Impact Of Work Environment, Supervision And Job Satisfaction On Employees’ Productivity

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Impact Of Work Environment, Supervision And Job Satisfaction On Employees’ Productivity


Abstract


Job satisfaction is an attitude variable that reflects how people feel about their jobs overall as well as various aspects of them. There are basic important dimensions to job satisfaction. The objective of this study is to understand the ways in which individuals seek to satisfy their needs or drives, and the consequences of the satisfactions or dissatisfaction of such individuals needs in an organization. Questionnaire and a structured interview was used for data collection, the respondents were chosen randomly. Two hypotheses were formulated and analysed based on the data gathered from the questionnaire. The findings of this research shows that work environment plays a vital role in an organization and greatly affect work output of employees. In conclusion, recommendations and suggestions were made to know how the management can improve privacy, seat arrangement, office structure, work environment and supervisory style to make workers more satisfied with their jobs and perhaps increase their morale for better performance.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

It cannot be over-emphasized that human behaviour is influenced by his environment though which invariably reflects on work performance which have being observed that job satisfaction influence an individual behaviour including his environment through which productivity is achieved. Thus individual’s attitude must be checked concerning means of production as a major watch word which must be well managed, ascertaining and diagnosing their needs being pro-active in creating a favourable working conditions within and outside work place that will positively boost their morale to higher performance because the social life of an employee constitutes his or her working life. (Shabi.2002) and not limited to monetary factor alone.

Therefore, the link and clue to job satisfaction towards higher production is through effective and harmonious management of human behaviour in an organization. The fact that man is one of the major factor of production is a product of “nature and nurture” (Idowu.2002) i.e.

Work environment + SUPERVISION + Job satisfaction + = HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY.

Work environment implies what constitutes good working condition within and outside the workplace. Supervision implies continuous implementation and monitoring of management programme of needs.

Job satisfaction implies effective harmonizing of human behaviour.

The key to job satisfaction is in an individual attitude, for many of us, the idea of having a job that is truly satisfying i.e. the kind of environment in which work doesn’t feel like work anymore is pure fantasy. Professional athletes, ski patrollers and golf pros may have found a way of doing what they love and getting paid for it. However, job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his/her job. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation or aptitude. Although it is clearly linked. Job design aims at enhancing job satisfaction and performance by increasing productivity in a conducive environment.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

In the past, environmental conditions in the workplace. Illuminations, ventilation, humility, temperature, sitting arrangement, office structure and a host of other environmental variables have all been seen from the angle of the engineering,. Although the technical problem of achieving desired result is simple aside the psychological problem of what condition suits the employees.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

This study would like to look at the contribution of the physical work environment and supervisory style on job satisfaction. The physical work environment must be defined as the setting of the workplace. Also, the study would also look at how supervision and management create a healthy work environment.
The purpose of the study are in these folds:-

  1. To see the extent to which the physical work environment especially open-office structure that are now taking over from the conventional private office ,the amount of privacy offered by this kind of office structure, noise, amount of social interaction permitted by the structure and the contribution of these and other factors to job satisfaction.
  2. To examine supervisory style and its impact on employees job satisfaction and the extent to which freedom of action and job execution facilitates or influence employee’s job satisfaction.
  3. To analyse the combined effects of these two factors above on Job satisfaction and recommend ways of improving those factors so as to make employees more satisfied with their job with their job probably increasing their job performance.

1.4 Research Question

The following are the research questions that would be asked during research process.

  1. What are the effects of work place environment?
  2. How does the effect of bad environment affect the performance of workers?
  3. How does poor working environment affect the workers job satisfaction?
  4. What are those factors that enhance productivity?
  5. How does customs and laws reduces workers job satisfaction?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The research statement of the following hypotheses have been developed

  1. Hi: A conducive work environment has positive effect on employees productivity
    Ho: A conducive work environment has no positive effect on employee’s productivity.
  2. Hi: Provision of good environment is deemed to be the most potent among workers to enhance productivity.
    Ho: Provision of good environment does not deemed to be the most potent among workers to enhance productivity.
  3. Hi: Custom and laws encourages workers job satisfaction.
    Ho: Customers and laws does not encourages workers job satisfaction.
  4. Hi: The nature of work environment has positive effect on workers productivity
    Ho: The nature of work environment has no positive effect on workers productivity.

1.6 Significance of Study

Organizational behaviour could either bring about job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The motivation- hygiene theory offer explanations to what motivates and satisfies individual as well as what dissatisfies or does not motivate them Bankole (2003). Some variables are considered to be dependent on job satisfaction, which are:-

  1. Job satisfaction and job performance.
  2. Job satisfaction and staff turnover.
  3. Job satisfaction and absence.

The relationship between Job satisfaction and performance is the main aim of the organisation. The predictive nature of these studies gives a conclusion that dissatisfaction is a factor that leads to employee’s turnover. For an individual organization, the consequences of job satisfaction are extremely important by discovering the attitudes of workers on factors that are job related. An organization can benefit materially if it knows what factors contribute to satisfaction instead of wasting money on incentives that are not appreciated by workers. After finding out to what extent the physical work environment and supervisory style contributes to employees job satisfaction, this study proceeds to find means of increasing this contributions. Finally, this study could be useful to other student and managers who are interested in the study of job satisfaction.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study focuses on the managerial operation and marketing staff of ACCION MICROFINANCE BANK LIMITED LAGOS. This organization was chosen because of the peculiarity of its office structures. The offices in this organization are partitioned with plain glass, workers sits side by side with their supervisor or in offices where the supervisor can see them from his office. The respondents that were chosen have different jobs, functions and status ranging from minor to major ones. They also work in varied environment which includes private offices to non- private offices occupied by an average of three to five workers.


1.8 Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following terms would be defined as follows:-

Work Environment:

This can be defined or identified as the place where one work. It could be in an office building, at home from the kitchen, from the car, at a constitution site etc. But here, we are talking about “ healthy work environment”- which can point to other factors in the work environment such as co-workers, air quality, ergonomic seating management, child care, parking and noise.

Supervision:

This can simply be described as an act or process by which a superior officer in an organization directs the work of his subordinates by giving instructions on task to be performed in the work environment.

Job Satisfaction:

This refers to the contentment experienced by individual worker when desire is attained on the job. It involves the outcome already experienced as opposed to motivation which implies a drive towards an outcome .Bankole( 2003)

Private Office:

This is an office occupied by only one person and is partitioned by walls or any other non-transparent material.

Open Office:

This is an office occupied by one, two or more persons and has plain glass partitioned.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion of Findings

The aim of this research is to examine the effect of work environment in Accion Microfinance Bank Limited Lagos. To achieve this goal and related objective, research questions where asked as a guide and questionnaire was designed base on these research questions. Questionnaires were produced and administered, the return responses where collected and analysis, finding are as follows:

Investigation revealed that 50 of the total respondents in table one opined that their office look un-stimulating and dejected and they are very unhappy with the prevailing office condition because it affect their interest and attitudes to work thereby, proving the statement that depressing and stimulating nature of the office have a serious negative effect on the attitudes of the employees. It was observed in table (52) and table three (48) of total respondent are of the view that poor work environment affected them, in table three, the employees said absence of ventilation, noise and dirtiness demoralize them. Table four, 54 respondents said that poor nature of office reduce their interest and moral to work, while in table five, 36 employees confirm that poor office environment is responsible for absenteeism from work. Further findings revealed that 42 in table six revealed that poor work environment make them spend less time at work while in table seven, 48 of the total respondents are of the view that poor work condition have negative impact on output.

Finally, table eight shows that 56 are of the view that poor office lead to inefficiency, and table nine shows that 48 employees said that poor environment leads to low productivity and output when improved it will increase wile from table ten, 54 indicated that good environment gives them joy at work.


5.2 Conclusion

From the above table, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. If good office environment is provided for employees, it will go a long way to enhance their morale and performance.
  2. If office is neat, noiseless, properly arranged well lighted and ventilated, employees will feel a sense of belonging and this will make them to work efficiently and effectively.
  3. Good physical working environment inspires workers to spend more tine in their various offices, employees responded emotionally better towards the provision of good office environment by not absenting themselves un necessarily from work, lateness to work and other negative attitude will be drastically reduced.
  4. Good working environment increase individual output therefore leading top growth of the organization.
  5. For any organization to progress, the employees should be provided with good office environment which will motivate them to greater action so as to attain the set objective of the organization.

5.3 Recommendation

Following the findings, conclusion and having stated the problem of the study earlier in chapter one, the following recommendation are deemed necessary which would hopefully help in the problems.

  1. The organization should map out programme for provision of good work environment to increase productivity and of promoting occupational safety and health of workers.
  2. The management should ensure that there is adequate and proper improvement of working environment of employee’s so as to enhance their morale to work efficiently.
  3. The organization should ensure that the office of its workers is always clean, tiding up and properly arranged for easy movement and comfortable to the workers.
  4. It is good for the management to recognize the importance of ensuring the safety of its workers by abiding by the provision of fire precautions and other safety measures; it is contained in the 1974 act of safety at work.
  5. There should be a review of the legal provision of physical condition in the office by the Federal Government of Nigerian to suit the culture and nature of the workers.
  6. There should be enough floor space to avoid overcrowding and clustering of materials.
  7. The management should find ways of eliminating distraction by noise to employees.
  8. The manager should ensure that a good ventilation is provided (i.e air conditioner) to allow free movement of natural air in and outside the office.
  9. Organization should study from time to time, the need for provision of good work environment and make recommendation which must be implemented.

Further research should be conducted on this research work to see that more justice is done to topic, because many factors aided as constraints to the research which in one way or the other acted as a loop-hole to the research such as financial problem, which hindered the researcher from going to internet and national libraries to source out more information about the research work.

Therefore, I suggest that the research work should be extended to the national level for more deliberation to see that a law should be made, so that employees of labour are compelled to avoid such factors that causes poor work environment.


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