The Implication Of Street Hawking On Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

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The Implication Of Street Hawking On Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The growth of street hawking in Nigeria has gotten so popular that it has now become a source of concern to education. Education is the most valuable legacy a nation can leave to its population, particularly its kids. This is due to the fact that the growth of any nation or society is heavily reliant on the quality of that nation’s education. It is widely assumed that the foundation for any meaningful progress must begin with the development of human resources. Much has been said about how formal education remains the vehicle for every society’s socioeconomic, psychological, and environmental progress. When we think of students, we think of those who acquire concepts that will help them become more responsible and productive in the future. A variety of issues impact students from both affluent and disadvantaged backgrounds, particularly those at Egba Odeda High School. Socioeconomic, psychological, and environmental influences are examples of such elements. Socioeconomic variables are thought to be the most prevalent determinants influencing students’ academic success. They have been suffering and there is a socioeconomic disparity between families (Johnson, 1996), who lamented that parents have grown destitute as a result of such harsh measures, and they can no longer fully provide for their children’s education.

The high prevalence of illiteracy, poverty, and low socioeconomic position were accompanied by a high rate of parental and material deprivation of student academic demands, which was necessary by the bad socioeconomic circumstances. According to PISA (Programme International Student Assessment, 2000), home background impacts academic and educational achievement of students and school work, whereas socioeconomic position encourages kids’ activities and functioning.

According to Umar (2009), street hawking is the sale of goods along highways and from one location to another. Aiyeluro (1979) defines street hawking as the process by which a hawker hawks his or her goods by carrying the goods on his or her head by means of a tray, or minor forms of transportation such as wheel barrows, bicycles, trolleys, etc. in search of customers, during which he or she may use bells or shout the name of the item he or she is hawking to attract the attention of any interested customer. Street hawking, according to Anyanwu (1992), is a trading activity that entails moving through a home or street with particular products, mainly food or domestic commodities, marketed by the vendor by yelling the name of the item, ringing a bell, or the like. Street hawking is defined as the act of canvassing for sales, with objects carried by the hawker along the street, from house to home, or in public locations across town (Ikechebelu 2008).

Thus, street hawking is a commerce technique that entails the merchant moving from one location to another in search of clients to purchase his or her items, which might be household or perishable commodities, by yelling or ringing a bell. According to Vinolia and Fubara (1988), street hawking is a kind of child abuse and neglect. They contended that some economic and socio-psychological elements encourage street hawking, which has a negative impact on children’s developmental processes.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Hawking by school-aged children is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria today. The majority of Nigerian parents think that their children are God’s provided assistance, both economically and otherwise. Most ordinary Nigerians do not regard street hawking by children to be a kind of child labor, and certain other forms of child work are considered as part of the socialization process in the society. This raises the possibility that the majority of the parents whose children are involved in street hawking were once street hawkers themselves. As a result, the usage of their wards or children as hawkers may be a reflection of their value portrayal (Umar 2009) .

The psychological aspects of street hawking have a substantial impact on student progress. According to Danesy and Okediran (2002), street hawking among children has psychologically imposed a variety of difficulties, including sex networking behavior, juvenile sequent behavior that consumes the majority of school time, necessitating low academic performance, and dropout syndrome among students. Because street hawking fosters a lack of seriousness and enthusiasm in schoolwork, as well as poor memory, learning difficulties, and underachievement, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of street hawking on senior secondary school students’ academic performance.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the implication of street hawking on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine the causes of street hawking among senior secondary school student.
  2. Ascertain whether street hawking affect the learning interest of senior secondary school student.
  3. Investigate whether street hawking affect the academic development of senior secondary school student.
  4. Examine if street hawking affect the behavioral development of senior secondary school student.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1: Street hawking does not have any significant effect on the learning interest of senior secondary school student.
  • HO2:Street hawking does not have any implication on the academic development/achievement of senior secondary school student.

1.4 Significance of the Study

It is a crystal clear that children street hawking is a distraction and an exposure of children to bad habit and more danger. Findings of this study will encourage parents to set goals for their children and motivate children in their academic work so that the children would put formal education which gives self-esteem, respect, prestige and good personality before moneymaking venture. To school administrators, They will be able to determine on how big difference they can make on the student’s academic performance. They can make ways to help students excel in their studies. To teachers, they can better understand why such student’s performance is like that. They will be able to help students to cope with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it. The study will empirically add to the body of knowledge and serve as reference material for other academia in related field of study.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the implication of street hawking on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement. This research also discusses the causes and effect on the academic development of the child, learning interest and seeks to discover behavioral effects of street hawking on the hawkers who are senior secondary school student. The study is however delimited to Ogbomosho Metropolis in Oyo State.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho Metropolis in Oyo State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used generalization in other senior secondary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.8 Definition of Terms

To constitute general comprehension, the terms were operationally defined for better understanding and justification of the study.


A process in which a person try to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy them.

Socio-Economic Factors:

The term that refers to the social and economic aspects that influences student’s academic performance.

Psychological Factors:

The term that refers to the behaviour and mental state of students and the people around him/her which affects his/her study.

Environmental Factors:

The term that refers to the external and circumstances that surrounds the students that influences his/her performance.

The Implication Of Street Hawking On Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

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The Implication Of Street Hawking On Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement


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