Impact Of WhatsApp As A Social Media Tool For Teaching And Learning Physics In Secondary School

Physics Education Project Material

Impact Of WhatsApp As A Social Media Tool For Teaching And Learning Physics In Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of Whatsapp as a social media tool for teaching and learning physics using selected senior secondary schools in Niger State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools, determine the extent Whatsapp as a social media tool is used for teaching and learning physics in secondary school, find out whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching physics increases students participation in the learning of physics in secondary school, and determine whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of physics students and teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools is low. The result of the findings reveals that he use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that students should see Whatsapp as an avenue to connect with fellow students, locally and internationally, to facilitate learning beyond classroom walls. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The advent of the internet in the 1990s led to major developments in the world of communication. Today the Internet has taken a firm place in people’s lives. It is difficult to imagine a young man who at least once a day did not check for updates in social networks and did not leaf through the news lines. The modern reality requires us to stay in touch and keep abreast of the recent happenings around the globe.

There is no doubt the emergence of the internet has immensely contributed to the introduction of social networking sites (SNSS). The coming into being of these sites revolutionized the world of communication and today we celebrate its improvement ranging from education to entertainment. Recent study have shown The evolution of the internet has led to its usage as the best of communication whereby two-third (2/3) of the internet world‘s population visit social networking sites (SNSs) thus serving as communication and connection tools. These networking sites are referred to as social media (Boyd and Ellison, 2007).

Social networking has become a common international trend which has spread its reach to almost every corner of the world. The use of Social media sites has exploded and evolved into an online platform where people create content, share it, bookmark it and network a prodigious rate. Among the prominent users of the social media are the students. There is no doubt Social networks has become an integral part of a students’ full life, and has taken most of their free time. There have been various views and opinions which recognize four major advantages of social media use in higher education. These include; enhancing relationship, improving learning motivation, offering personalized course material, and developing collaborative abilities (Wheeler, Yeomans and Wheeler,2008; Rifkin, Longnecker, Leach and Ortia,2009). Also, Liccardi et al (2007), argued that students are socially connected with one another and therefore share their daily learning experiences and do conversation on various topics through social media whereas Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010), reviewed that social network websites grab students’ attention and then diverts it towards non-educational and inappropriate actions including useless chatting.

Physics is one of the scientific disciplines required for technological advancement (Adegoke,2022; Babajide 2022). As a growing nation, Nigeria requires a great deal of technology expertise to support her businesses. According to Onwuagba (2022), no nation can advance technologically without a solid foundation in Physics. In addition, the IUPAP(2022) declaration emphasized that physics is an essential science topic that is an exciting intellectual journey that motivates young people and increases the frontier of natural knowledge.

Physics supplies the underlying understanding necessary for future technological advancements that will continue to fuel the global economy. It contributes to the technical infrastructure and offers the skilled professionals necessary to capitalize on scientific discoveries and advancements. Physics is essential to the education of chemists, engineers, and computer scientists, as well as other physical and medicinal professionals (Oludipe,2022). Physics broadens and deepens our understanding of other disciplines, such as the earth, agricultural, chemical, biological, and environmental sciences, as well as Astrophysics and cosmology, which are of vital relevance to all peoples throughout the globe. Physics enhances the quality of life of humans by supplying the fundamental knowledge required to produce new medical instruments and methods, such as computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasonic imaging, and laser surgery.

Indeed, understanding of Physics has led to several innovations, including the discovery and manufacture of hydroelectric power, gas turbines, and thermonuclear power plants, as well as telephones, freezers, heaters, and stoves (Babajide, 2022). In addition to the building of modern vehicles, rockets, nuclear weapons, missiles, diodes, computers, and other electronic systems, understanding of physics provides further benefits (Okoronka, 2022).

The national policy on education in Nigeria from 1981 emphasized science education, which includes physics instruction. One of the major goals of the National Policy on Education (FME, 2022) is to prepare students to live effectively in the current scientific and technological era. A child’s attitude toward any topic will significantly influence his or her choice and accomplishment in that subject, as well as his or her career decision (Wong & Young 2022).

As we know, nothing interesting is ever completely one-sided, so it is for social media as it comes with both positive and negative effects. There is a correlation between social media usage and academic performance of students in schools. This Research will prove the heavy presence of social media usage among students. Wiley and Sisson (2006), for instance argue that previous studies have found that more than 90% percent of tertiary school students use social networks. It is also found out that, students use social networking sites (SNSs) approximately thirty (30) minutes throughout the day as part of their daily routine life (Nicole, Charles, and Cliff, 2007).This shows the level at which students are patronizing these sites and this may bring along both positive and negative effects on students as far as their academic performance is concern.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

This advancement in technology due to web 2.0 has seen many teachers and lecturers forming Whatsapp groups with their learners creating a virtual classroom community online. The Whatsapp groups they have formed are not effective to col- laborate but are mostly used to give advance organizer infor- mation to the learners, sending notes so that they can copy while they are home for the teacher to come and explain when they get back to class. When you go through most of the group chart, there is no learning that takes place, learners fail to col- laborate with their peers and the teachers’ job is to send notes and tell learners to copy and study. One of the reasons why they fail to collaborate online either synchronous or asynchro- nous is that many teachers and pupils including lecturers and students are still not trained adequately to make maximum use of ICT and e-learning activities. Capacity building work- shops in ICT is urgently necessary (Banda. S et al 2009). This is needed because in this era e-learning has become part of mainstream teaching in most schools globally (Yoon SW. 2003, Boerema C., Stanley M. & Westhorp P. 2007). Thus, this re- quires new skills of teaching. Many are the ways in which e- learning can be applied on an individual basis to collaborate with an interactive element (Hols W., Bloemendaal P., Bos N., Quaak M., Sijstermans R. & Jong de P. 2008).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of Whatsapp as a social media tool for teaching and learning physics in secondary school. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools.
  2. To determine the extent Whatsapp as a social media tool is used for teaching and learning physics in secondary school.
  3. To find out whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching physics increases students participation in the learning of physics in secondary school.
  4. To determine whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent is Whatsapp used for teaching and learning in secondary schools?
  2. To what extent is Whatsapp as a social media tool used for teaching and learning physics in secondary school?
  3. Does the use of Whatsapp for teaching physics increase students participation in the learning of physics in secondary school?
  4. Does the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • Ho: The use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics does not improve students academic performance in secondary school.
  • Ha: The use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is significant to the teachers, parents, students and researchers. This study will help the teachers of senior secondary schools to know the influence that social media has on their students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the possible influence it has on them. This study will further be of significance to parents in the sense that they will know the possible effects these social media usage has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dogs to their children on the usage of the social networking site.

At the end of the study, this research work will be relevant in assisting students to understand the diversity of social media and ethical way of getting the best from social media and will also provide relevant materials for students and other researchers undertaking similar research.

Finally, this study will go further in helping researchers with more information on the effects of social media on student’s academic performance.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the impact of Whatsapp as a social media tool for teaching and learning physics in secondary school. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools, determining the extent Whatsapp as a social media tool is used for teaching and learning physics in secondary school, determining whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school and finding out the challenges of using Whatsapp for teaching and learning of physics in secondary school.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Media:

Media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. They are messages communicated through a mass medium to a number of people. According to “Wikipedia” Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting, and advertising.

Social Media:

Social media are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive social networking base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology. Kaplan & Haenlein (2015), defined social media as a group of internet-based applications that builds on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. The Oxford dictionary (2018), also defined social media as “websites and applications used for social networking”. Another definition of social media is that it is a ‘communication channel which is very popular, extremely fast and broad, has proven to be highly effective, as well as trusted by billions of people , to share and discover content concerning individuals, brands, information, entertainment and know how’’ (Dearborn, 2014). One theme that all these definitions underpin is that social media involves some form of communication between individuals over the internet.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of Whatsapp as a social media tool for teaching and learning physics using selected senior secondary schools in Niger State as a case study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of Whatsapp as a social media tool for teaching and learning physics using selected senior secondary schools in Niger State as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to determine the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools, determine the extent Whatsapp as a social media tool is used for teaching and learning physics in secondary school, find out whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching physics increases students participation in the learning of physics in secondary school, and determine whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are physics students and teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Niger State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent Whatsappis used for teaching and learning in secondary schools is low.
  2. The extent Whatsapp as a social media tool used for teaching and learning physics in secondary school is low.
  3. The use of Whatsapp for teaching physics increase students participation in the learning of physics in secondary school.
  4. The use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning physics improves students academic performance in secondary school.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Students should see Whatsapp as an avenue to connect with fellow students, locally and internationally, to facilitate learning beyond classroom walls.
  2. Schools should promote academic research on other suitable social media platforms for academic practice such as submission of assignments, review sessions, tutorials and collaborative learning.
  3. Schools should incorporate suitable social media platforms in academic activities to provide both teachers and students with other teaching and learning opportunities.

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