The Implication Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Implication Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Educational practitioners and others have recently expressed concern about the country’s decreasing educational quality. These calls inspired the current federal government’s educational reforms. The elementary school is the foundation of all formal education systems worldwide. The primary purpose of a school as an educational institution is to provide instruction and learning. Educational goals, diversified people, curriculum, knowledge, physical facilities, resources, students, financing, and so on are all inputs into the school system with the purpose of creating well-equipped outputs.

The material elements that enable successful teaching and learning in schools are referred to as school facilities. Castalsi (1971) characterized them as educational resources that allow a skilled teacher to attain a degree of instructional efficacy that significantly surpasses what is feasible when they are not available. Osahon (2001), citing Ogbodo (1996), defines educational facilities as “material objects that enhance teaching and learning activities in the school.” Some of the causes for the lack of facilities and equipment in Nigerian schools have been a rapid increase in enrolment of children in schools and a reduction in local funding for schools. Educational facilities, by definition, have been favorably associated with students’ academic achievement and educational efficiency (Osahon, 1994). To achieve the educational goals of the school and the school system, funding and facilities for the different activities of the school program as well as extracurricular activities are necessary.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students and instructors both require amenities such as libraries, science resource rooms, safe drinking water, restrooms, labs, well-maintained roads connecting schools, and security for teaching and learning. Although rural electrification benefits the host communities where primary schools are located, it does not help the primary schools. Because of insufficient upkeep, most of the school buildings are in a dreadful state of disrepair; our public structures and amenities have entirely fallen and are in ruins. Arisi (2002) stressed that inadequate classroom spaces have resulted in over-crowding in schools. Crowded classrooms not only make it difficult for pupils to concentrate on their studies, but they also limit the amount of time teachers can devote to creative teaching techniques such as cooperative learning and group work, or to teaching anything more than the absolute minimum of essential information. Osahon (2001) opined that many primary and secondary schools were built long time ago by both government and church missionaries. Hence, most of the buildings, roof-tops, desks, chairs, tables, floors, etc., have become extremely bad.

Pitiably, the depreciation of school physical structures and infrastructures, on the other hand, is determined by a variety of factors such as the quality of the initial construction and materials, as well as the quality of maintenance to accommodate effective teaching and learning for academic performance of students in public primary schools. Therefore is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the implication of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools”.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the implication of infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in public primary schools. Specifically, the study seeks to;

  1. Investigate the extent of the availability of infrastructure in primary schools.
  2. Ascertain the importance of infrastructure in primary education .
  3. Determine whether adequate infrastructure will facilitate academic performance of pupils.
  4. Examine the implication of unavailability of infrastructure on primary education

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the extent of the availability of infrastructure in primary schools?
  2. What is the importance of infrastructure in primary education?
  3. Does adequate infrastructure will facilitate academic performance of pupils?
  4. What are the implication of unavailability of infrastructure on primary education?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will help give an understanding of what really causes damages to available infrastructure and how to provide more facilities to make it adequate in public primary school. The main significance of this study is to examine how pupils should be prevented from sitting on the floor to receive lectures and how this can be eradicated. Efforts would be made to map out the legitimate strategies from adequate infrastructure facilities to enhance teaching and learning which will enhance good academic performance for pupils.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This project is limited to effect of inadequate infrastructural facilities on the academic performance of pupils in primary schools. It is meant to highlight difficulties faced by pupils, the method, infrastructural facilities, materials and attitude of maintenance involved in the teaching effectively which we reflect in good academic performance of pupils. This study is limited to five public primary schools in Oredo local government area of Edo State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only Primary schools in Oredo local government area of Edo State.. Thus findings of this study cannot be generalized for other primary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Effect:

According to Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary (sixth edition) defines effect as a change that somebody or something causes in somebody or something else, a result.

Inadequate:

Means not enough or not good enough.

Infrastructural:

This can be says as the basic physical and organizational structures needed for an economy to function it can also be refers as the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable sustain or enhance society living conditions.

Facilities:

This word means space or equipment necessary for doing something.

Academic Performance:

This refers to how learners or students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. It also ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on paper.

School:

Is an administrative unit dedicated and designed to impart knowledge and skills to learners.


The Implication Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools


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The Implication Of Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities On The Academic Performance Of Pupils In Public Primary Schools


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