The Implications Of International Terrorism On Nigeria’s National Security

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The Implications Of International Terrorism On Nigeria’s National Security


Abstract


The objective of this study was to examine the implications of international terrorism on Nigeria’s national security. The study focuses on the security aspect, the business aspect of Nigeria and the economy as a whole. The results of the study show that terrorism has a negative effect on Nigerian national security judging from the experience of other countries. There is a greater impact of terrorism in developing countries than in developed ones have greater flexibility to terrorism due to their strong economies. However, countries across the world provide both Kenya and Nigeria with ample examples for combatting terrorism – the issue lies with their ability to identify the suitable approach and ensuring that they have strengthened their political systems and legitimacy to prevent the continued rise of these organisations. The findings of this paper would also be beneficial to policy makers, security agencies and security personnel across sectors of the society with regards to managing terrorism activities for National Sustainable Development.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Terrorism is seen as a dimension of insecurity. It is a premeditated use of threat or violence by subnational groups to obtain a political or self-interest objectives through intimidation of people, attacking of states, territories either by bombing, hijackings, and suicide attacks, among others. It implies a premeditated, political motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents ( US Commission, 2012; Ogbonnaya and Ehigiamuose, 2013). Two types of terrorism have been identified; domestic and transnational. Domestic terrorism involves the activities of terrorist in a host country, and their targets are fellow citizens, their properties and the countries institutions and policies either for political reasons or otherwise. For instance, the activities of Boko Haram terrorist in Nigeria, Tamils in Sri Lanka. On the other hand, transnational terrorism involves more than one country. This can stem from the victims, targets, institutions and supporters, terrorist or implications (Sandler and Ender 2008). A good example of transnational terrorism is the US attack of 9/11.

Terrorism is the use of violent action in order to achieve political aims or to force government to act (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary). It can also be seen as using violent or threat to obtain a political objective. Terrorism has become a hydra headed monster characterized by unprecedented and unpredictable threats, both domestically and internationally and has kept governments of developed and developing countries on their toes. It has become one of the most complex and complicated phenomenon of the contemporary world (Stibli, 2010). The current wave of terrorism now poses a greater threat than ever before. It has caused sufficient harm to society in areas of loss of lives and property, economic loss by diverting foreign direct investment (FDI) from target countries to other non-target countries; crowd out government resources meant for development purposes by government channeling a large part of its revenue into security vote. The world has recorded a lot of terrorist attacks. Some of these incidents include; the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) attacks on hotels and resorts in 1980s in Spain; the Irish Republican Army (IRA) attacks on London’s financial district at the Baltic Exchange (April 10, 1992) and Bishopsgate (April 24, 1993); attacks on London’s transport system in July 7, 2005; the al-qaida attack on the world trade center in September 11, 2001(9/11) (Gaibulloev and Sandler, 2009). Others include recent attacks in kenya, Pakistan, Nigeria, etc. The level of insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria both in the northern and southern part has become a major issue for the government. Since 1990 when the activities of the Niger Delta militants started until recent times when Boko Haram insurgents arose in the Northern part of the country, Nigeria has witnessed unprecedented security challenges. These challenges ranges from kidnapping, suicide attacks, bombings, ritual killings, assassinations, armed robbery, and this has led to the destruction of lives and properties, hindered business activities, discouraged local and foreign investors, increases government expenditure on security, all of these stifles and retards Nigeria’s socio-economic development (Ewetan and Urhie, 2014). The events surrounding September 11, 2001 and other recent events of terrorism across the globe especially the current wave of terrorism in Nigeria, has focused our minds on issues of terrorism and insecurity.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent years, the terrorist activities in different dimensions have constituted a major menace to the Nigerian society and the global community at large (Yusif, 2008). Scholars have established a relationship between terrorist activities and national development globally (Akpan, Akpan &Lofu-Adeoye, 2014). Hitherto, the Nigerian government has made concerted efforts towards eradicating terrorism activities in the country but this has yielded little success even with the support of different foreign counterparts. The reason for the little success so far is due to the fact that terrorism has reached a high degree both at home and abroad. Besides, the spread and availability of guns and ammunition in the nooks and crannies of Nigeria, occasioned by numerous porous borders, past military experiences, corruptions, repressive attacks by government against communities and leading spokes persons, have resulted in the significant spread of terror in the North eastern part of Nigeria witnessed today. This reality constitutes a major motivation for the current study. However, this study seeks to examine the implications of international terrorism on Nigeria’s security.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The study aims to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To determine the external terrorist group that is affiliated with the internal terrorist group in Nigeria.
  2. To determine the implication of external or international terrorism on Nigeria’s security.
  3. To suggest ways of minimizing the effects of the terrorism on Nigeria’s security.

1.4 Research Questions

The study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:

  1. What is(are) the international terrorist group affiliated with the internal terrorist group in Nigeria.
  2. What is the implication of international terrorism on Nigeria’s security?

1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study examines the implications of international terrorism and how they relate to Nigeria. The implications are examined in the security aspect, the business aspect of Nigeria and the economy as a whole.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Theoretically, the study would add to the existing body of knowledge on terrorism plaguing the international community. It is specifically designed to unravel the strategies adopted for combating terrorism. The study would also aid and enrich researchers whose interests are on terrorism. The outcome of this research would serve as a reference for policymaking and much emphasis was on counter-terrorism policies and knowledge transfer among scholars in the security sector. The outcomes of this study would also be beneficial to policy makers, security agencies and security personnel across sectors of the society with regards to managing terrorism activities for National Sustainable Development.


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Security:

The preservation and protection of lives and properties in a country through adequate protective strategies.

Terrorism:

The use of threat or use of anxiety, induced extra normal violence for political purpose by any individual or group whether acting for or in a position to established governmental authority when such action is intended to influence the attitudes and behaviour of a largest group wider than the immediate victims and through the nationality or foreign ties and its perpetrators.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine the implications of international terrorism on Nigeria’s national security.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining the implications of international terrorism on Nigeria’s national security.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to examine the implications of international terrorism on Nigeria’s national security. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research questions were defined respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the effect of terrorism. While the fourth chapter looked at the implication of international terrorism on Nigeria’s national security.


5.3 Conclusion and Recommendation

The study concludes that international terrorism has a negative effect on Nigeria’s national security judging from the experience of other countries. Therefore, we recommend, First, that Nigeria must invest heavily in new technology cross border control. Some radars can be used as primary detection sensor for long range remote surveillance platforms. Mobile Surveillance System and Blighter Radar which are cost effective should be introduced to survey both land and air zone simultaneously (Musa, 2013). Secondly, Nigerian government should become proactive in the implementation of regional security among ECOWAS member states. Agreements must be reached among ECOWAS member states and their governments for cooperation and collaboration in the areas of security joint- border patrol, strengthening of common or integrated immigration services in order to curtail transnational crimes and terrorism and reduce security threats. This has become a global practice, especially among member states of the European Union (Casale, 2008). Thirdly, it is important for Nigeria to invest in E-Government. This will ensure effective data gathering and intelligence monitoring among Nigeria’s security agencies. It will also bolster Nigeria’s security networking with other nations. A well-developed E-Government platform will increase the knowledge base of Nigerian citizens with a view towards assisting security operatives in ending the Boko Haram debacle. Lastly, Nigerian leaders must have the political will to address the Boko Haram insurgency. Over the years, Nigerian leaders have been exemplary in confronting problems such as Apartheid in South Africa, colonial rule in Africa and the former President, Goodluck Jonathan lived up to the billings by ensuring Nigeria is free from the deadly Ebola scourge.


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