The Impact Of Unemployment On Youth Development And Nation Building In Some Selected LGA In Osogbo Osun State
This study was carried out to examine the impact of unemployment on youth development and nation building in some selected LGA in Osogbo Osun State. The study was carried out to find out the extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State, identify the causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State, find out the impact of youth unemployment on youth development, ascertain the implications of youth unemployment on nation building and assess the factors affective youth employment, development, and nation building. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths residents in two selected local governments in Osogbo of Osun State.In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State includes: rapid population growth, inappropriate school curriculum, poor creation of employment opportunities and corruption. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should embark on rural development such as rural industrialization and electrification to curtail rural-urban drift. In engendering rural development, rural roads should be built, infrastructures provided to ensure that the rural areas are attractive to live in. this will enable the possibility of youths staying in the rural areas and getting productively engaged. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- TITLE PAGE
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Review of Concepts
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Review of Empirical studies
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sample size determination
- 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.7 Method of data collection
- 3.8 Method of data analysis
- 3.9 Validity of the study
- 3.10 Reliability of the study
- 3.11 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Testing Hypothesis
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The Nigerian economy since the attainment of political independence in 1960 has undergone fundamental structural changes resulting to structural shifts which have however not resulted in any significant sustainable economic growth and development to ensure adequate employment opportunity for her youths. According acknowledged Akpabio, (2005:332) and Gobeli, (1995:122). Over time, the roles of the youth in national development have been. As they continue to play pervasive roles in nation building, the youth by definition have been regarded as that segment of the population from 18-35 years (National Policy of Youth Development, 1999) who are characteristically active, vibrant, daring and with useful energies. The development of the Nigerian nation from pre-colonial to independent and post-independent era has been attributed to vital contribution of the youth. Despite their positive roles in national development, they constitute the most critical and volatile segment of the society. The worsening economic situation in Nigeria from the austere periods to the SAP and Post-SAP era has threatened the collective psyche of the youth. General unemployment, lack of consistent policy framework for youth development, general economic hardship among others have thrown the youth into joblessness, agents of social vices and general idleness. As their conditions worsen, they have been used as agents of political thuggery and general misadventure. Moreover, they have become the major agents in social conflicts with diverse and devastating consequences in the nation. As their negative and pervasive roles continue to impact on the economy, several strategies of youth empowerment have been evolved over time. The strategies have, however, yielded little or no results as their activities have consistently imposed serious threats to social security, truncated economic activities and severe drainage of national income.
Youth unemployment is becoming an increasingly troublesome issue in many parts of the world. In Nigeria, it has become one of the most serious socio-economic problems confronting the country. The magnitude of this can be appreciated if accurate statistics could be obtained from the Federal Bureau of Statistics on the number of unemployed youths roaming the streets of Nigerian cities. However, Awogbenle and Iwuamadi (20101:33) observed from the excerpts of statistics obtained from the National Manpower Board and Federal Bureau of Statistics showed that Nigeria has a youth population of eighty (80) million representing 60 percent of the total population of the country. Sixty four (64) million of them are unemployed while one million six hundred thousand (1.6 million) are underemployed. Unemployment has become a major problem bedeviling the lives of Nigerian youth causing frustration, dejection and dependency on family members and friends, who also have their own problems to contend with. The high rate of unemployment among the youths in Nigeria has contributed to the high rate of poverty and insecurity in the country. Unemployment is worldwide economic problem, causing poverty and lack among the young once. In recent times, there have been notable adverse social, economic and political developments in Nigeria, a consequence of youth unemployment and underemployment, particularly exemplified by increasing militancy, violent crimes, kidnapping, restiveness and political instability. The Nigerian situation is further compounded by the recent global financial crisis that has crippled businesses and the prospect of securing jobs for young people (Fanimo and Olayinka, (2009:66). According to Adejumola and Tayo-Olajubulu (2000:163) contended that unemployment has been identified as one of the major causes of social vices, including armed robbery, destitution, prostitution, political thuggery, kidnapping and many more. Musari (2007:299) corroborated this statement by saying that about 4.5 million enter the labour market every year without any hope of getting employment for life sustenance. The precarious situation has left the youths in a vicious cycle of poverty that daily erodes their self-confidence and bright future.
For most developing countries like Nigeria, Governments and policy makers are increasingly finding it difficult to grapple successfully with youth unemployment. This high rate of unemployment can be blamed on the lack of adequate provision for job creation in the development plans, the ever expanding educational growth and the desperate desire on the part of youths to acquire University education irrespective of course and course contents. As a result, a number of skills acquired from the University appear dysfunctional and irrelevant (Okafor, 2011). In Nigeria, the federal government in 2008 acknowledged that about 80 percent of Nigeria’s youth are unemployed and 10 percent underemployed (Daily Trust, 2008). In 2011, the Minister of Youth Development, Bolaji Abdullahi reported that 42.2 per cent of Nigeria’s youth population is out of job. DepoOyedokun, the Chair of the House Committee on Youth and Social Development revealed that of the over 40 million unemployed youths in the country, 23 million are unemployable and therefore susceptible to crime, hence the need to articulate what could be done to salvage the situation. The pace is increasing because most graduates lack relevant marketable skills. More than half of the Nigerian populations are under the age of 30 (National Population Commission, 2001). Therefore it can be asserted that the economy of Nigeria is a youth economy (Oviawe, 2010). Expectedly, today’s youth will become in a short decade tomorrow’s parents, leaders, labour force and armies. However, the Nigerian youths are said to be confronted with poverty, unemployment, urbanization, lack of capacity and skills needed to move the economy forward. This is because the youth faces unemployment and lack of necessary productive skills to keep body and soul together. A national survey jointly sponsored by NUC and the Education Trust Fund (ETF) in 2004 sought to determine the labour market needs. The study revealed that 44 percent of the 20 organizations rated Nigerian science graduates as average in competence, 56 percent rated them as average in innovation, 50 percent rated them average in rational judgment, 63 percent as average in leadership skills and 44 percent as average in creativity. On needed skills like literacy, oral communication, information technology, entrepreneurship, analytical, problem-solving and decision making, 60 percent rated them as poor. By any standard, the above statistics reflect a poor assessment of Nigerian university graduates and further buttress the argument that Nigerian university graduates are unemployable (Okafor, 2011). Resultantly, the lack of employment potential makes crime a more attractive option for some Nigerian university graduates. This is because in Nigeria it is common to find some graduates still roaming the streets, five years after graduating in search of jobs that are not thereby lending force to crimes such as armed robbery, car snatching, pipeline vandalization, oil bunkering, and prostitution among the youths. This critical skill gaps inhibits the development of youths and the entire development of the nation, as more than half of the Nigerian populations are under the age of 30. This is dependent on the fact that Nigeria’s population is predominantly youth Oviawe, J.O. (2010).
1.2 Statement of Problem
This study has tried to establish that youth unemployment is a growing challenge of all in selected local government in Ebonyi state as well as the Nation as a whole. Policies to tackle youth unemployment have tended to focus on how youth are different from other workers. They are less skilled, less experienced and have very limited business contacts. Thus skills training and vocational education constitute the majority of interventions to date. However, many of these training programs have had disappointing outcomes. Youth unemployment in Ebonyi State is a multi-dimensional problem that needs to be addressed on macro basis. Youth unemployment in Ebonyi State is more of a demand side problem. There are not enough jobs to go round. Increase in the demand for labour will move the economy along the demand curve, thereby increasing wages and employment. The demand for labour in an economy is derived from the demand for goods and services. If the demand for goods and services in the economy increases, the demand for labour will increase. This may be described as classical unemployment. Youth unemployment can be reduced if the following interventions and recommendations are creatively implemented in the selected local government areas.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main study objective is to evaluate the impact of unemployment on youth development and nation building in some selected in Local government of Osogbo Osun State; while the specific objectives of the study include;
- Find out the extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State.
- Identify the causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State.
- Find out the impact of youth unemployment on youth development.
- Ascertain the implications of youth unemployment on nation building.
- Assess the factors affective youth employment, development, and nation building.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- What is the extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State?
- What are the causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State?
- Rapid Population Growth
- Inappropriate School Curriculum
- Poor creation of employment opportunities
- What is the impact of youth unemployment on youth development?
- What are the implications of youth unemployment on nation building?
- Poor human capital development
- Poor economic development
- Increase in crime
- Political development
- What are the factors affective youth employment, development, and nation building?
- Adoption of untimely economic policy measures
- Wrong impression about technical and vocational studies
- The neglect of the agricultural sector,
- Poor educational planning and enabling environment,
- Poor leadership
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: Youth unemployment has no significant impact on youth development and nation building in Nigeria.
Ha: Youth unemployment has a significant impact on youth development and nation building in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The impact of unemployment on youth development and nation building is such an interesting subject or study; it is believed that the outcome of this research work will be of interest to the nation, state and to each local government to showcase the need for adequate youth employment which would be as a prerequisite to the national development. The research work will provide them with vital information which will enhance an efficient and effective national development; it will provide the knowledge on some of the major challenges facing unemployment in Nigeria. This research work will also serve as a vital material to those who may want to carry out further research work in this regard.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the impact of unemployment on youth development and nation building in some selected in Local government in Osogbo of Osun State. The study is precisely undertaken to find out the extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State, identify the causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State, find out the impact of youth unemployment on youth development, ascertain the implications of youth unemployment on nation building, and assess the factors affective youth employment, development, and nation building.
The population of this study will cover only youths residents in two selected local governments in Osogbo of Osun State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Unemployment people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past five weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force.
This is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Youth development, the process of growing up and developing one’s capacities, happens no matter what we do.
Youth Development or YD, refers to intentional efforts of other youth, adults, communities, government agencies, and schools to provide opportunities for youth to enhance their interests, skills, and abilities into their adulthoods.
Refers to the process of constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. This process aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run.
Is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity).
Is the social science that studies economic activity to gain an understanding of the processes that govern the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in an exchange economy.
Refers to increasing the economic, political, social, educational, gender, or spiritual strength of individuals and communities.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of unemployment on youth development and nation building in some selected LGA in Osogbo Osun State.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of unemployment on youth development and nation building in some selected LGA in Osogbo Osun State.The study specifically was aimed at to find out the extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State, identify the causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State, find out the impact of youth unemployment on youth development, ascertain the implications of youth unemployment on nation building and assess the factors affective youth employment, development, and nation building.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondentswere youths residents in two selected local governments in Osogbo of Osun State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The extent of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State is high.
- The causes of youth unemployment in Osogbo, Osun State includes: rapid population growth, inappropriate school curriculum, poor creation of employment opportunities and corruption.
- The impact of youth unemployment on youth development is negative.
- The implications of youth unemployment on nation building includes: poor human capital development, poor economic development, increase in crime and political development.
- The factors affecting youth employment, development, and nation building includes: adoption of untimely economic policy measures, wrong impression about technical and vocational studies, the neglect of the agricultural sector, poor educational planning and enabling environment and poor leadership.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Though government may not be able to create job enough for the teaming millions of Nigerian unemployed youths, they should therefore embark on massive youth development programmes in all the states of the federation with entrepreneurial skills acquisition and entrepreneurship development as a key target hence a viable intervening tool for unemployment.
- That there should be a massive reduction in the political corruption index of the country to enable youth development to thrive. This is because corruption, which has permeated the entire social structure of Nigeria, has robbed the country of developing a vibrant economic base as funds meant for development projects have been misappropriated, diverted, embezzled and stashed away in foreign bank accounts, while some incompetent and corrupt bureaucrats and administrators in the public enterprises and parastatals have liquidated their organizations. It is a pity that each successive government took turns to prey on the nation’s wealth, by using public power, resources, good will, utilities, instrument of abuse, and personal gains.
- That government should embark on rural development such as rural industrialization and electrification to curtail rural-urban drift. In engendering rural development, rural roads should be built, infrastructures provided to ensure that the rural areas are attractive to live in. this will enable the possibility of youths staying in the rural areas and getting productively engaged.
- The general school curriculum should be remodeled to inculcate technical skill acquisition which will help even secondary school graduates to have employable skills. This is against the complain that Nigerian graduates are unemployable leading to youths unemployment.
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