Impact Of Terrorism On Nigeria’s Economy (A Case Study Of The Boko Haram Insurgency)
Terrorism has been an insidious act common and conducted daily over decades and has been responsible for the physical and or structural violence experienced by many people in Nigeria. Individuals, Groups and even the state carry out acts of terrorism in one way or the other. The preponderance of terrorists’ activities in recent times especially those conducted by Niger Delta Militants and now Boko Haram are only in response to acts of terrorism conducted directly or indirectly by the governments and its’ functionaries at all levels whose responsibility is to improve and protect the lives and properties of its citizens. The effects of these acts of terrorism are the threats they posed to national security, peace, unity and economicdevelopment of the country.The total population for the study is 200 residents in selected local government in Borno State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up village heads,civil servants,youths and students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1 Background of the study
Terrorism according to lodge is an illegitimate means of attempting to effect political change by the indiscriminate use of violence (Lodge 1988:5). Also Madunagu (2001:51) maintains that terrorism is “the use of violence to achieve political objectives”. The bottom line of the above definitions is that terrorism is an aspect of political violence. Since September 11, 2001, multiple attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre and pentagon in the United States of America, terrorism has become a House Hold discussion in the world. Boko Haram according to Dr. Anslem Dilichukwu Omenma in one of his presentation at Caritas University political science seminar day, is traceable to the militia group called ECOMOG which enjoyed the patronage of top politicians in other parts of the northern Nigeria, began to patronize the group through budgetary allocations. The group, Nigeria‟s security has been threatened and it has also affected the economy.
The project is therefore an attempt at a critical study to show how Boko Haram has affected the economy either positively or negatively. It has been noted that Boko Haram is regarded as terrorist group that has affected Nigeria‟s economy especially in the north, attempts would be made to see how this sect has really affected the economy of Nigeria and possibly recommend lasting solutions to the menace, so that the peace and stability which the country has longed for would be achieved and there would be an end to terrorism in Nigeria.
A cursory look around the world will reveal that for many countries under this dispensation, have also suffered and are still suffering from terrorist attacks. For instance, the United States of America which has lasted for almost two hundred years since the 18th century still suffered in the hands of Osama Bin Laden before he was finally killed in 2011. Also Israel, Pakistan and even some other countries in Africa have had terrorist‟s attacks that have rendered peace and stability almost a mirage. Example, Libya in 1986 was attacked by the United States of America.
In Nigeria Boko Haram snowballed into national menace after the 2011 general elections, the northern governors who had relationship with the sect began to withdraw their patronages and eventually abandoned them to their fate. (The Nation 2011:13). Most scholars and analysts tend to subscribe to the opinion that terrorism is a political expression and not a criminal act. As a result they agree that terrorist groups across the world have a common adversary in the status quo, represented by the regime in power, the political system of the economic system. In their view therefore, the major objective of terrorists is to disrupt the statusquo or dismantle the regime in power so as to impose their own values on the rest of the society.
However since the terrorists usually lack willing public support and face stiff suppression from the government, they always resort to indiscriminate violence on a tactical and strategic basis to spread fear and intimidation and persuade the public of the validity of their cause (Lodge, 1988:3). All terrorist acts involve violence or equally important, the threat of violence. The Islamic militant sect, Boko Haram has been terrorizing Nigeria‟s population for almost two years, sapping economic development in the northern part of the country. According to “focus Nigeria” an interactive programme on television, 2012, the insurgency has brought about the demise of business in the country most especially in the northern parts. For instance, traders who come from all over Nigeria and neighboring countries to buy textiles in Kano, no longer frequent the market again and the market is not as busy as it use to be. The study is set to investigate how this menace has eaten deep into our economy.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The high level of terrorism and violence in Nigeria by the fundamentalist group (Boko Haram) has heightened fears among the populace and the international community and has eaten deep into our economy and as a matter of fact, the hostility has gone beyond religious or political coloration. Several meetings, summit, conferences etc have being held in a bid to curb the menace in the country but all to no avail. Also apart from the fact that meetings have been held, the federal governments have spent millions of naira in making sure that security is brought back to the country but that has never looked worked. The president has told all security agencies to be at alert and to get their arsenals ready and to put more effort in the promotion of effective security in the country. Also the president in one of his speeches prompts all Nigerians to take security seriously because it is everybody’s business. But the question is will it ever stop? Can we say that the Boko Haram menace could be understood from the argument that Islam which give hope to the poor Muslims is being threatened out of extinction by Christianity and the Muslim youth who derive hope of a brighter future from the teaching of Islam are fighting to defend the survival of the hope of the hopeless Muslims, or do we see the insurgency from the prism of nationalism?
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The main objective of this study is impact of terrorism on Nigeria’s economy. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives
- To ascertain if ideology and funding is the fundamental factor that propelled terrorism in Nigeria.
- To find out if terrorism crisis poses a threat to Nigerian’s economy.
- To explore whether the military option is the possible solution in tackling the menace
- To ascertain the relationship between terrorism and Nigeria’s economy
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: terrorism crisis is not a threat to Nigerian’s economy
H1: terrorism crisis is a threat to Nigerian’s economy
- H02: there is no relationship between terrorism and Nigeria’s economy
H2: there is relationship between terrorism and Nigeria’s economy
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The significance of this study is that it will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problem of terrorism as it affects the economy of the country. Also judging from the fact that terrorism is currently a prevailing cankerworm and it’s very spontaneous and topical, this study will help to proffer solutions. More so, this work theoretically will be useful to writers, scholars, journalists etc. in order to add to their existing knowledge what they already know about terrorism and Nigeria’s economy, particularly the Boko Haram activities.
1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
The scope of the study covers impact of terrorism on Nigeria’s economy. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability Of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Terrorism, in its broadest sense, describes the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror, or fear, to achieve a political, religious or ideological aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence against peacetime targets or in war against non-combatants.
An economy (From Greek οίκος – “household” and νęμoμαι – “manage”) is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
1.8 Organization Of The Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain impact of terrorism on Nigeria’s economy.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of impact of terrorism on Nigeria’s economy
This study was on impact of terrorism on Nigeria’s economy. Four objectives were raised which included: To ascertain if ideology and funding is the fundamental factor that propelled terrorism in Nigeria, to find out if terrorism crisis poses a threat to Nigerian’s economy, to explore whether the military option is the possible solution in tackling the menace, to ascertain the relationship between terrorism and Nigeria’s economy. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents in selected local government in Borno State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up village heads,civil servants,youthsand students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
Terrorists’ activities are second nature to Nigeria. It is carried out by individuals, groups in both private and public places and offices including the government you least expect. It is government terrorism that has given birth to other forms of terrorism conducted by individuals and groups. The increased terrorist violence caused by Boko Haram in recent times is enormous and is a great challenge to security, peace, unity and development of the country. Besides terrorism instilling constant fears, and destruction of lives and properties, it has threatened the fragile foundation of Nigeria’s unity and development. To address this issue, as it is said charity begins at home, or remove the log in your own eyes before removing that of the other, the government must first end its own aspects of terrorism before it could have the courage to address that conducted by non-state actors such as Boko Haram.
The security of people’s lives and property is absolutely necessary for social peace, political unity, and economic development and prosperity on a large scale. Assessing from the operational position of Boko Haram it is impossible to avail themselves for negotiation for various reasons. The objective of the sect is not only absolutely unrealistic and unpopular even within members of their religious faith, but unattainable. Accepting to negotiate will reveal their true identity which they dread. This is besides the social stigmatization, and hate that will come from the public. There is also the fear of vengeance being visited on them by the relatives of those they have caused so much misery or prosecution by the government. In the light of the forgoing, the following suggests are put forward as a way out of the problem.
- Campaigns for Right Religious Indoctrination and Positive Values
- Addressing Youth Bulges and Unemployment
- Review the Existing Land Laws
Impact Of Terrorism On Nigeria’s Economy (A Case Study Of The Boko Haram Insurgency)
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