The Implication Of Universal Basic Education (UBE) On Business Education Curriculum
This study work investigated the implication of Business studies curriculum for Universal basic education (UBE) in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The primary source of data collected was mainly the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on the implication of UBE on business education curriculum. The data collected will be analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The findings of the study will create awareness for the implementation of the UBE programme.
1.1 Background of the Study
In 1948 the Universal declaration of human rights asserted that everyone has the right to education. Over 40 years later, it is clear that many people are still being denied this basic human right. Indeed, the 1980s saw more backward than forward movement in most countries of the world. It was as that point that world conference on education for all was held in jomtien, Thailand for the purpose of forging a global consensus and commitment to provide basic education for all. Universal Basic Education UBE is the programme which grew out of the conference (Dike 2000: 9-13). The former president of Nigeria chief Olusegun Obasanjo formally launched the UBE in Nigeria on 30th September, 1999. the programme is intended to be universal, free and compulsory. Since the introduction of western education regions, states and federal government in Nigeria have shown a keen interest in Education. This can be seen in the introduction UPE in the western region in 17th January 1955, its introduction of the eastern region in February, 1957 and in Lagos (then federal capital territory) in January 1957. Other development include the publication of national policy on education in 1977, launching of unvieral free primary education on 6th September 1976 and the subsequent launching of UBE in 1999. The goal of all these programme is providing functional, universal and quality education for all Nigerian irrespective of sex, race, religion, occupation or location (Eya 2000:8). Moreover, in response to the agitation for a more functional and qualitative educational systems, a new educational system known as the 6-3-3-4 was introduced nation – wide in 1982 by the federal government of Nigeria. The educational system stressed the point that a child shall spend six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary school, another three years in senior secondary school and four years in tertiary institution.
After a decade of the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education, it was observed by educational analysts that there has been general, lack of consistency in Nigeria educational policies the system and national objectives. This presupposes that the educational objective of the 6-3-3-4 system of education have not been fully realized partly because of the inherent problem of the UPE which were not effectively tackled before the commencement of the new education system. UBE is brooder than UPE which focused only on providing educational opportunities to primary school age children. UBE stresses the inclusion of girls and woman and a number of underserved group the poor, street and working children, rural and remote population, nomads, migrant workers, indigenous peoples, minorities, refugees, and the disabled. The formal education system is only one of the six components included in basic education in the implementation guidelines of the federal government others relate to early childhood, literacy and life skills for adult, nomadic population, and non-formal education or apprenticeship training for youth outside the formal education system (Nigeria 2000). In 2000, Nigeria’s literacy rate was 52 percent (Babalola 2000: 28). In 1998 only 40% of all heads of households in Nigeria had any education at all, 21% had only primary education, 14% had up to secondary school education while only 5% had post secondary school education (UNDP 1998: 70), Data from the federal ministry of education, education statistics (1996) showed that only 14. 1 million out of the 21 million school age children are enrolled in primary school UBE was born from these sparking statistics to promote education among all citizens. This UBE has five sponsoring bodies: the world Bank, the Department for Informational Development (DFID), the federal government and local government (Iheagwara 2005: 16-18) UBE is expected to enable all Nigerians to acquire the basic skills of education and these skills will make them active participants in the decision making process in their community. The UBE programme is meant to bring illiteracy to a halt and thus launched Nigeria into a literacy society. Also it will enhance mobilization and participation of the grassroots it is well implemented. UBE programme comprises formal education from primary one to junior secondary three JSS III, non formal and formal sector. UBE will provide free and compulsory education to every Nigeria child of school age, no matter the economic or social background. According to the implementation guideline (2000), the universal aspect of UBE has the following implications: Inclusiveness implying that persons in all manner and condition of physical,
1.2 Statements of Problem
The effectiveness of the basic education to eradicate or reduce level of illiteracy as well as enhance development has been an issue of concern to all the stakeholders of basic education. Education needless to say is a priority sector in every well-meaning society. This Burtcher (2006: 10) referred to it as a major force in Economic, intellectual, social and cultural empowerment. Its value in bringing about character and attitudinal change ranks as important as its ability to reshape human potentials for desire development. For a nation to minimize illiteracy, ignorance and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate the pace of National integration, there is need to make basic education compulsory for the populace. Having recognized this fact, Nigeria introduced universal basic education about ten years ago. The UBE scheme was introduced in order to take care of the large population of the disadvantaged groups, the rural community, the girl child, the nomadic, the disabled, the almajiri and the phenomenon of boys dropout. The extent to which UBE contributed to educational development in Nsukka Local Government Area remains to be investigated. This study therefore set out to investigate the following research questions.
- Has UBE programme enhanced school enrolment in primary and secondary school education in Nsukka L.G.A?
- Has the introduction of UBE programme led to improvement in infrastructure and staffing of primary/secondary schools in Nsukka L.G.A?
- Has the introduction of UBE programme resulted in improvement in the standard of education at the primary/secondary school levels?
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to assess the performance of Universal Basic Education programme in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Specifically the study intends to,
- To determine the extent Universal Basic Education UBE programme has enhanced school enrolment in Nsukka local government area.
- To ascertain the extent of improvement in infrastructure and staffing of primary/secondary schools in Nsukka L.G.A.
- To determine the extent the introduction of UBE programme has resulted in improving the standard of education at the primary/secondary school levels.
1.4 Research Question
- To what extent universal basic education has enhanced school enrollment?
- To what extent is the improvement in infrastructure and staffing of primary/secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Hypothesis which undertake the study are:
- UBE programme has inqused the level of literacy in Nsukka Local government area.
- The introduction of UBE led to improvement in infrastructural and staffing of primary/secondary schools in Nsukka L.G.A.
- UBE programme resulted in the improvement in the standard of Education at the Primary/secondary school level.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will create awareness for the implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme (UBE). It will be of great benefit to the government, stakeholders and youths in Nigeria and other development countries. The government will see the important of implementing universal basic education in Nigeria especially in Nsukka local government area. Government should be aware of the adequate strategies to be adopted in the implementation of the universal basic education programme (UBE) in Nsukka local government Area like regular payment of teachers salary. The stakeholders will be aware of viable means of implementing the Universal Basic Education UBE in Nsukka L.G.A. stakeholders will equally know the importance of utilizing both the materials and resources properly in the implementation of the Universal Basic Education programme in the society because through the programme they will acquire skills, beliefs, and facts that will help them to live in a community and be productive to themselves and the society in general.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of study covers the implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) from 2002 to 2009. it will cover all the government primary school in Nsukka Local government area. The study covers all the primary school heads and teachers in Nsukka local government and those in junior secondary in the aforementioned local government area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 Definition of Terms
For the sake of clarity and easy understanding of this research work, it is important to provide operational definition of key concepts in the study which include
A judgment about something based on an understanding of the situation.
The act of carrying out or accomplishing something such as a task or action.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of the Findings
The result of the study presented in chapter four revealed the followings:
- The level of teacher preparation for the implementation of UBE scheme is good.
- The level of the availability of facilities for the implementation of UBE is good.
- The level of community participation of UBE scheme is good.
- The impact of supervision on the level of the implementation of UBE scheme is good.
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinions of the responses of UBE staff, teachers and students on the level of UBE Scheme.
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinions of the responses of UBE staff, teachers and students on the level of preparation of teachers.
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinions of the responses of UBE staff, teachers and students on the extent of the availability of facilities for the UBE Scheme.
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinions of the responses of UBE staff, teachers and students on the level of community participation of the UBE Scheme.
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinions of the responses of UBE staff, teachers and students on the impact of supervision of UBE centers.
Nigeria like the rest of the countries of the world has strong desire for development. Today, more than ever before, it has become an indisputable fact that any nation that wants to achieve progress and development must of necessity pay serious attention to the development of its human resources. And the key is education. The UBE programme has been launched and kicked off in Nigeria to provide quality basic education free to all Nigerian citizens that do not have it. All hands should therefore be on deck to ensure the effective implementation and consequently the success of the programme.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:
- Adequate funding is required. It is hoped that the Federal Government will provide adequate funds with the State Governments assisting sufficiently to ensure that the poverty-stricken parents contribute minimal funds for this level of education in the new dispensation. It is well known that the teachers’ morale drops with tardiness in payment of salaries. Regular grants to the States should be made by the Federal Government for payment of teachers’ salaries, except where aUniversal Basic Education Commission is constituted to handle all the affairs of U.B.E. directly.
- Our basic education must adopt a two-fold approach. We need to educate young children on the one hand, and promote adult literacy and continuing education on the other hand to help develop their basic skills in child parenting, family management, civic participation and effective involvement in such participation.
- Our new education culture must embody effective planning using appropriate data banks in all spheres of education.
- Guidance services must be emphasized to deal with current behavioral problems, which have plagued the education industry at all levels in Nigeria.
- The curriculum should include social and democratic values, academic skills and psychomotor competencies, which constitute our national needs. We need to raise the standards of education through a well-designed curriculum.
- Our children must not sit under trees or in open fields for instructional purposes. Secure classroom facilities need to be provided especially in rural areas where the number of school children may outstrip the institutional space for learning. Our new education culture must adequately stress a partnership between the government and other development agencies in order to tackle education funding and skill development, both for children and teachers and facilities.
- Our new culture must emphasize the egalitarian philosophy in response to democratic tenets. This is to stress that equality of educational opportunity must be provided for all children regardless of their ethnic and religious affiliation, physical and mental disability and socio-economic background.
- There is the need to promote a maintenance culture, not only for the school plant but also for the teaching methods that have proved useful in the delivery system.
- Our schools must socialize our children into democratic values. Our children should be socialized according to the democratic needs of the nation. This can be achieved through the teaching of civics and citizenship education.
- Where regular inspection by the inspectorate is lacking, some teachers may branch off into quick money- generating activities such as farming, butchering, petty-trading and so on, even during school hours. This unprofessional behaviour creates discipline problems as children remain unsupervised.
- Educational experts should sensitize the government to become more aware of their services and contributions through regular publications of research findings in their areas of specialization. Professional educators may not be members of the National Assembly. But the legislative power of their research cannot be ignored by any type of government, whether Military, Civilian or Transitional.
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