SIWES. It was planned to be a bridge between educational institutions and industrial employer with the latter providing general and specific occupational skills and knowledge. This research indicates that the SIWES objectives are being achieved, although there are some constrains such as lack of industrial type equipment.

Incompetence in work place is related to the kind or quality of training in the school. To improve on the scheme’s implementation, students should be placed in industries relevant to the fields of study. There is need for greater co-operation between industries and educational institutions on how best to implement the SIWES programme. It can thus be considered that in spite of apparent economic difficulties, the SIWES in Nigeria universities are attaining its objectives; and that the industrial experiences in real setting is very necessary if the attachment of SIWES objectives will be fully realized because it offers the students learning experiences which cannot be directly gained in the classroom.

Therefore, in order to evaluate or measure the outcome of SIWES at the planning stage, it must be clearly stated what constitutes an acceptable work experiences for every course or trade. The industrial training fund (ITF) should as a matter of fact annually publish their review and study of the progress of SIWES. Such studies may use opinion polls of parents, employers, students and graduates. The school workshops and laboratories should be well- equipped with similar industrial outfits to provide good background for successful industrial experiences.

Furthermore, industrial and business organization with more than 25 employees as stipulated (with more than 25 employees as stipulated in section 6 of Decree No. 47 of 1971) should be statutorily required to pay at least 10% of annual profit to ITF to improve its financial position. for effective supervision of the programme, qualified full-time coordinators with good public relations skills should be employed by the institutions. this will improve the degree of cooperation between industries and schools.

In the light of the above findings, it is conclusive that industrials practical experiences programme are a valuable and enriched integral part of an effective accounting curriculum.

Importance Of Mandatory Industrial Training For Polytechnic Students

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