Implication Of Human Trafficking Among Youth In Udi Local Government Area Of Enugu State

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Implication Of Human Trafficking Among Youth In Udi Local Government Area Of Enugu State


This research evaluates the implication of the problem and youth trafficking. The magnitude of the problem, as well as its despicable nature, triggered increasing legislations in Nigeria in recent years. This research shows that despite the remarkable efforts in term of law and policy approaches the problem appears to persist among the youths. The objective of the research is to demonstrate socio economic background of trafficked youths and effect on household. It appears that several socio-cultural issues related to youth trafficking remain unaddressed. Despite the wealth of knowledge in relation to the topic there is a gap in literature. Indeed, the existing gap in literature regarding child trafficking in Nigeria is evidenced by the fact that no adequate way forward has been indicated to overcome the phenomenon. In an attempt to fil the existing gap this research inquires whether the no achievement of goals in combatting youth trafficking and it implication among youths of Enugu state. By proving the appropriate answers to these crucial questions the research may not only fil the existing gap in literature by also offer the adequate approach to be taken by law and policy makers and other stakeholders in the fight against youth trafficking to overcome the problem. The approach taken in conducting this research is textual analysis or doctrinal analysis and deconstruction of human trafficking laws in Nigeria in general. The study observed, victims are mostly from poor educational and financial backgrounds who are forced or deceived to seek better life outside their families and communities and among other recommendations, a social assistance/security system should be established to cater for vulnerable members of the society especially women.

Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1. Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Socio-economic Implications of Human Trafficking
  • 1.3 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.4 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Hypotheses of the Study
  • 1.7 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.8. Justification for the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Scope of the Study
  • 1.11 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.3 Empirical Review
  • 2.4 Conclusion

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1. Study Area
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population:
  • 3.4. Sampling Technique and Sample Size:
  • 3.5. Instrument for Data Collection:
  • 3.6 Validation of Instrument
  • 3.7. Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.8. Measurement of Variables
  • 3.9 Data Analysis
  • 3.10 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.11 Ethical Consideration
  • 4.1 Data Presentation

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation

  • 4.3 Data Presentation
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
  • 5.5 Areas for Further Study

Chapter One


1.1. Background to the Study

According to the United Nations Palermo Protocol; trafficking in human beings mean “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, habouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation” (United Nations, 2003). It is important to note that a major difference between smuggling of persons and trafficking in human beings is that the latter includes an element of coercion, deception and exploitation.
Human trafficking is presently one of the biggest problems afflicting virtually every state and region in the world. Its magnitude and dimensions have continued to pose tremendous moral, social and economic challenges to the civil society. This is more in the third world countries where the impact of this illegal underling issue is most visible and most felt. It is dis-heartening to hear that people do engage in the trafficking of fellow human beings in order to satisfy their inordinate desires.

Official statistics on numbers of human trafficking are not consistent and vary widely due to the clandestine nature of the activity. However it has been estimated that between 800,000-900,000 persons are trafficked annually worldwide. In the United States alone, between 18,000-20,000 persons are trafficked into the country annually (United States Department of State, 2008). These figures however do not include trafficking within a country‟s border. In this respect, the US State Department estimates jumps from 2 to 4million people annually, while the United Nations estimate 7million. Translated in dollars, human trafficking is billion-dollar illicit industry third behind illicit drug trafficking and arms trafficking. Thus trafficking in people especially women and children for prostitution and forced labour is one of the fastest growing areas of international criminal activity.

Nigeria is also highly vulnerable to the activities of human traffickers. Like in all other states and regions, the statistics on the number of Nigerians involved, mostly as victims, vary widely. Nigeria is a source, transit and destination country for women and children trafficking for the purposes of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Within Nigeria, women and girls primarily trafficked for domestic servitude and sexual exploitation and boys are trafficked for forced begging by religious teachers as well as forced labour in street vending, agriculture, mining, stone quarries and domestic servitude (USDS, 2008).

Rural-urban drift which is common among youths reduce rural population where most farming activities takes place. This results in low food production because farming is left in the hands of the aged population (Ekong, 2003). This youthful population that should be active in community development are the ones being lured away by traffickers. According to the Nigerian Police Force and the Women Trafficking and Child Labour Eradication Foundation, between March 1999 and April 2000 about 1126 women trafficked out of the country were deported from various countries. This figure excludes the dead, the maimed, the stranded and those who sneaked back. By 2001, the figure of those deported was over 5,000. It has been reported that there are about 20,000 Nigerian women involved in the sex industry in Italy. It was reported in 2002 that 80% of foreign prostitutes in Italy were Nigerian women mainly from Edo, Delta and Lagos states (The Tide Online, 2006).

In 2004, Nigeria‟s National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) reported that 46 percent of Nigerian victims of transnational trafficking are children, with majority of them being girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. An increasing trend, reported recently is the trafficking of African boys and girls from

Lagos to the United Kingdom‟s urban centers including London, Birmingham and Manchester, for domestic servitude and forced labour in restaurants and shops. Some of the victims are Nigerians while others are from other African countries (USDS, 2008). In 2007, NAPTIP reported investigating one hundred and fourteen (114) cases, sixty-two (62) of which were prosecuted. Of the 62 cases, seven resulted in convictions and fiftyone are still pending in court. NAPTIP reported rescuing eight hundred victims and providing assistance for six hundred and ninety-five (695).

The overall implication of this situation on national development is manifold. Subjection of women and children to slave-like labour and sexual exploitation had grossly violated their human rights. Such worst forms of labour have retarded the growth and development of Nigerian children and women and their contribution to national development.

The dramatic growth in migration and trafficking flows has resulted from a combination of push, pull and facilitating factors. Push factors include uneven economic growth and the breakdown of economic systems, an increase in war and armed conflict, environmental degradation, natural disasters and increasing levels of family violence (Gupta, 2004; UNESCO, 2006). Environmental degradation, natural disasters and conflict make rural development difficult because it pushes people away from their communities. This also results in low agricultural production; there could be no meaningful production in the midst of conflict, bad weather and degraded environment. The poor and disadvantaged can now see with their own eyes the wide disparity between their standard of living and that of the richer and more advantaged people in the world. They want to share in the wealth, and by the means of modern transportation, they are able to get to richer lands in a matter of hours (International Organisation for Migration, 2005). These are pull factors that draw people away from their communities to seek better lives outside. Growth in the industrialized economies with modern transportation and telecommunications motivates more people to move and so facilitates all aspects of migration and trafficking.

These large- scale migratory movements have both positive and negative effects on community and rural development. Emigration of the more highly skilled represents a “brain drain” for developing countries. This means by implication that the return of these skilled migrants would represent a “brain re-gain” that could help in promoting development. Stahl (1988) in a review of “the effects of emigration and return on sending countries” posed three related questions: Do remittances contribute to economic development? Do migrant workers acquire new skills that are useful on their return? and Can returning workers reintegrate in their home societies and economies?

A recent review of the extent to which a range of international development institutions are concerned with migration, highlights how their interest have been focused primarily on remittances and reversing the drain through the return of skilled nationals (Olesen, 2002). Within these broad areas of interest, there has been a perceptible shift both in recent literature and in the attention of governments and international organizations towards the potential benefits of migration and return to developing countries. Taylor (1999) noted how pessimistic opinions on migration and development have generally pervaded literature, but proposed in contrast the view that migration can help to reduce both production and investment constraints faced by households. He argued that remittances form part of a mutually beneficial informal contract between the migrant and the household in the country of origin.

The major facilitating factor is the involvement of organized crime for which trafficking is a growing source of profits (Gupta, 2004). According to Nwogu (2006), UNICEF estimates that profit from human trafficking in West Africa are only exceeded by trade in guns and drugs. The great majority of those who are trafficked are migrant workers who originally chose to leave home in search of an improved standard of living but when faced by restrictions on immigration are forced to turn to traffickers and smugglers.

According to Aftab (2003), poverty and unemployment have been identified as the underlying causes of human trafficking. Poor families have traditionally sent boys and girls they have trouble feeding or cannot provide a future for, to work in wealthier homes. This is supposed to be a form of fostering that gives the child a better start in life but sometimes it is thinly veiled slavery.

Various things motivate people in their decisions to move from their place of origin. Some people migrate so that they can provide better social, economic and educational opportunities for themselves or their families. Others move to escape from their families and their expectations particularly after arguments and conflicts, which may result in permanent separation (Thomas, 2004). Other individuals move for short periods to achieve individual goals such as saving money to build a house or start a business. Migration both internal and international, can offer an important route out of poverty for many people in developing countries. Rather than a vicious circle, migration is increasingly seen as part of integration in which development is enhanced (Weinstein, 2001).

1.2 Socio-economic Implications of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking involves controlling and exploiting people after transporting them to a new location, often beyond the border of their homeland (Laczko, 2002). Movement of people through human trafficking has several implications on both the sources and destinations communities. The donor or source communities lose:

  1. The labor and skills i.e. human or social capital of the trafficking persons
  2. The income which the victims earned
  3. The food, goods and services they produced
  4. Their social and other contributions to their families and communities (Thomas, 2004)

There can be no doubt that human trafficking can have devastating long- and shortterm consequences for its victims‟ physical and mental health as well as their legal, social and financial situation. Apart from the individual suffering it causes, its repercussions for society as a whole are highly detrimental.

According to Ebirim (2006), trafficking can damage its victims‟ health– often severely – in a number of ways: He or she is usually subjected to cruel mental and physical abuse designed to break down initial resistance, including confinement, seclusion, threats, humiliation, beatings and sexual abuse. This treatment places the victim under severe stress, often leading to trauma and depression. The risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases – from Chlamydia to HIV/AIDS – is very great. Physical injuries are common, unwanted pregnancies among women and girls who are sexually abused frequently lead to dangerous abortions. The physical, mental and social development of women and children is severely impaired and the victims are usually marked for life by the treatment and experiences they undergo.

The social consequences of trafficking are also extremely serious, not least for the young women and girls who are sold for purposes of sexual exploitation. Women who return to their homes are often rejected by their families and communities. They have difficulty starting families of their own and employment is hard to come by. More excluded than ever, they may once again become the victims of exploitation of various kinds or be sold into prostitution for a second time. Very little is known about the fate of boys but, here too, the risk of social exclusion and of being drawn into a life of criminality and abuse is evident (Ebirim, 2006). The boys may later end up being miscreants after running away from their trafficked destinations; sleeping under bridges, market stalls and so on.

One of the deleterious social consequences of human trafficking is the legitimising of patriarchal attitudes. In the most severely affected countries, moreover, the number of returning victims – many of them severely scarred, both physically and mentally – may prove an immediate burden on the community‟s resources. Trafficking provides the prostitution industry with ready victims. This in turn has repercussions for gender equality and views on male and female sexuality. It reinforces the notion that people and even sexuality can be bought and sold. Moreover, the sexual exploitation of women and children can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS, with its devastating effect on individual lives and adverse consequences for society as a whole in terms of loss of income, rising care costs, weakened families and social suffering.

Human trafficking, like the arms and drugs trades, is big business with a sizeable turnover. It contributes to a growing illegal market and rising criminality. The relatively high profit rate and comparatively low risk involved offer traffickers and other players the chance to earn quick, safe money. Large illegal markets involving criminal and quasicriminal activities act to undermine healthy economies and hamper the establishment and maintenance of the rule of law. The proceeds are not only used to finance increasingly organised and sophisticated criminal activities; but, according to many indications, contribute to the financing of subversive activities and armed movements (Unongu, 2006).

There is also a significant impact on the receiving or destination communities. They experience some economic growth as these migrants join the work force. They also spend some of their income on food, homes and clothing thereby creating demand for goods and services in the receiving society, which in turn boosts their economy.

1.3 Statement of the Research Problem

Human trafficking has been described as “modern day slavery” whereby people are coerced or deceived through promises of good jobs and career opportunities to move out of their communities to „work‟ outside the country or in cities. These victims of human trafficking are expected to send remittances to their households to improve their wellbeing. Many of these victims are forced into prostitution through which they contact various diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Others get trained in one skill or the other while some have opportunity to go to school and improve their educational qualification.

Trafficking is a complex phenomenon, resulting from a number of interlinked livelihood insecurity causes- poverty, ignorance, lack of secure livelihoods and social vulnerability. Vulnerability to trafficking stems from the needs and desires to earn money to meet emergency cash needs (Mitra, 2008). Many embark on trafficking so as to ensure or have a secure livelihood. There have been many studies demonstrating that poverty, low education and lack of understanding about human trafficking are not necessarily the key contributing factors to vulnerability (United Nations Inter-Agency Project, 2007). Many populations thought to be at risk have been saturated with knowledge about the risk of human trafficking, yet thousands if not millions are trafficked every year. More research is therefore required before firm conclusions can be drawn.

It is difficult to understand why anybody would want to stay in exploitative situations. To get the fuller picture of trafficking and migration nexus, one has to visit the victim‟s situations before trafficking or taking decision to migrate. A victim‟s vulnerability is very much shaped by where he/she stands in relation to macroeconomic development and social hierarchy. Migration (regular or irregular) is usually a rationale human response to the situation in which people find themselves. Regular migration involves movement of people through authorized means while irregular migration includes trafficking or smuggling of people. People also migrate in search of better opportunities, whether they be socio-economic or for reasons of human security.

Trafficking in persons is not only debasing to victims, it hacks down the economically active group of a nation. Human trafficking deprives the rural communities of young able-bodied youths who could be actively involved in agricultural and community development activities. This has various implications on the households and the communities where the victims were trafficked from. There is therefore, the need to study human trafficking and its implications on the community and national development as a whole. The research is aimed at understanding the implications of human trafficking on the wellbeing of victims and their households and its contributions, if any, to community development.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to assess implication of human trafficking among youth in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State

1.5 Research Questions

This research is thus designed to provide answers to the following questions:

  1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of youths of human trafficking in the Enugu State, Nigeria?
  2. What roles do family members play in the recruitment of trafficked youths in Enugu State, Nigeria?
  3. Are the respondents aware of the purpose for which they were being trafficked?
  4. What is the duration of youths‟ exposure to trafficking in Enugu State, Nigeria?
  5. What nature of jobs are the trafficked youths engage in at trafficking destination?
  6. What is the frequency of contact between youths and their households?
  7. Does the trafficking experience have any effect on the wellbeing of their households?
  8. What is the perception of youths about changes in their households‟ socioeconomic status?

1.6 Hypotheses of the Study

The following hypotheses were tested:

  1. There is no significant relationship between human trafficking victims‟ socio-economic characteristics and change in their household wellbeing.
  2. There is no significant relationship between human trafficking victim‟s method of recruitment and change in their household wellbeing.
  3. There is no significant relationship between length of time victims spent in trafficking destination and change in their household wellbeing.
  4. There is no significant relationship between the nature of job trafficking victims engage in and change in their household wellbeing.
  5. There is no significant relationship between trafficking victims‟ frequency of contact with parents and change in their household wellbeing.

1.7 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to investigate trafficked victims perception of socioeconomic implications of human trafficking on youths in Enugu State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Identify the socio-economic characteristics of trafficked youths Enugu State, Nigeria,
  2. Describe the role of family members in the recruitment of persons being trafficked,
  3. Assess the awareness of respondents on the purpose for which they were being trafficked,
  4. Ascertain the duration of exposure of youths to trafficking,
  5. Examine the nature of jobs trafficked youths engage in at trafficking destination,
  6. Determine the frequency of contact between youths and their households,
  7. Assess the contribution of human trafficking to the wellbeing of affected households; and
  8. Determine the perception of youths about the changes in the socio-economic status of their households.

1.8. Justification for the Study

This study becomes important based on the fact that despite national and international efforts geared towards eradicating trafficking in persons, the scourge is still on the increase. This study will help to identify factors responsible for continuous human trafficking thereby giving a better understanding of what could be done to stop it. It will help policy makers understand culturally appropriate countermeasures to be applied to the situation.

The way in which rural households earn their living is becoming increasingly complex. Understanding changes in livelihoods, the diversity of livelihood portfolios, and the exclusion of some from new opportunities is equally complex. Policies and programmes necessarily rest on assumptions of how people live, what they need, and how they will respond to new incentives, regulations, or opportunities. Livelihoods analysis helps to improve our understanding of what is really happening in people‟s lives (Chambers, 1989).

An idea of the socio-economic implications of human trafficking on the society will give room for comparism of its positive effects as against the negative effects. This will serve as enlightenment for grassroots workers to create better awareness for ruraldwellers on the implications of human trafficking.

Trafficking in persons is a highly complex, sophisticated and organized crime; it is a multi-faceted, sensitive issue, with compelling social, cultural and political implications. The nation has been ripped off its budding young men and women leading to impoverished citizenry and dwindling national income with resultant falling standard of living as a result of trafficking in persons. Victims of human trafficking are also exposed to serious health risks such as HIV/AIDS and they return to the communities to continue their normal lives. This poses serious health implications on the society and future generation.

Moreover, human trafficking deprives the rural communities of young able-bodied youths who could be actively involved in agricultural and community development activities. The result of this research will also serve as a basis to proffer solution to household livelihood insecurity problems, which often lead people into illegal migration and human trafficking.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Human Trafficking:

All acts and attempted acts involved in the recruitment, transportation within or across Nigerian borders, purchase, sale, transfer, receipt or harbouring of a person involving the use of deception, coercion or debt bondage for the purpose of placing or holding the person whether for or not in voluntary servitude in force or bonded labour,or in slavery-like conditions.

Trafficked Victim:

These include all the women, children and men who are deceived, transported and delivered into the hands of those who exploit them for profit.


A household consists of all persons who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other group of people.

Rural Household:

People living in the less developed areas and derive their income mainly from farming or agricultural activities.

Household Wellbeing:

This is a state of feeling satisfied with one‟s condition when households are able to meet the basic needs of its members.


Is the way one think about or understand someone or something; the ability to understand or notice something easily the way that you notice or understand something using one‟s senses.

Pull Factors:

Are things that attract people to go and live in a particular place. Pull factors are responsible for dictating where migrants end up.

Push Factors:

These are negative aspects or conditions that motivate one to leave, especially in one’s country, region, organization, religion, etc. In migration, push factors are those that encourage a population to leave its home. A push factor is forceful, and a factor which relates to the country from which a person migrates. It is generally some problem which results in people wanting to migrate.

1.10 Scope of the study

Trafficking cannot be studied in isolation from the society, because men make up the society and the importance of freedom to man has remained unchallenged by any scientific research. Also, the importance of economic freedom that has almost assumed status in the society cannot be dismissed with a wave of hand. This research work will attempt investigating implication of human trafficking among youth in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state

1.11 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument. Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study was carried out to investigate implications of human trafficking among youths in Enugu State, Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study include; to identify the socio-economic characteristics of trafficked youths in the study area, describe the role of family members in the recruitment of persons being trafficked and assess the awareness of respondents on the purpose for which they were being trafficked. The study also ascertained the duration of exposure of victims to trafficking, examined the nature of job trafficked youths engage in at trafficking destination and determined the frequency of contact between victims and their households. Other objectives of the study are; to ascertain the socio-economic status of human trafficking victims, assess the contribution of human trafficking to the wellbeing of affected households and to assess the perception of victims about the changes in the socio-economic status of their households.

Findings revealed that Yoruba tribe ranked highest (52%) among the respondents. Some victims are from various parts of the country, while others are from outside the country particularly Togo. More than half of the respondents are below the age of twenty. More than half (55.2%) of the victims are female and majority (83%) of them are single. Educational status of respondents revealed that most of them have only primary education while others had adult literacy. Income levels of respondents show that 75.2% of them earn between ₦1,000 and ₦5,000 monthly. This is an indication of their low level of income and poverty status which make them vulnerable to trafficking
More than half of the respondents are from extended family background which is common in Nigeria. A high percentage of victims‟ parents are polygamous this is also a common feature of Nigeria/African families. Over forty percent of the respondents have about 6-10 siblings which shows that the respondents are from large families. This according to Sukhwinder, 2013 sometimes forces parents to sell their children to traffickers. Majority of the respondents (55.4%) were sent by their parents while a lot of them decided to go by themselves (29.2%).

Eighty-two percent (82%) of the respondents indicated that they were aware of the purpose of trafficking. Often, human trafficking can be a voluntary process in which people willingly pay smugglers to move them across international borders. People are trafficked for various purposes ranging from domestic servitude, forced labor, prostitution, plantation workers, organ harvesting and a host of others. More than half (54.8%) of the respondents indicated that they were engaged as domestic workers (house helps) while others were plantation workers (18.8%), some were also involved in prostitution (12.4%).

Respondents also indicated various degrees of harsh treatment experienced in their trafficking destination. These include beatings, overworked, rape, isolation, hunger, torture and confinement. Most respondents lack contact with their families throughout their stay in trafficking destination. Others however indicated occasional visits (once a year), phone calls and oral messages through friends and relatives. A high percentage (61.2%) of the respondents indicated that they are aware of their average monthly income while others do not know how much they are being paid. Findings also revealed that respondents‟ wages were not paid to them directly; they are either received by parents (29%), the mistress (39%) or the contractor (32%).

Remittances are often in form of cash while sometimes materials such as clothing, shoes and jewelry are sent to their parents. The highest average monthly remittance ranges between ₦4000 to ₦6000 though most respondents (53.6%) indicated that remittance is often done on yearly basis. These remittances are sent for various purposes such as to start a business, to build a house, to pay siblings school fees, to feed the family or saved for victim‟s education/future career. More than half (53.6%) of respondents indicated that their remittances were used to build houses, 24.0% said remittances were used for other household needs while only 18.0% indicated that remittances were used for schooling/educational purposes.

Major household items commonly acquired from victims‟ remittances include; radio (50.8%), wall clock (50.4%), handset (55.6%), motorcycle (32.4%), generator (25.0%), ceiling/table fan (32.4%), video/VCD (33.6%) and television (38.0%). Few of the respondents (10.4%) indicated that they have opportunity to go to school during the trafficking period. This is usually arranged with the mistress such that all or a percentage of the victim‟s wages will be used for schooling purpose. The experience of trafficking usually has negative impacts on the victims such as loneliness, low self-esteem and lack of educational and career opportunities.

Test of hypotheses show significant relationship between victims‟ selected socioeconomic characteristics and change in their household wellbeing. The highest predictors of change in household wellbeing were Income (β=0.293), Family size (β=-0.170) and Age (β=0.052).

Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis of relationship between length of time victims spent in trafficking destination and change in their household wellbeing shows a significant relationship (r= 0.127 p= 0.045). Also, nature of jobs respondents‟ engaged in during the trafficking period has significant relationship with change in household wellbeing (p = 0.000). There is also a significant relationship between respondents‟ frequency of contact with parents and change in household wellbeing (r = 0.520, p = 0.000). The result also shows a significant difference between Oyo, Ogun and Lagos states in perception of victims on change in the households‟ socio-economic status.

5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion, victims are mostly from poor educational and financial backgrounds who are forced or deceived to seek better life outside their families and communities. This is usually done with the hope of helping to improve the wellbeing of their households by sending all or a percentage of their income (wages) for their families‟ upkeep. Some households get these remittances and used them for their intended purposes while some masters/mistresses and contractors withheld victims‟ wages. More than half of the victims are female and majority of them are single. A high percentage of victims‟ parents are polygamous with large families of about 6-10 siblings. More than half of the respondents were engaged as domestic servants (house helps) where they experience various degrees of harsh treatments such as; beatings, overworked, rape, isolation, hunger, torture and confinement. Most respondents lack contact with their families throughout their stay in trafficking destination. Some victims have opportunity of schooling which help to improve their academic qualification. On the whole, it can be concluded that human trafficking has both positive and negative implications on the wellbeing of affected victims and their households.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this research, the following recommendations are therefore suggested:

  1. A social assistance/security system should be established to cater for vulnerable members of the society especially women.
  2. Creative ways of funding these social protection mechanisms such as social insurance, social assistance, and employment protection should be put in place to make it sustainable
  3. Consciousness-raising efforts aimed at stressing the illegality of human trafficking must be combined with efforts that promote economic stability and offer solutions for families mostly „at-risk‟ or vulnerable groups (women and girls in particular)
  4. Policies and incentives that will encourage monogamous and small family units should be put in place to discourage people from raising large families they cannot cater for.
  5. Emphasis should be placed on the implementation of “education for all” policy of the federal government and particularly the girl child education.
  6. There should also be increased efforts towards the arrest and prosecution of human traffickers in order to curb their activities in exploiting the young and active members of the community that should be contributing positively to nation building.

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge

  1. The research established the prevalence of human trafficking in the study area.
  2. It was also found that victims‟ remittances are mostly used for feeding by household members.
  3. Household items (radio, wall clock, handset, motorcycle, generator, ceiling/table fan, video/VCD and television) believed to improve the socioeconomic status of the households were also acquired.
  4. It was also found that contact between victims and their households was less frequent during the trafficking period.
  5. Victims are usually from rural households seeking better income opportunities than what is available in their communities
  6. Trafficking is seen by households as a means of economic diversification to assist the household in coping with risks and shocks of income and food insecurity.

5.5 Areas for Further Study

  1. Other researchers can explore implications of human trafficking on agricultural production.
  2. The same study could be replicated in other geopolitical regions (Northeastern, Southeastern and Northwestern) of Nigeria.

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