The Impact Of WhatsApp On The Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Students

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The Impact Of WhatsApp On The Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of Whatsapp on the academic achievement of secondary school students using some selected secondary schools in Etche L.G.A, Rivers State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools, find out whether the use of Whatsapp increases students participation in secondary school, ascertain whether the use of Whatsapp for educational purposes promotes secondary school students study habit, and determine whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic performance in secondary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students and teachers some selected secondary schools in Etche L.G.A, Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools is low. The result of the findings reveals that the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic achievement in secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that both governments, communities, school administrators should ensure to help reduce the challenges faced by the students in the implementation of Whatsapp by funding of the facilities necessary in the use of Whatsapp in the school environment. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The advent of the internet in the 1990s led to major developments in the world of communication. Today the Internet has taken a firm place in people’s lives. It is difficult to imagine a young man who at least once a day did not check for updates in social networks and did not leaf through the news lines. The modern reality requires us to stay in touch and keep abreast of the recent happenings around the globe.

There is no doubt the emergence of the internet has immensely contributed to the introduction of social networking sites (SNSS). The coming into being of these sites revolutionized the world of communication and today we celebrate its improvement ranging from education to entertainment. Recent study have shown The evolution of the internet has led to its usage as the best of communication whereby two-third (2/3) of the internet world‘s population visit social networking sites (SNSs) thus serving as communication and connection tools. These networking sites are referred to as social media (Boyd and Ellison, 2007).

Social networking has become a common international trend which has spread its reach to almost every corner of the world. The use of Social media sites has exploded and evolved into an online platform where people create content, share it, bookmark it and network a prodigious rate. Among the prominent users of the social media are the students. There is no doubt Social networks has become an integral part of a students’ full life, and has taken most of their free time. There have been various views and opinions which recognize four major advantages of social media use in higher education. These include; enhancing relationship, improving learning motivation, offering personalized course material, and developing collaborative abilities (Wheeler, Yeomans and Wheeler,2008; Rifkin, Longnecker, Leach and Ortia,2009). Also, Liccardi et al (2007), argued that students are socially connected with one another and therefore share their daily learning experiences and do conversation on various topics through social media whereas Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010), reviewed that social network websites grab students’ attention and then diverts it towards non-educational and inappropriate actions including useless chatting. unethical and inappropriate actions such as useless chatting, pornography, time wasting by random searching and not doing the rightful which is reading. Also whatsapp has introduced many attractive tasks like, online addiction, advertisements etc. so that people can never get enough of these things. The social network addiction becomes a useless node for parents, friends and other associated people. Most students nowadays misses class due to arrangement they made with their friends online which could lead to missing of test if the lecturer decide to do one, and also they don’t meet the required percentage of attendance before exams which could lead to them not writing exams. After all these students cannot miraculously have good grades and this seems to be an issue which has affected the performance of students’ academic performance.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Whatsapp can be regarded as one of the means which has made knowledge to be easily accessed. It has increased the rate of learning process, and makes teaching and learning effective and efficient. Online social networks have become increasingly popular in recent years providing a different and user friendly way to maintain social connections and share information. Olateju, (2009) asserts that information and communication technology in bringing changes to teaching and learning and research has prompted various educational systems around the world to embrace it. The proliferation of e-learning systems in learning institutions has contributed a lot to the acquisition and application of new skills (Awodele, Idowu, Anjorin, Adedire & Akpore 2009).

Whatsapp also provides learners with value resources for using the web as a tool in order to develop their understanding and solve problems, whether in school, at work, or in their private lives. The objectives of education as opined by Njoku (2006) are: to empower individuals with desirable skills, knowledge and value to perform specific functions so as to become self-reliant, to help individuals appreciate the world around them and contribute maximally to the social and economic development of the nation. This can be achieved with the help of Whatsapp in acquiring such skills and knowledge through the help of skills related videos. Students use whatsapp day in and day out to interact with their peers, project supervisor and even teachers about class-related subjects. Not only do they know how to interact with others on the internet, they know how to use basic and even complex functions in order to do so (Joseph Baker 2013). Their ability to access, analyze, retain and share information is skyrocketing and they often don’t even realize they’re developing their skills, the advent and dominance of social media has created a new breed of marketing, which has required professionals to build and further their fields.

Today students’ shows very much interest for using social networks but unfortunately whatsapp affect education badly. Technology is a step towards betterment, no doubt, but any technology which can provide ease to social networks can be dangerous for social network addicts. Providing facility of social networks is a straight invitation for addiction to any student, as academic satisfaction is not enough for those students who suffers from social isolation.

The problem of the study is that students have not been able to integrate Whatsapp into their academic learning process in a positive way, these seems to be used for only their social life’s which has caused addiction problems for students as they chat while lectures is actually going on and this would affect their performance academically.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of Whatsapp on the academic achievement of secondary school students. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools.
  2. Find out whether the use of Whatsapp increases students participation in secondary school.
  3. Ascertain whether the use of Whatsapp for educational purposes promotes secondary school students study habit.
  4. Determine whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic performance in secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools?
  2. Does the use of Whatsapp increases students participation in secondary school?
  3. Does the use of Whatsapp for educational purposes promotes secondary school students study habit?
  4. Does the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic achievement in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning does not improve students academic achievement in secondary school.
  • Ha: The use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic achievement in secondary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to all educational stakeholders, particularly teachers, researchers, students, curriculum planner, government, and the public. It will create in planners, the awareness of such problems that may be encountered in implementing projects on social networking.

The findings of this study will be of benefit to the teachers as it will enlighten them on the need for social media as it will make study carried out by them easy to find out and help update their knowledge that would be passed down to the future generation.

The findings of this study will also be useful to the government and its agencies, as the government would want easy access to social networks by students and these could lead to government subsidizing the cost and also making sure internets connection must be required before schools can be established.

It will be useful to curriculum planner as it will enable them to carry out a thorough assessment on the implementation, effectiveness and impact of Whatsapp social network in teaching and learning.

The students will benefit because they will understand the concepts, usage of Whatsapp and its relevance in proffering solution to daily problems in academic and application of the knowledge gain in their individual tasks in future.

The study will also be useful to researcher as a source of literature or related literature that adds to the available material for present and future research study.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the impact of Whatsapp on the academic achievement of secondary school students. However, the study will delimited to Etche L.G.A, Rivers State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Media:

Media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. They are messages communicated through a mass medium to a number of people. According to “Wikipedia” Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting, and advertising.

Social Media:

Social media are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive social networking base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of Whatsapp on the academic achievement of secondary school students using some selected secondary schools in Etche L.G.A, Rivers State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of Whatsapp on the academic achievement of secondary school students using some selected secondary schools in Etche L.G.A, Rivers State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools, find out whether the use of Whatsapp increases students participation in secondary school, ascertain whether the use of Whatsapp for educational purposes promotes secondary school students study habit, and determine whether the use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic performance in secondary school.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students and teachers some selected secondary schools in Etche L.G.A, Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent Whatsapp is used for teaching and learning in secondary schools is low.
  2. The use of Whatsapp increases students participation in secondary school.
  3. The use of Whatsapp for educational purposes promotes secondary school students study habit.
  4. The use of Whatsapp for teaching and learning improves students academic achievement in secondary school.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Students, especially those willing to record huge academic success should not rely only on class note but guide themselves by using online academic materials relevant to their course together with their class note to read as this will improve learning.
  2. Both governments, communities, school administrators should ensure to help reduce the challenges faced by the students in the implementation of Whatsapp by funding of the facilities necessary in the use of Whatsapp in the school environment.
  3. Students with phones having internet facility should be encouraged to either use it to supplement their research in the library rather than the usual chatting with friends all the time.
  4. Higher institutions should work together with other well known individuals in other to make internet connection free for students and if payment is to be made, it should be at a minimum cost which all students can afford.

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