The Importance Of Home Economics Training Of Secondary School Students In Teaching And Learning Of Home Economics In Nigeria
This study aimed at investigating the importance of home economics training of secondary school students in teaching and learning of home economics in Nigeria. The study used Uyo, Akwa Ibom state region as a case study area with 285 secondary schools from which the sample was selected. Respondents used in the study were both teachers and owners of secondary schools. The study had drawn 70 respondents of which 35 were from government and 35 from private schools. Private and they were obtained using probabilistic sampling procedures. Respondents were given questionnaires and interviewed from which different answers were given. Most of the respondents agreed that the implementation of teachers’ Home Economics training programmes affects the performance of learners in Nigeria. The research results found that the teachers training policies were not implement or not available at all in most of the sampled schools. The study recommended that the secondary schools’ stakeholders and investors should invest on training and developing of teacher employees as they affects the performance of the learners who need to have good and quality education. There should be training policies in each school as it was found that training policies were almost unavailable.
Table Of Contents
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Research objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Research
- 1.6 Scope of the study/ Limitations of the study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2. Definition of Terms / Concepts
- 2.3 Theoretical Review
- 2.4 An Empirical Review
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Surveyed Population
- 3.4 Area of the Research
- 3.5 Sampling Procedures
- 3.6 Data Collection
- 3.7 Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.8 Expected results of the Study
4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion Of Findings
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
- 4.2.1 Age of Respondents
- 4.2.2 Sex of Respondents
- 4.2.3 Level of Education of Questionnaire Respondents
- 4.3 Teachers’ Concern / Perception on Matters Related to Training, Working Experience and Job Performance
- 4.3.1 The Presence of Positives Impacts of Teacher Training on Students’ Performance
- 4.3.2 Teachers Home Economics training programmes improve on job performance
- 4.3.3 Teachers’ Job Experience and Performance
- 4.4.2 Provision of Examination at the End of Training Period
- 4.4.3 Certificates are provided at the end of training session
- 4.4.3 Trainees Volunteering to Demonstrate During Training
- 4.4.4 Adequacy and Relevance of Learning Materials
- 4.4.5: Rewarding After the Training
- 4.4.6: Training or Learning Methods and Evaluation
- 4.4.7 Duration and time taken during training period
- 4.4.8 Trainers’ Competence
- 4.4.8 Promotion after Training
5.0 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of the findings
- 5.3 Conclusions
- 5.4. Recommendations
- 5.5. Suggested Areas for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the study
Teacher training problems can be traced earlier before independence. Cameroon and Dodd (1970) as cited in Mussika, state that during British administration, primary school teachers were trained through three levels. The first was Grade I or senior primary school teachers who spent two years in professional training after completing secondary education. The second level was grade II teachers who were recruited for standard six and their training lasted for four years, two years for general education and final two years for professional training. The third level was licensed teachers who had followed training and shown satisfactory standard of teaching.
Stephen and Crawley (1994) argue that teaching is a profession whose mission is to affect the change of peoples’ behaviour. This means that the teacher should be adoptive to a lot of knowledge and abilities to cope with changes and to be able to affect the understanding of the learners (specifically students).
Rockoff (2004) and Kane, et al. (2006), as it is quoted in Harris and Tim (2008) discussed that the estimated effects of experience may be biased if sample attribution is not taken into account. For example, less effective teachers might be more likely to leave the profession and this may give the appearance that experience raises teacher value-added when, in reality, less effective teachers are simply exiting the sample. Alternatively, selection could work in the opposite direction; more able teachers with higher opportunity costs may be more likely to leave the profession, leading to a spurious negative correlation between teacher experience and student achievement. One method of addressing the attribution issue is to include a teacher-specific effect, to control the unmeasured teacher ability, along with the experience measures. The teacher specific effect should purge the influence of teacher time-invariant ability on experience, yielding unbiased estimates of the 7 marginal product of experience.
Before 1980s, Nigeria had almost all the secondary schools belonging to the government. Few of them that were owned by few private individuals including religious institutions such as Seminary secondary schools. After the economic liberalization, there were a number of secondary schools introduced in the country.
Teachers as employee in Nigeria are treated differently from other employee working in other sectors. It’s believed that this profession is vocation of which may be thought in some people mind not as commitment or special type of work to undertake but the work which need strong education and training. This has resulted into lack of effective Home Economics training programmes among teachers in Nigeria.
The need for training of teachers is caused by the system of employing of teachers in Nigeria. In secondary schools for example, both private and government, there are teachers of different categories in the case of level of education. Some schools have form six leavers, diploma holder as well as those with degree. Those with degrees are also grouped into two categories; there are those with contract (with different degree not related to education) and degree related to education. But even diploma holders differ in the duration at the college during their courses.
The decline in performance in general and specific subject in National Examination Results across a number of years also shows that the problem exists. For a number of years the results of, ordinary and advanced levels, have been falling down something may be related to inadequate teachers training and poor development programmes.
The mushrooming of secondary schools in Nigeria, recently, needs competent teachers to manage. These schools including those old schools as well as new ones have increased the intensity of the problem of demanding more teachers. The increases in the number of students need to have well trained teachers who will be able to accommodate these changes.
Learners’ performance depends on well educated as well as trained teachers. The teachers who are well trained make future performances of the students. They are the delivers and interpreters of the curriculum hence need to be given better training to cope with the requirement of these curriculums. Bendikson, (2007) points out that the nature of NCEA means school-level results not only reflect student achievement but also the ability of leaders to organize, deliver, and monitor a relevant curriculum for students. Therefore one can conclude that, the student performance in their exams depend on well trained teachers and development programmes.
Teachers as workers need to be learning now and then so as to produce student also with good education. Students are like raw materials in a factory, they must be well prepared and instructed by their teachers so as to get knowledge which will be used for the development of society in all forms of technology, social and economic. The role of human capital in uneven development tends to be facilitative and productive in that the tools of human capital development – education, training and research – nurture possibilities of growth. Graduate entrepreneurship has emerged as a new tool for development as the prospect of jobs for even the educated and skilled diminishes each day, OECD, (2009; 2010) as quoted in Mitra, (2010).
This study involved the studying of teachers Home Economics training programmes and their effects on students’ performance as well. Investigated through questionnaires and interview which was administered to teachers and the analysis from them was made so as to determine its effectiveness on students in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For the purpose of updating the brain of human beings, teachers need to be trained to equip themselves with technical skills, attitude and abilities of performing their jobs in a more perfect way. Singers (1990) as cited in Yona, argues that training of workforce is analogous to the maintaining of machinery or physical resources in an organization.
Châu (1999) argue that the level teachers’ competence affects the quality of teaching and formal level of education is not necessarily synonymous with competence.
A study done Harris and Tim (2008) on teachers training, teachers quality and students’ Achievements in the U.S.A, came out with different answers on the issue. The study found no much relationship between more education to teachers and the performance of the students they teach as they are quoted here bellow.
The other relevant study was the on done by Mussika, (2002) entitled as Teachers’ Training and the Class Room Performance of Grade IIIA Teachers in Nigeria. The study studied different grades of teachers in primary schools in Nigeria and discovered that the more capable teachers were those with in and on job training.
Evers (2010) made a study on organizational factors and teachers’ professional development in Dutch secondary schools and proposed four activities for why training of workers is important as participation in training and courses with respect to the own job domain; a different or new job domain; further personal development; and in intra- and extra-organizational social networks. They also add more on the above domains that there are indications to conclude that these four learning activities should be expanded with some other learning activities in the workplace context, because they might have a more considerable impact on occupational expertise.
McDowall and Mark (2010) also made a relevant study in UK on UK managers’ conceptions of employee training and found that when employees are trained and developed they become more capable on their daily job performance. They also point out that as highlighted in their earlier discussion of definitions, that managers argued that combining training with development resulted in more positive outcomes.
A study done by Yona (2008) on the assessment of off- the job training, investigating the workers of the NMB Arusha and Moshi branch, also came out with different discoveries including the way training of employees affects their performance.
Training costs lots of money, and it disrupts the organization’s performance schedule: it makes sense that training is carefully managed and gauged to the organization’s performance needs. Large and complex organizations have little choice other than planning and managing their training function formally, i.e. through a training programme based on studied training needs Ngirwa (2006: 290).
On the other hand, teachers are taking training as less important due to little or lack of motivation after and during training. This was due to poor or no promotion during and after training.
1.3 Research Objectives
The main objective of this study was to investigate the importance of home economics training of secondary school students in teaching and learning of Home Economics in Nigeria.
The following are the specific objectives of the study:
- To determine to what extent the secondary school teachers Home Economics training programmes on job could improve performance.
- To determine to what extent the secondary school teachers’ experience on job could improve performance.
- To determine the way secondary school teachers’ commitment on their job could improve job performance.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent secondary school teachers training could improve students’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- To what extent secondary school teachers on job training could improve performance of secondary school in Nigeria?
- To what extent secondary school teachers’ experience could improve performance in Nigerian secondary school?
- To what extent secondary school teachers’ commitments on their jobs could improve job performance of secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Research
This study expected to have tangible and intangible significances to all members found in secondary schools in Nigeria specifically to teachers and students at large. It was expected that the study would contribute much to the students’ performance in Nigeria.
It intended to be used as a guideline to Nigerian secondary school decision makers in the various strategies. They would be used in managing the learning environment and provision of quality secondary school education basing on these strategies.
Further more, the findings of this study aimed at challenging the secondary schools stakeholders in Nigeria and other NGOs who protect the schools learning environment. It was to show the way Home Economics training programmes were not implemented and show the way towards valuing and implementing them.
The study intended also to be used as an addition for the future business and social researchers interested in the same area. Was aimed at assisting the current private sector and willing to invest in education programmes in Nigeria.
The findings of this study were to aim at extending implementations of the provisions of the Secondary School Educational Policies of the Government of Nigeria and its related development programmes. This would be done through discovering what was not known about teachers training towards the success of Nigeria education system.
This work was intended to be the base for business investor willing to invest in secondary school education in Nigeria. From the findings, they would understand the needs for teachers’ education as a result leading to good academic performance hence easy to compete in this business.
1.6 Scope and limitations of the Study
The main objective of the study was to examine the importance of home economics training of secondary school students in teaching and learning of Home Economics in Nigeria.
There was a limitation of time and fund as the study concentrated only schools found in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state. The study could be done in the whole country as secondary schools are found all over Nigeria.
Some of the selected respondents in a sample were not found at their work places hence causing a number of visits. Especially the owners of the schools were busy with a number of meeting and seminars. Also some of the teachers were having some commitment In some of the schools, teachers were absent as it was said that they were having special activities out of their work premises. This made me to have several visitations to their working areas.
5.0 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
Chapter five presents summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendations, furthermore the chapter presents limitation of the study and areas for further studies. The study was conducted to examine the importance of home economics training of secondary school students in teaching and learning of home economics in Nigeria, using Uyo, Akwa Ibom state region as a case study area. The study used 70 respondents that included the teaching and administrative staffs of the private and secondary schools.
5.2 Summary of the Findings
The study generally found that the implementation of training has not been given enough priorities as most of the respondents shown not to be familiar with training policies in their work institutions. It was found that teachers as the major employees in this sector were willing to go for further studies but the implementation and exercising of Home Economics training programmes weren’t in favorable environment.
This study focused on the effects of Home Economics training of secondary school and their effects on students’ performance. The results revealed that most of the respondents proved that the implementation of Home Economics training programmes in both private and a public school was very low or absent regardless of its importance toward students’ performance.
The study recommends the secondary schools’ stakeholders and investors to invest on training of teacher employees as they affects the performance of the learners who need to have good and quality education for their development and the society at large. Most of the stake holders were found not involved in training of teachers.
There should be training policies in each school as it was found that training policies were almost unavailable in most of the studied schools.
The policies were un available even respondents were not aware of these policies. Motivations, as one of the issue raised by the respondents, must be put forward to teachers so as to make them work hard and for the better performance of the learners.
5.5 Suggested Areas for Further Studies
This study aimed at finding out the effects of Home Economics training of secondary school and their effects on students’ performance but another study can be done to find out the relationship between the teachers’ withdrawal from teaching profession and absence of motivation on this profession. The further study can be done to find out the effects of devaluation of teaching profession in Nigeria and increase of failure in NECTA examinations.
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