The Implications Of Unsafe Sexual Practices On The Health Of Adolescent

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

The Implications Of Unsafe Sexual Practices On The Health Of Adolescent


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the implications of unsafe sexual practices on the health of adolescent Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.The study was carried out to find out the prevalence of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State, ascertain the reason adolescents engage in unsafe sexual practices in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State and identify the health implications of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool.The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State is high.The study also revealed that the reason adolescents engage in unsafe sexual practices in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State includes: heightened sexual desire, relationship strengthening, lack of safe-control and lack of contraception. Therefore, it is recommended that the Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) should embark on sensitization /awareness campaign on the necessity of sexuality education among youths. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Adolescents constitute an important proportion of the population of Nigeria, they are classified by WHO to be individuals within the ages of 10 to 19 years (Patton et al., 2009). It is a delicate stage that presents with challenges especially that of sexual and reproductive health due to the developmental changes (Bankole, et al., 2006). It is important that they experience safe and pleasurable sexual life, the absence of which may expose them to reproductive health challenges (Envuladu et al., 2014). Adolescents are faced with challenges in decision making about relationships, sexuality, and sexual behaviour. Such decisions are very vital as they can impact either positively or negative on their health and general well-being. Adolescents have the right to live healthy, and society has the responsibility to prepare youngsters by providing them with comprehensive sexual health education that gives them the tools they need to make healthy decisions. Sexuality issues have been one of the most fundamental aspects of human existence, which is directly related to both the physical and psychosocial well-being of an individual [1]. Particularly, the health of adolescents is greatly dogged by their behavior, and sexuality is an important and complex area of youths behavioral health.

In Africa, efforts have been made to abolish the tradition of early marriages, but these have lengthened the period spent unmarried yet sexually active which is life threatening. This has spiked the high rates of unsafe sexual activity and the resultant pregnancies among young adults have significantly contributed to high fertility rate.1
Adolescents are exposed to unsafe and early sexual practices especially in developing countries and therefore there is the risk of unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV\AIDS[3]. Unprotected sexual activity carries with it risks to reproductive health at any age but most particularly during adolescents, because the risks of infection are greater when full physical maturation is incomplete[4]. Sexual activities among adolescents have been reported to be increasing worldwide, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa adolescents have at high burden sexual risks and increasing unprotected sexual activities [5].

The burden of health problems related to unsafe sex practices is still alarmingly high in Nigeria. To begin with, in most high-burden countries including Nigeria, there is still a high prevalence of STIs with twice as many new HIV infections in the adolescents age group compared with the deaths; therefore, in these countries, the epidemic in adolescents is still growing.3,4While the risk of contracting STIs for both genders during unsafe sex might be equal, the pregnancy risk and the related probable physiological and socio-economic complications, including dropping out of school, being neglected by family, social misfit,maternal injury, and death are faced only by the females.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, adolescents continue to engage in unsafe sex (Elegbeleye, 2006; Kabir, Iliyasu, Abubakar, & Kabir, 2004; Odu & Akanle, 2008). This is despite of the “substantial sums spent on information campaigns, the marketing of condoms” (Cleland & Watkins, 2006, p. 2; Meekers, Van Rossem, Zellner, & Berg, 2004), and a high awareness of HIV/AIDS risk (Momoh, Moses, & Ugiomoh, 2006; National Population Commission [NPC] and ICF Macro, 2009). Consequently, unsafe sex “has become a key life goal and a source of personal fulfillment” in Nigeria (Jackson & Scott, 2017). In particular, heterosexual prowess and sexual conquest have become key indicators of trendiness, a basis for peer acceptance; connote good living; and continue to instigate similar and further conducts.
Moreover, normative sanctions against adolescents sexual activities are relatively weaker today in comparison with Nigeria’s abstention-oriented traditional past. The weakening of premarital sex sanctions is due to the combined effects of social change, late marriage, human rights gains, increased geographical mobility, and shrinking parental and community surveillance of unmarried people. Family and community sanctions for premarital sex now seem to operate on a don’t-ask-don’t-tell basis, as long as unintended outcomes of unprotected sex, such as unintended pregnancies, health implications that do not manifest.

Consequently, the burden of health problems related to unsafe sex practices among youngsters has been alarming in Nigeria. To begin with, in most high-burden countries including Nigeria, there is still a high prevalence of STIs with twice as many new HIV infections in the adolescent age group compared with the deaths; therefore, in these countries, the epidemic in adolescents is still growing. In the light of the above, this study seek to investigate the implications of unsafe sexual practices on the health of adolescent.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, the purpose of the study is to examine the implications of unsafe sexual practices on the health of adolescent. Specifically it seeks to:

  1. Find out the prevalence of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.
  2. Ascertain the reason adolescents engage in unsafe sexual practices in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.
  3. Identify the health implications of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide and help the researcher to achieve the specified objective of this study:

  1. What is the prevalence of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State?
  2. What are the reason adolescents engage in unsafe sexual practices in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State?
  3. What are the health implications of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Unsafe sexual practices among adolescents has no health implication.
  • Ha: Unsafe sexual practices among adolescents has a health implication.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will emphasize on the need for the attainment of safe sex practices among adolescents since it can help to reduce the cases of pregnancy, STI and HIV infection, thereby promoting youths to achieve their educational goals.

The study will provide information to health care providers that could be used in improving the already existing adolescents friendly safe sex programmes.

Findings of the study will assist in coming up with recommendations for improving the adolescents Sexual and Reproductive Health services.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study generally focus on assessing the implications of unsafe sexual practices on the health of adolescent.
Geographically, the study will be delimited to Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State. The study will cover the entire adolescents in the study area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Unsafe / Unprotected Sex

Penetrative sex between a male and female, without the use of either a male or female condom during sexual intercourse.

Safe / Protected Sex

The practice of non-penetrative sex or penetrative sex using either the male or female condom.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the implications of unsafe sexual practices on the health of adolescent Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the implications of unsafe sexual practices on the health of adolescent Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.The study specifically was aimed to find out the prevalence of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State, ascertain the reason adolescents engage in unsafe sexual practices in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State and identify the health implications of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents areadolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State is high.
  2. The reason adolescents engage in unsafe sexual practices in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State includes: heightened sexual desire, relationship strengthening, lack of safe-control and lack of contraception.
  3. The health implications of unsafe sexual practices among adolescents in Oro Irepodun Local Government Area Kwara State includes: being infected with HIV/AIDS, being infected with STI, psycho-social problems and conduct disorder.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Schools, families and zonal education office and other stakeholders should be involved and working in collaboration to reduce the unprotected sexual practice. Improving parent-student communication on sexual matters and family-school integration would be the best practice and the primary focus for interventions, because family-focused interventions have a positive effect on students’ behaviorsand well proved strategy to avoid the student’s misbehavior like frequent visiting of night club as well as to take responsible in doing any sexual behaviors.
  2. The Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) should embark on sensitization /awareness campaign on the necessity of sexuality education among youths.
  3. Movie producers and film writers should write and produce films and short plays on risky sexual behaviours and its effect to help sensitize the nation television viewers on risky sexual behaviours.

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