The Importance Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Performance Of Secondary Schools Students

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The Importance Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Performance Of Secondary Schools Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate the importance of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students using 4 selected secondary schools in Akure South, Ondo State as case study. Specifically, the study was aimed at exploring the views of teachers and students on the extent to which instructional facilities affect student performance; examine the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials; assess the strategies that teachers use to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials; and analyze the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.

The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 100 responses were validated from the survey which comprised 4 selected secondary school students in Akure South, Ondo state using purposive sampling method were 80 students and 20 teachers were selected for sampling. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analysed using using four Likert scale of Strongly Agree(SA), Agree(A), Disagree(D) and Strongly Disagree(SD), the formulated hypotheses weas tested using Chi-Square analysis. It was accepted that there is significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.

The study recommend More seminars/workshops on the use of diverse instructional materials available should be organized at least bi-annually to acquaint teachers on how to use them in teaching in secondary schools. More so, Educational managers should ensure that teachers have educational qualification in their subjects as a way of acquainting them with the principles and administration of instructional materials in secondary school. Also, a state organized committee should be set up, to monitor the teacher’s use of instructional materials during teaching.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Instructional materials serve as a channel between the teacher and the students in delivering instructions. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching-learning process. It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom. Instructional materials are highly important for teaching; especially for inexperienced teachers. Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need material for background information on the subject they are teaching. Young teachers usually have not built upon their expertise whenever they enter into the field. Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often assess students by assigning tasks, creating projects, and administering exams. Instructional materials are essential for all of these activities.

According to Oni (1992), instructional resources are teachers’ strategic factor in organizing and providing education. This is so because they help to elaborate a concept that the teacher could not, without an instructional material. This allows 2 students to learn more comfortably therefore influencing positively their academic performance. Writing on the role of instructional materials in teaching and learning, Balogun (1982) commented that science education programmes cannot be taught effectively without the existence of equipment for teaching. This is because instructional materials help those who learn to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. Elaborating further on the same point, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) emphasize that when instructional materials are provided to meet relative needs of teaching process, students will have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, and also each student will be able to learn at his or her own pace. The overall result is that students will perform much better.

In his own perspective, Fadeiye (2005) saw instructional materials as visual and audio-visual aids, concrete or non-concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in Social Studies. Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching learning process.

In the same vein, Obanya (2004) asserted that several studies carried out in some areas in Nigeria indicated that the results of Senior School Certificate Examinations was completely bad in nearly all subjects offered by the students. He stressed further that only about 10% of candidates ‘meaningfully passed’ the examination.Abdu-Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of students in schools. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning take place under a most un-conducive environment without access to essential materials.

Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use instructional aids for instructional delivery to make students acquire more knowledge and to promote academic standard. In addition, Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) stressed the importance of availability of instructional materials to achieving effectiveness in educational delivery and supervision in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) alerted on the gross inadequacy and underutilization of instructional materials necessary to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organs and to reinforce the capacity of dominant organs.He noted that school teachers should try their possible best in the provision of locally made materials in substitution for the standard ones to promote their lessons.Enaigbe (2009) noted that basic materials such as textbooks, chalkboard and essential equipment like computer, projector, television and video are not readily available in many schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of secondary school students in both local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stake-holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery. (Afolabi, 2009).

During the teaching process instructional material otherwise known as teaching aids meant to make instruction more meaningful, clear and much more interesting to students are brought in display. There is a general impression that education is not achieving the desired objectives especially with high incidence of students’ poor performance in senior secondary certificate examination. This situation has assumed a precarious dimension in all secondary schools in Nigeria. The failure of educational system to provide adequate and appropriate teaching-learning aids in order to improve academic performance of students is of a great concern to government, educational institutions and other concern citizens.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of academic instructional materials on the academic performance of students, specifically the study intends to;

  1. To explore the views of teachers and students on the extent to which instructional facilities affect student performance.
  2. To examine the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials.
  3. Assess the strategies that teachers use to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials
  4. Analyze the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the view of teachers and students on the extent to which instructional facilities affect student performance?
  2. What are the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials?
  3. Is there strategies that teachers use to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials
  4. Is there any significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students

Hi: there is significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study intended to find the impact of inadequate instructional materials in secondary schools. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone. Since the beginning of secondary schools, the government and local communities have been putting more emphasis on the construction of new class-rooms, and recently, construction of laboratories.

However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work will be conducted in Ondo state, four secondary schools will be selected for this research, both public and private school will be selected.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Instruction Materials:

Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).

Academic Performance:

Refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the “importance of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students: A study of selected secondary schools in Akure South, Ondo state”. The chapter consists of summary of the study, summary of research findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine importance of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students using 4 selected secondary schools in Akure South, Ondo State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at exploring the views of teachers and students on the extent to which instructional facilities affect student performance; examine the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials; assess the strategies that teachers use to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials; and analyze the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.

The study adopted the survey research design. Population comprised the selected secondary school students in Akure South, Ondo state from which 100 respondents were purposively selected as sample from 4 secondary schools comprising 80 students and 20 teachers. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using four Likert scale of Strongly Agree(SA), Agree(A), Disagree(D) and Strongly Disagree(SD), the formulated hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square analysis. It was accepted that tthere is significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Instructional material does positively influence teaching and learning in secondary schools
  2. Using instructional material is not a waste of time and will not complicate learning.
  3. The use of instructional material for class room instruction bolster the cognitive abilities of students.
  4. Using instructional materials facilitate and make teaching/learning activities easy, lively and concrete.
  5. Visual material stimulates learning than audio material.
  6. Teacher managing with poor quality material might not achieve the desire objective.
  7. Selection of instructional material by teacher should be based on its appropriateness for the intended learners.
  8. The incompetence of teacher to improvise instructional material is not responsible for poor performance of students.
  9. Teaching has been optimal because teachers have the requisite skills to select and use viable instructional material.
  10. Improvement of class room instruction largely depend on the competencies of the teacher.
  11. Students taught with instructional material perform better in any examination than those taught without instructional materials.
  12. Instructional material enhances students acquisition and retention of factual information.
  13. Students taught without instructional material will still achieve credit in an external examination.
  14. Using Instructional material may not be useless if students dislike English Language as a subject.
  15. Students taught without instructional material will not have vivid understanding of the principles of the subject..
  16. Competence of teachers affect the selection of an instructional materials for the teaching of any subject in secondary schools
  17. Lack of exposure, fund, limited accessibility to modern instructional facilities and technology expertise pose a problem to effective use of instructional materials.
  18. Lack of Instructional facilities affect student performance to a great extent
  19. Teachers bring materials from home and friends as a strategy to minimize the challenges of attaining and using quality instructional materials
  20. There is a significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students

5.5 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. The government should strive and set aside a reasonable amount of education budget which will be directed to improve and construct libraries and provide instructional materials in schools.
  2. More seminars/workshops on the use of diverse instructional materials available should be organized at least bi-annually to acquaint teachers on how to use them in teaching a secondary school subject.
  3. The heads of schools should rise their voice to be heard by parents as well as the government on the importance of improving and promoting good instructional materials in schools since the success or failure of a student will not only depend on the qualification of the teacher.
  4. A state organized committee should be set up, to monitor the teacher’s use of instructional materials during teaching.
  5. The parents should not sit down and wait for the government to effect on the availability of libraries and other valid learning materials and facilities in schools. The parents should consider the problems of lacking facilities as a challenge that needs to be redressed by them. So, the study urges parents to effectively participate physically and financially where possible for the development of the schools.
  6. Educational managers should ensure that teachers have educational qualification in their subjects as a way of acquainting them with the principles and administration of instructional materials in secondary school.
  7. Schools should be adequately stocked with required resources before they are given permission to prepare the students in such subject’s area.
  8. School administration should ensure that instructional materials are provided for teachers to allow them to teach more effectively and efficiently.
  9. Adequate trained English teachers should be recruited in schools.

5.6 Suggestions for further studies.

The main focus of this study was on the importance of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students using 4 selected secondary schools in Akure South, Ondo State as case study. The researcher therefore suggests for further research be conducted to explore this at subjects offered in secondary schools since this study was limited to general subjects.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Do instructional materials affect academic performance?

In this study, instructional material is the main focus in order to unveil their effects on the academic performance of students. The importance of Instructional Materials in any teaching/learning Process cannot be over emphasized.

What is the role of instructional materials in teaching and learning?

Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching learning process.

Is there a significant difference between teacher’s competence and instructional materials?

This implies that there is a significant difference between teacher’s competence and the selection of an instructional material Hypothesis three H03: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials in financial accounting.

Why do we use instructional aids for instructional delivery?

Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use instructional aids for instructional delivery to make students acquire more knowledge and to promote academic standard. 

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