The Impact Of Television Commercials On Purchasing Habit Of Students
In present day world, television has already become an integral part of life of masses. It is indeed a true fact that various media spread awareness but television advertisements plays a significant role in buying behaviour of student. Advertisement telecasted on television, has ability to combine the visual and audio communications and has capability to affect its target audiences. Thus, this makes advertisements an important medium to make people aware of any product. In light of this the present study was undertaken to measure the impact of television commercials on purchasing behaviour of student. A questionnaire was prepared to meet out the objective. The outcome of the research revealed that adults have strong belief that television commercial has considerably influenced their buying behaviours.
1.1 Background to the Study
In the olden days, the concept of advertising might not have been as an important tool for the marketing of product. Our ancestor simply engaged in trade and barter, or went hunting for the things they need. But today, we are constantly confronted with countless of goods and services, desire and all sorts of aggressive persuasive means to buy them. Money as a medium of exchange has been involved,. So, in this present age of plenty supply which nearly exceed the demand for products and services.
Therefore, advertising doesn’t make any meaning to different people. Many regard it to informing while some say, it is half truth, especially in developing nations like ours where people do not seem to understand the purpose and effective role which advertising play in marketing process. Advertising is only one of the many elements in a successful marketing effort. Other elements include packaging, pricing, point of purchase, promotion, personal selling and publicity. Successful marketing therefore is a total effort and all activities must be properly integrated and related to each other to the point of view of the consumer and their needs.
Essentially, advertising is a communication force and role that can be appreciated by relating this to the classical seven stages identified by R.J Lavidge and G.A. Stanner which move up series steps:
- Preference (first choice)
- Conviction (desire to buy)
However, goods advertising must be capable of moving the prospect of awareness level to that of actual purchase. Advertising message must contain some answered questions as set in advertising objective, example includes:
- How is the brand in comparison with competition brands?
- What creation do you expect as a direct result of television advertising e.g. creation of awareness, trait purchase, and brand loyalty?
- How do you want people to perceive your product?
- Who should be your target audience?
Advertising messages are disseminated to the consumer through mass media i.e. television, radio, cinema, posters, billboard, newspapers and magazine. Among these mass media, television happen to be the one mostly used, for this purpose therefore, television provides one of the most spectacular ways in which an advertisers could reach the greatest number of people at a time. NTA network news claims over 30 million viewers, what makes television so attractive to advertising is that audience can be reached through television via the diversity to programmes, virtually everybody has a few favourite programmes he watches fairly regularly so television provides voices and vision. Hence, it is an initiate medium, since television advertising has become a part of regular television broadcast, viewer’s perception of these advertising messages may influence their buying behaviour of certain products.
However, as Krugman has noted that, what is lacking in the required evaluation of TV advertising in any significant body of research specifically relating advertising to attitude, and these in turn to purchasing behaviour or sales. In order words,it is basically salesmanship on air or in prints. How then do consumers perceive the thousand and one advertising they see daily? Knowledge of what perception entails in necessary for the purpose of this study.
Perception is one of the psychological process by which we get to know and deal with information and things. It is a complex process by which people select, organize and interpret sensory stimuli into meaningful picture of the world. Perception has an important influence on consumer’s behaviour because it relates to the mental process by which individuals select organize and interpret information to create a meaningful picture of an objective situation which decisions are made.
Cognition is the term given to the mental process that enable mankind gives meaning to the environment and experience cognitively perception is the process by which the organism takes in information from the environment through the sensory organs and by differentiating and fitting the information to individual needs and experiences, which gives meaning to stimuli perceived.
People can emerge with different perceptions of the same stimulus object because of three perceptual processes.
- Selective exposures
- Selective perception
- Selective retention
1.2 Statement of Problem
Over the years, the principal role of advertising has been as that of creating awareness for an advertised product. Advertising scholars go further and extended the role to include that of persuasion and an invitation to action.
But critics of advertising believe that advertising is an economic waste on the ground that consumers know what they want and they do not want to subside. The purpose of this study therefore are to:
- Find out the influences of tv commercials on the buying behaviour of the students of University of Lagos.
- To search for the impact and contributions that TV commercials can make to improve standard of living i.e. getting to be aware of feet needs and how to satisfy these needs.
- To determine whether these TV commercial make the students loyal to a brand or switch to another brand whose advert is more pleasing or attractive to them e.g. the use of toilet soaps.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:
- Know if TV commercial actually motivate consumers to purchase.
- Know if the shortcomings of television (as a medium) affect its ability to influence consumers purchasing habits
1.4 Research Questions
This study will attempt to find answers to the following questions:
- In what way are TV commercials creating awareness for student needs?
- How the needs get satisfied?
- How do the students perceive TV commercials?
- What kind of information do student want to receive in TV commercials?
- What are the effect of TV commercials?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: television commercial is not responsible for brand loyalty
H1: television commercial is responsible for brand loyalty
- H02: there is no relationship between television commercials and students purchasing habit
H2: there is a relationship between television commercials and students purchasing habit
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to the students of University of Lagos as consumers. This is because, the society is too big to be researched as it might take a very long time doing the research and we might not be able to complete it at the end. It could be argued that the more defined analysis is required for a more reliable and valid conclusion to be drawn about such issue as people’s attitude and impression of TV commercial is. The time for the research is too short, as such does not permit long, time observation
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the top management personnel of the schools makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The importance and fidelity of television commercials cannot be over-emphasized; research conducted over the years revealed the tremendous emphasis placed on commercials by manufacturers. The study will be of great significant to manufacturers when planning their commercials so as to avoid wasting money on ineffective commercial. This will help them to know how to reach their target audience and find out their needs, thus making them to purchase the product. Thereby increasing the manufacturers’ profits. The study will equally be of great use to people in Enugu metropolis when making their purchases, in order to get maximum satisfaction and make use of their purchasing power. It will also be of use to marketing students who may wish to take up similar studies. The outcome of this research work will contribute to the existing literatures on television commercials and its influence on brand preference and loyalty.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
A presentation of goods, services or ideas, for action openly paid for by an identified sponsor.
The display of distant objects or events by electrical transmission.
The tendency of buying a particular brand of product over others.
The name used to identify a specific product.
The inducement or incitement to do something.
This refers to the repeated patronage of a particular product.
It is making know a product, an idea or service through the television
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of television commercial on purchasing habit of student
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of television commercial on buying habit of students
The study shows that television commercials play an important role on the buying behaviour of masses. The efforts have also been made to provide workable suggestions to the advertisers and the marketers in this regard. Most of consumers are interested in buying branded products which helps them to improve their lifestyle. It has been observed that annual household income plays an important place in buying decision. Very important to mention is the fact that the television advertising influences the buying decision of earning buyers. Advertising research styles have involved and advanced, partly through the influence of improved technology and access to advanced theories and methods
The study shows that television commercials play an important role on the buying behaviour of masses. The efforts have also been made to provide workable suggestions to the advertisers and the marketers in this regard. Most of consumers are interested in buying branded products which helps them to improve their lifestyle. It has been observed that annual household income plays an important place in buying decision. Very important to mention is the fact that the television advertising influences the buying decision of earning buyers. Advertising research styles have involved and advanced, partly through the influence of improved technology and access to advanced theories and methods. Another finding of the study is that the adults irrespective of their gender and area of residence strongly consider that TV advertisements have impact on their mind and the exposure to TV advertisements have not only enhanced their involvement in purchasing but has resulted in increasing their frequency of purchase.
Manufacturing companies should use attractive and informative content to create the awareness in the consumers and they should not rely on the advertisement for changing the perceptions of the consumers instead they should use new ways of sales promotion or other medium to change the perceptions of the people. It will be easy for any company in cosmetic industry to change the buying behavior of consumer by creating awareness and building strong perception in the mind of their customers
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