The Impact Of Television On The Learning Habits Of Primary School Children

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Impact Of Television On The Learning Habits Of Primary School Children


Abstract


Television has been an instrument of learning. Its roles cannot be underestimated for children, who are developing learning habit in school and at home. This research project examined the influence of television on children learning habit in Agbor. Instrument of data gathering uses sampling techniques. Sample size for the study was one hundred and eighty participants and the result showed that there is significant relationship between television programme and children’s learning habit. Television Stations should train and retrain their programme presenter so that they can also present good educational progarmmes for the children. It therefore recommended that television Stations should train and retrain their programme producers and presenter so that they can also produce good educational progarmmes for the children. Daily timing of the children educational programme should be allow children to watch television programme schedule. Indecent contents in some of the programmes that are for children and adult like in soap opera should be excluded. Parents should know the time of the programme for their children with relationship to education and remind them for the programmes.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Mass media have the capacity to educate mass audience especially children in primary and secondary school. Ocharo and Karam (2015) noted that several researches on the impact of mass media as educational channels made mass media relevant in children learning ability.

Mass media play a major role in enhancing positive development through various educational programmes shown on television aims at increasing children knowledge and understanding of various aspects of life.

Apart from being a channel for educational learning, mass media play a major role in enhancing socialization among children. With the advanced technology, children easily access the mass media channel is for their educational utilities (Mumi, 2010). Mass media have great influence on children and as they enhance media professionalism in the content productions. These programmes are packaged in such a way that will influence children’s learning ability. Page and Extra (2004) stated that mass media intend to dictate various aspects including the ideal image. Children start to imitate the characters and contents portrayed in mass media without being careful to differentiate between wrong and right.

One of the power channels of the mass media is television. Television has become popular and commonly used by children. Syed (2010) noted that television is considered as an electronic carpet which seems to transport millions of person each day to far off places. It is reported that television made its visibility some more than sixty years ago. People were not skeptical about it, but were also jealous, unkind and even hostile. Over a short span life, however, it emerged as a remarkable medium of communication, entertainment and education of (Syed and Mohammed (2010).

Television is an important tool most people, young or old, as of today most information are delivered to the public via this technology. It can also be accessed easily via cables, satellite, which could provide consumers with every type of information that they need, either for work, education, leisure. With the emergence of this media and the production of various programmes, television has caught the attention, of most people. Comparable to other media, television is the most accessible media to most people, including children, where is their most favourite media.

There is a close relationship between television programmes and the learning ability of children in primary and secondary schools. This is formed in the characteristics of television medium as agent of enhancing school curriculum for young people. It is consequently on the children’s listening and watching characteristics and as such act in line with what they watch.

Uwen, Udeze and Asogwa (2014) explained that television influence children through communication of communicators in learning. Eastman and Ferguson (2009), argued that the broadcast personnel has the task of exercising inflecune on the audience and this depends on the ability of novelty and entertainment value. Children want fresh stories, fresh lessons and programmes. Uwe et al., (2014) posit that television contents are expected to contribute to the building of the child in all spheres of life, including his educational upliftment. The broadcast medium, particularly the television is sometimes described as a teacher, often complementary and at times attempting to supplant the classroom. Fully aware of such broadcast potentials, programmers intentionally take advantage of the medium to contribute to and make an impact on the educational development of the child.

Educational development of children is the process of learning. Learning is the acquisition of knowledge per time in child’s development process. Syed and Mohammed (2012) argued that television as a very powerful medium influence the learning and social habit of children. It is a stronger agent for children, adolescents and other family members. Especially with its combined effects of audio and visual. It is now readily apparent that television can have a profound impact on children as well as adolescent educational development. Television programmes are used to assist children in different subjects and curriculum with other teaching materials. Moses (2008) avers that television programmes on education are success story of how children literary prefer learning visual content at early age, because it is beneficial of reading and the promotion of literacy in children.

Learning habit means the ways of studying, whether systematic or unsystematic, efficient or otherwise. Learning habits that an individual may have formed with respect to his learning activities. Adebiyi (2013) raja and Reddy (2013) stated that in the process of learning habitual way of exercising and practicing their abilities for learning especially children learns character and knowledge by habit. It is also a form of monitoring. Most often, children come out to mimic the very television instructor or classroom instructor because they might have positive or negative understanding of the instructor. Raja and Reddy (2013) stated that children generally study their supervisor or guardian. This is done through their desire to learn, willful working abilities and talents. All these are fulfilled in his assignment work, in classroom interaction, for examination purpose or form television self assigned a duty.

The possible way of learning by children is the use of memory. Both short term and long term memories are useful. They help a child to assimilate what they watch, listen to and adopted form their teachers, Raja and Reddy (2013) stated that the child must have good memory, self-discipline in studying and skill in assimilation. The skill of finding what you want will develop and increase as long as you nourish it. Skill of fixing it up in one’s mind requires the development of good study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Children are naturally active, playful and demand answers to unlimited questions Ngwoke and Ibiam (2009:3) Kondo (2005:1) opine that children do not perceive televisual skills step-by-step in line with their cognitive development. Age and linguistic maturity determine how a child will respond and engage with television.

The impact of television on children’s learning habit is been in the content of television prorgammes and the choice of programmes by the children. Television has contributed more to children learning. Daramola (2009:3) stated that television production, when effectively utilized can present information in adverse forms so much that it can aid learning.

Television viewing can cut into family time; hinder reaching and academic performance of children and achievement. Anatsui and Adekanje (2014:2) stated that the media constructs a reality for its audience, and so its audience eventually adopts the symbols. Negative outcomes have been observed in today’s school, which appears to be related to how much of the wrong kind of media exposure. Such as an; attention deficit disorder, behavioural problems, faltering academic abilities, language difficulties which extend to reading comprehension as well as oral expression and weak problem solving skills are reported by teachers across the globe.

Therefore, the study seeks to investigate the level of impact of television on the primary school children in Agbor.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to determine the impact of television viewing on the learning habit of children in primary school level in Delta State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Establish the impact of television viewing on the pupils language development
  2. Determine the impact of television viewing on pupil’s numeracy development.
  3. Establish the impact of television viewing on pupils achievement in Basic Science.
  4. Determine the impact of television viewing on pupils’ achievement in social studies.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the impact of television viewing on children’s language development in the primary school levels?
  2. What is the impact of television viewing on the achievement of children in numeracy skills?
  3. How is the impact of television viewing on the children’s achievement in Basic Science?
  4. What is the impact of television viewing on pupils’ achievement in social studies?

1.5 Hypotheses of Study

Ho1: There is no significant difference between achievement scores of television viewers and non-viewers on basic English language.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between television viewers and non- viewers’ achievement scores in Basic Mathematics.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will make important contribution to the study of media influence on children’s learning skills. It will also be a correlation study between learning, academic achievement and television exposure by children in Agbor. The study will contribute to children’s understanding of the impact of television in education through television educational broadcasting. Educational television programmers will utilize the findings and this will open to further research on relevant study topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers Agbor as a geographical location. It also centers on children resident of Agbor. The age bracket of children of this study falls between 6 years to 18 years which covers both primary and secondary schools age. The period of the study shall be for three months from January 2016 to March 2016. As regard to television, all channels are within the scope of the study.


1.8 Definition of Terms.

Television:

This is a mass communication channel that transmits information through combination of audio and visual.

Impact:

The level of effect of a thing on another.

Learning:

The art and act of acquiring new ideas for skills acquisition or human development.

Habit:

The attitude that is predominance to a person which the person has little or no control of.

Children:

The age group that depends on parental guide.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The results of Table 1 indicated that the achievement scores of pupils on Basic English test was different between those pupils that viewed television and those that do not view television. The group that viewed television had a mean achievement score of 83.41 while those that did not view television had a mean score of 64.81. This means that those who are television viewers scored higher than the group that did not view television. The standard deviation scores by both group showed that there was little variations in the mean scores of both group.

The t-test analysis carried out to determine the mean difference between the mean achievement scores of television viewers and non-television viewers showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores obtained by both groups. In other words, the null hypothesis of no significant difference was rejected. This implied that those pupils that viewed television achieved higher than their counterparts that are non-television viewers.

This finding is in agreement with the earlier finding by Valkenburg (2004) who found that Television viewing make children to be faster in learning vocabulary and general knowledge of their environment. According to Valkenburg, television viewing motivates the children to learn, as exposed them to incidental learning for longer time than they would if there was no television. Also, according to Gbadebe (2007

The finding of the study was that the television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers in the Basic Mathematics tests at the Upper Basic School Level. The standard deviation also showed that there were small variations in the mean scores of the pupils in each group. The result further showed that there was a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of television viewers and non-viewers on Basic Mathematics tests at 0.05 level of significance in favour of the television viewers. This present finding agrees with the earlier finding by Anna (2005) and Davies (1997). According to Anna’s finding, children’s ability in quantitative reasoning was to a great extent enhanced when exposed to television programmes that involved quantitative reasoning. In other words, television viewing promoted children’s mathematics solving ability. In the same live, Davis (1997) found out that televisual literacy improved the calculative ability of children in schools. Davies also argued that children should be exposed to television programmes that involved signs and symbols as represented in mathematics’ classrooms. Television viewing by this finding helped in improving children’s numeracy skills in upper Basic Schools in Delta State of Nigeria. In support of the present findings, the National Academic (2006) also reported that television programme have educational value and helped children in their school work, particularly those activities that involved numeracy.


5.2 Conclusion of the Study

From the findings and discussions of the finding of this study, the following conclusions were reached. It was shown that television viewing has positive influence on children’s achievement in many areas of school learning including Basic English Language, Basic Mathematics, Basic Science and Social Studies at the upper Basic School Level in Delta State. By this findings, television as a mode of teaching and learning has proved to have high potential for teaching and learning school subjects at the upper basic school level.

Implication of the Findings

The results of the finding about the impact of television viewing on the learning habit of children in primary school level in Delta State has provided a support to earlier finding’s of previous studies. In other words, the place of television in enhancing the learning habit of pupils in school subjects shall seize to be in doubt as the result of the present study having provided positive evidence.

The implications of these findings include among others that television are needed in the classrooms to argument teachers’ efforts in teaching the children subjects like Basic English, Basic Mathematics, Basic Sciences and Social Studies at the upper Basic School level. Another implication is that school teachers need to be knowledgeable on the use of television for teaching and learning school subjects at the upper Basic School level. In the past, television was not used to train the present teachers and as such they lack the skills needed for using television programs in teaching and learning school subjects.

Again, the search for appropriate television programmes that would be useful to children’s educative improvement is another implication of the findings. Though television enhanced the achievement of pupils’ achievement as reported by this study, but not all television programmes may be useful in classroom instructions. The finding of the study therefore have implications for selecting appropriate television programmes suitable for teaching children in schools.


5.3 Recommendation

Following from the discussions, conclusions and implications of the study, these recommendations were made:

  1. The use of television should be employed in teaching and learning of Basic English language, Basic Mathematics, Basic Science and Social Studies in Basic Education Levels in Delta State of Nigeria. This is because the positive influence of television viewing on the learning habit of children in schools has been demonstrated by the findings of the study.
  2. Parents / Guardians should encourage children apple opportunity to view educative television programmes at home. This will help to enhance their learning of subjects at school as shown in this study.
  3. School administrators should provide televisions in the schools for use by teachers in showing selected television programmes to pupils.
  4. School authorities should encourage teachers to keep accurate records of continuous assessment tests of pupils. Such records are useful when tracking pupil’s records in school.

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