The Impact Of Training On Workers Performance
Employee is a blood stream of any business. The accomplishment or disaster of the firm depends on its employee performance. Hence, top management realized the importance of investing in training and development for the sake of improving employee performance. This conceptual paper aimed at studying the effect of training on employee performance and to provide suggestion as to how firm can improve its employee performance through effective training programs. The research approach adopted for the study conforms to qualitative research, as it reviews the literature and multiple case studies on the importance of training in enhancing the performance of the workforce. Further the paper goes on to analyze and understand the theoretical framework and models related to employee development through training and development programs, and its effect on employee performance and on the basis of the review of the current evidence of such a relationship, offers suggestions for the top management in form of a checklist, appropriate for all businesses, to assess the employee performance and to find out the true cause(s) of the performance problem so the problem could be solved in time through desired training program.
1.1 Background of the Study
The effectiveness in realization of an organization’s set goals and objectives is within the framework in which it was set up. Human and material resources in every organization should not be over-emphasized, and therefore, must be harnessed and oriented for the achievement of the set goals and objectives. It is true that material resources form an integral part of the desired goal but human resource is more important in the sense that they help in achieving organizational goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner, this need arises as a results of the need for the improvement in job performance. And this method depends on the type in which the organization adopts to achieve her goals.
The success of an organization is determined by the quality of its labour force, since the labour determines the output of the organization by the labour-inputs. Human resources can be improved through a graded and systematic process of development that includes education, training and the appropriate motivation.
Training: This can be described as a short-term systematic process through which an employee acquires technical knowledge, skill and attitude required to perform a specific task or job adequately. Worker must be trained and developed in order to get the best from them and this also, has to be a continuous bases and in various fields.
Ubeku emphasized the importance of training in the organization in the following words: “money spent on training and development of employee in an organization is money well invested. Employees who have received adequate training before being assigned with responsibilities have the necessary confidence with which to carry out the job”.
At the 14th Annual General Meeting of the Nigeria Employers Consultative Association in December, 1970, Chief Anthony Enahoro the then Federal Commissioner for Labour, commenting on the role of employers in training their employees asserted that: “the development of human resources cannot be entirely the concern of our nation’s educational institutions, it is also the responsibility of other institutions capable of performing training functions.
Every enterprise, whether public or private, necessarily does considerable on-the-job, some of which is organized and some haphazard and incidental. If employers display greater readiness than many of them do to invest in training, we can hope more rapidly to supplement the work of educational and other training institutions”.
An employee should be helped to grow into more responsibilities by systematic training and development. It is only through this process that an employee feels confidence to carry out the responsibilities of the job because he knows already what is expected of him. Training of employees can help to improve the performance of the organization thereby improving the overall performance of the organization. It is in view of this, that the study wants to look at the impart of training on the performance of workers in the organization by using some selected federal establishment in Benin City as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the problems of the most modern organizations is that favourable fluctuation in the performance of workers and this can be attributed to the dynamics of organization due to new knowledge and technology.
In any organization, training needs shows itself in various ways, new employees must be instructed in their duties, poor selection may necessitate specialized training efforts; individual employees who cannot perform certain aspects of their task must be made equal to those tasks; completed change of work methods as a result of change in technology, all these can necessitate the need for training.
Employers cannot avoid cost, without proper training errors and misunderstanding arise. And stealing trained employees from competitors is a costly practice, which can work both ways.
Training can affect the performance of the workers; this is because training entails the acquisition of new skills, with the new skill acquire in the course of training, workers will be able to adapt themselves to the dynamics of the organization.
In view of this, the study wants to look at the impact of training on workers’ performance by using some selected federal establishments in Benin City as a case study.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study hopes to achieve the following objectives:
- To look at the impact of training on workers’ performance in organization.
- To look at the various strategies of training in organizations.
- To identify the various ways of evaluating programmes in organizations.
- To find out the problems associated with the training of workers in organizations and suggest solutions to such problems by way of recommendations.
- To enhance people’s knowledge on training as an important phenomenon in the management of human resource in organizations.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the Federal establishments in Benin City. Among the federal establishments include in this study are the Nigeria Telecommunications, Nigeria Prison Service, Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) and the Federal Road Safety Corps. In the course of this study, questionnaires shall be distributed to various categories of workers in all the organizations included in the study. Also to be dealt with in this study are issues like the impact of training on workers’ performance, workers’ satisfaction with the training programme of the organization; the problem associated with training programmes and the ways of evaluating the success of organizational training programme.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is significant because it emphasizes the impact of training on workers’ programme. Management and workers achievers alike can appreciate the need for training and development in the organization. Thus, the findings and recommendations of this study can be exploited in the organization under study in improving the quality of training programmes in their organizations. Improvement in the quality of training programmes can enhance the impact of training on workers’ performance.
The postulation and generalization of this study can lead other researcher’s interest on the impact of training workers’ performance. The interest generated by the postulation and generalization of this study, can lead to more researchers on training which can help them to improve the quality of literature on training as an important area of human resources management in modern day organization.
The following hypotheses shall direct the thrust of this study:
- A satisfactory training programme will improve the performance of the workers.
- Training geared towards workers’ job, will improve their performance.
- Workers perceptions of the criteria of selecting people for training will affect their performance.
- Management’s attitude towards workers’ training will affect success of training in the organization.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In the course of the study, the researcher encountered a lot of problems. The problem encountered in the course of this study was time. This resulted from the nature of the semester, being short and full of academic and social activities, it was not an easy task combining classroom activities with going to field to collect materials for the research.
Secondly, the attitude of the respondents towards the researcher was also a problem. Many of the respondents were unwilling to cooperate with the researcher. This can be seen from the fact that 18% of the respondents did not return the questionnaires distributed to them and this further reduced the sample of workers included in the study.
Finally, getting the material for the research was also a problem because it was not an easy task getting materials for the research. Thus, the researcher spent a lot of money going from one library to another collecting materials for the research, and this further worsen the limited financial state of the research as a student.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
This is done for clearer understanding of this project, some of the key terms used are defined below in order to bring out their operational meanings in the context in which they are used.
The term is used to refer to persons who provides labour in an organization by making use of both their energies and skills to achieve the goal of the organization.
Training is the systematic modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience required by an individual to perform a given task or job adequately. A person impacting information, often increases the capabilities of an individual in performing a given task in the organization.
It is the act by which the individual acquires skills, knowledge and ability, which results in a relative performance change in his or her behaviour or potential behaviour.
This is the person who undergoes some form of training.
This is the person who trains worker in the organization.
This is a situation whereby something is lacking or requiring some course of action. It is the identification of trainees’ need that set the course of training.
This term refers to the inner driving force, desire or which in one that makes him to put in his best efforts towards the attainment of organization goal. It becomes manifested only when the external influences are favourable.
This is the aggregate result of the efforts of the workers towards achieving the organizational goals or objective.
This is an entity that is made up of various departments coming together to achieve a common goal. It is a structured process in which people interact for objectives.
This is a target set in which all efforts are directed in order to achieve it.
This is the process by which the individual receives and interpret information about his environment. It is the way people view things around them in the organization.
The term skill implies an ability, which is manifested in increase and effective performance under varying conditions.
This means the extent to which the expected result is achieved.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the impact of training on workers performance.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of training and workers performance.
The importance of training and development in the corporate world has been highlighted in the previous literature. Thus, it is essential to examine any issues related to training and development in any business sector. The findings reported in this study suggest that training and development have an impact on the performance of employees with regards to their jobs. This result is broadly consistent with prior management literature on training and development. In order to gain more specific knowledge of training and development from the sample companies, different questions are presented to the respondents and thus examined. These questions are focusing on employee participation in training, selection for training, methods of training and relevance of training to the work of the respondents. The above questions have been of particular interest because they facilitate an understanding of the training practice in the companies under study.
The main objective of every training session is to add value to the performance of the employees, hence all type of businesses design training and development programs of their employees as a continuous activity. Purpose of training is what employees would attain after experiencing the training program. Some of the organizations plan and implement the training program for their employees without identifying the purpose and objectives and without knowing what the knowledge, skills and abilities employees would learn at the end of the training program and whether they will be able to attain performance targets on job. Therefore, firm must design the training program with clear goals and objectives while keeping in mind the particular needs of both individual and the firm. This study in hand chiefly focuses on the role of training in enhancing the performance of the employees. Training plays vital role in the building of competencies of new as well as current employees to perform their job in an effective way. It also prepares employees to hold future position in an organization with full capabilities and helps to overcome the deficiencies in any job related area. Training is considered as that sort of investment by the firm that not only bring high return on investment but also supports to achieve competitive advantage. Employees referred as the rare, non-imitable and valuable resource of the firm and the success or failure of any business mainly relies on its employees performance. Thus, organizations realizing the fact are willing to invest in training programs for the development of their employees. Effective training is considered to be a key factor for improved performance; as it can enhance the level of employee and firm competency. It supports to fill the gap between what performance if required and what performance is happening, i.e. gap between desired performance and actual employee performance. Training need referred to any deficit in performance, which can be relieved by appropriate training. There are different methods of overcoming deficiencies in employee performance on job, and training is one of them. Particularly training develops skills, competency, and ability and ultimately improves employee performance and organizational productivity.
Since the study has revealed that training positively influences employee performance by having a positive influence on employee engagement at UNSOA, training should be conducted time to time to ensure that employees have the necessary engagement to change processes, innovation; better performance and job enthusiasm for enhanced employee and organizational performance. The fact that the top level management and non-level management are more likely to be induced in taking new tasks compared to the middle level management staff indicates a gap in readiness of the middle level management in taking new tasks. Thus the organization should design specific training programs that target this group of employee with the aim of enhancing their readiness in taking up tasks and accepting change. Further the organization should carry out an audit to find out why training most likely motivates the top level to be committed to taking initiatives in helping other employees but not the other cadres of employee’s.
The Impact Of Training On Workers Performance
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