The Impact Of University Tuition Fee Increase On Academic Performance Of Tertiary Students (A Case Study Of Kaduna State University)

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The Impact Of University Tuition Fee Increase On Academic Performance Of Tertiary Students (A Case Study Of Kaduna State University)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of university tuition fee increase on academic performance of tertiary students using Kaduna State university as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extent inadequate government funding contributed to the increase of tuition fee in Kaduna State university, determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced school dropout tendency among Kaduna State university undergraduate students, determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic performance of undergraduates in Kaduna State university, and determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic attainment of undergraduates in Kaduna State university. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of undergraduate students of Kaduna State university. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi- square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of inadequate government funding contributed to the increase of tuition fee in Kaduna State university is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic performance of undergraduates in Kaduna State university. Therefore, it is recommended that all governmental organisations and NGOs should endeavor to assist and support the government financially in order to effectively and efficiently finance the higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. If this is effectively and thoroughly done by these organisations, government will be relieved of some of her financial burdens faced in order to ensure that all her citizens have equal opportunity to education in Nigeria. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Universities all around the world are still dealing with significant problems that have disastrous consequences for educational practice. The vice-chancellors of Australia’s Top Eight Universities voted for increased tuition and student shrinking, according to the Guardian (2012). According to the Telegraph (2013), universities in the United Kingdom As a result of the price increase in 2013, the number of applications dropped by 18,000 people. They think that higher tuition will push students away from prestigious colleges and toward less prestigious institutions. According to the Independent Commission on Fees (2013), there has been a “marked decrease” in the number of English students seeking for admission. The issue is especially prevalent in poorer nations, particularly Africa. National universities in Nigeria have struggled with problems such as admission, housing, teaching programs, student unionism, financing, and other issues since their establishment. Many African leaders invested a significant amount of their budgets on education. Scholarships and grants were given to deserving organizations. Many of them had ties to developed countries in the hopes of developing a well-educated and trained workforce to help run their countries’ affairs. This was short-lived, as military rule came into effect soon after independence, bringing with it “sweeping reforms” that have had a negative impact on scholarly productivity. The government eliminated all university student subsidies and required full payment of fees. The “Ali must go” saga, which rocked Nigerian universities in 1978, was at the time. Students went to the streets to protest. Students and even citizens were shot and killed by the military regime. As a result, a new era started, in which contractors took over the cooking and serving of meals for excessive fees. The result was disastrous. Students were forced to pay for all of the food they purchased, as well as increased tuition and housing costs. Globalisation pressures started to emerge in the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) during this period, dragging Nigeria into debt. Nigeria’s local or domestic indebtedness has grown to N6 trillion to date, according to Chima (2014), whereas the latest repayments on foreign debt, a long term + IMF in Nigeria were $274,025,000 as of 2011, according to World Bank International Debt Statistics. Inequalities were created as a result of globalization, and educational policies were reframed, particularly at the higher education level. It was claimed that since a postgraduate degree is for personal development, it should be paid for down to the last penny. The cost of attending school has risen dramatically. Hostel rooms, which cost N2, 090 in the 1990s, now cost N20, 000. Inadequate financing has been a major problem in the educational system since then. Due to a lack of financing, deterioration and dilapidation of the limited remaining facilities and infrastructure have set in. The classrooms are subpar and woefully insufficient. Traditional teaching and learning methods remain, but 21st-century learning methods are glaringly absent. The lack of equipment, particularly for information communication technology (ICT), has rendered 21st-century teaching and learning methods unfeasible. Attempts by universities to create money internally to cover some of the shortfalls have resulted in certain difficulties that have had a detrimental effect on students and their programs.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

At the turn of the century, rising fees were a major impediment to access to high-quality education in Nigeria. According to Okeke (2008), access to education in its broadest meaning implies having open and unrestricted chances to acquire information and skills abilities at each level of education. Strike activities, which have become a regular element in the Nigerian educational system, have caused disruptions in teaching and learning as well as changes in the academic calendar. Strikes and student protests have caused significant difficulties for the system and its parties. Money has been a significant factor in most strikes and student protests. Shua’ara (2010) identified the following financing sources for public higher education institutions (HEIS): (a) allocation from government regular intervention-Education Trust Fund (ETF), NDDC, PTDF, IDAS; (b) internally produced income (fees, other miscellaneous charges); and (c) gifts, endowments. Nigeria is nowhere near the UNESCO standard of 26%, according to the report. Universities are urged to raise money from inside their own institutions to supplement government subsidies. The most frequent solution has been to raise fees. In the 1990s, PhD students paid less than N20,000; now, they spend N189,000 plus additional fees. The nation has pushed universities to raise fees in order to service external debt and internal burdens (outcomes of globalisation), which has a negative impact and serious implications for education, particularly in the twenty-first century. Since the 1990s, fees have steadily increased, affecting many students who have been unable to continue in their programs or who are hesitant to pursue postgraduate (PG) degrees due to high school fees. As a result, some students have turned to off-campus housing, where they have been raped, assaulted, and killed. This study looked at the Fees Increase at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, where many students are working and sponsoring themselves while attempting to cope with the rising fees. Others simply decide to enroll in PG after years of unemployment or underemployment. Increased fees are anathema to such people. Strikes by others extend the length of their program, resulting in higher fees. Due to rising fees, some students had to drop out of the program. These are uncomfortable circumstances that make it difficult for students to focus on their studies. The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of increased fees on undergraduate and postgraduate students’ programs, as well as the implications for Nigerian education in the twenty-first century. The study investigated the issues surrounding fee increases, the extent to which fee increases have impacted students’ academics and smooth program continuation, and the implications for 21st century education.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to investigate the impact of university tuition fee increase on academic performance of tertiary students using Kaduna State university as a case study. The specific objectives include:

  1. Determine the extent inadequate government funding contributed to the increase of tuition fee in Kaduna State university.
  2. Determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced school dropout tendency among Kaduna State university undergraduate students.
  3. Determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic performance of undergraduates in Kaduna State university.
  4. Determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic attainment of undergraduates in Kaduna State university.

1.4 Research Question

This research is an attempt to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the extent inadequate government funding contributed to the increase of tuition fee in Kaduna State university?
  2. Does an increase in tuition fee influenced school dropout tendency among Kaduna State university undergraduate students?
  3. Does an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic performance of undergraduates in Kaduna State university?
  4. Does an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic attainment of undergraduates in Kaduna State university?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: University tuition fee increase has no significant impact on academic performance of tertiary students in Kaduna State university.
  • Ha: University tuition fee increase has a significant impact on academic performance of tertiary students in Kaduna State university.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the general public ranging from student, educational stakeholders, policy makers and school management boards. To policy makers it will draw their attention on the need to draw strategies of making education affordable for common man rather than a burden. To the government reinforce the need to subsidized education in tandem with National policy on Education (geared toward free and compulsory education for all) which is a great tool for national development. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, education board and academia.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to examine the impact of university tuition fee increase on academic performance of tertiary students using Kaduna State university as a case study. However the respondents for this study will be obtained from undergraduate students of Kaduna State university.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Tuition Fee:

Tuition Fees are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services. Tuition fees are the money that you pay to be taught, especially in a college or university.

Tertiary Institution:

Tertiary institution means a university or other tertiary education provider recognized by the Employer which offers Degrees, Diplomas or teacher education courses.

Academic Performance:

The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of university tuition fee increase on academic performance of tertiary students using Kaduna State university as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of university tuition fee increase on academic performance of tertiary students using Kaduna State university as a case study. Specifically the study was set to determine the extent inadequate government funding contributed to the increase of tuition fee in Kaduna State university, determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced school dropout tendency among Kaduna State university undergraduate students, determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic performance of undergraduates in Kaduna State university, and determine whether an increase in tuition fee influenced the academic attainment of undergraduates in Kaduna State university.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are undergraduate students of Kaduna State university.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion

  1. The extent of inadequate government funding contributed to the increase of tuition fee in Kaduna State university is high.
  2. An increase in tuition fee influenced school dropout tendency among Kaduna State university undergraduate students.
  3. An increase in tuition fee influenced the academic performance of undergraduates in Kaduna State university.
  4. An increase in tuition fee influenced the academic attainment of undergraduates in Kaduna State university.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. All governmental organisations and NGOs should endeavor to assist and support the government financially in order to effectively and efficiently finance the higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. If this is effectively and thoroughly done by these organisations, government will be relieved of some of her financial burdens faced in order to ensure that all her citizens have equal opportunity to education in Nigeria.
  2. All registered and vibrant business organisations who are capable and financially buoyant should visit some of these tertiary institutions to inform them about their intention to sponsor some of them if not all. This will be a task undertaken by various organisations in an attempt to support the government in financing the students in the tertiary institutions.
  3. The government in her potential and prospective power can negotiate within her capacity and partner with some other international organisations to invest in her education sectors as this would also generate employment opportunities for students from both countries after their graduation.

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