Impact Of Teaching Resources On Pupils Academic Achievement
1.1 Background of the Study
Teaching materials have been identified as a key technique for achieving effective teaching and learning. According to Obasi, (2008), the value of high-quality, appropriate instructional resources in teaching and learning can be shown in their effective use in the classroom. All of the tools that teachers can use to make teaching more exciting and memorable are included in the instructional materials.
Books, audio-visual, software, and hardware of educational technology are all examples of teaching resources, according to Farombi (1998). He also believes that the availability, sufficiency, and relevance of teaching materials in classrooms can impact great teaching, which can help students learn and perform better. Farombi’s (1998) insight into the importance of connecting instructional resources to students’ academic success is crucial in providing high-quality education. In the teaching and learning transaction, efficiency and high output are essential. Start, in the opinion of scholars with access to high-quality, appropriate educational materials, which should be prepared well in advance of class engagement.
According to Coombs (2000), education has two components. These two elements were classified by him. These two components were divided into inputs and outputs by him. According to him, inputs are human and material resources, while outputs are the educational process’s aims and outcomes. Both the inputs and outputs comprise a dynamic organic whole, and the impacts of one component on the other must be investigated if the educational system is to be investigated and assessed in order to enhance its performance (Ibe-Bassey, 2012). Instructional materials are printed and non-printed items used in the educational process to convey information to students.
Kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, photos, recordings, slides transparencies, films, video, discs, workbooks, and electronic media, including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD ROMS, and on-line services, are examples of instructional materials. In the teaching-learning process, instructional material is extremely crucial. It improves the memory of the students. Because education has expanded so far, solely oral instruction cannot be the key to effective pedagogy; thus, the teacher must use instructional materials to make the teaching-learning process more engaging (Nicholls, 2000; Raw, 2003). The utilization of educational materials can help students learn more effectively.
Cronbac (2009) identifies the critical parts of behavior that provide the foundation for teaching theory settings; the situation entails all of the things, people, and symbols in the learner’s environment. Situational experiences train a person to react to similar situations in the future. It is necessary to establish an environment in which the learner can be satisfied. We include all of the abilities and all of the normal responses that the person brings to the circumstance under this umbrella.
Chonjo, (1994) opines that individual attention can be piqued through the use of teaching material. The learner’s objective is what he or she aspires to achieve. Because goals direct efforts, the teacher’s motivation challenge is fundamentally one of setting up an environment with instructional materials in which the learner can perceive the goals he wants to achieve. Interpretation: A person interprets a situation in order to take action. If appropriate tools are made available, a teacher and a student will be able to predict what will happen if various actions are taken. The usage of teaching information can aid a person’s decision to take the appropriate action. Consequences: Actions are followed by rewards and consequences. If an instructive is employed, the prediction will be satisfying, and the outcomes will justify the person’s work, making him feel completely satisfied (Babayomi 1999). In most sophisticated countries, instructional materials are employed effectively and actively to aid the teaching-learning process.
According to Oni (1992), teaching resources are a strategic aspect in the organization and delivery of education by teachers. This is because they help to elaborate an idea that the instructor would not be able to do without the usage of instructional materials. This allows pupils to learn more easily, which improves their academic achievement.
Balogun (1982), writing on the significance of teaching materials in teaching and learning, stated that science education programs cannot be taught effectively without the availability of teaching equipment. This is due to the fact that educational materials assist students in developing problem-solving abilities and scientific mindsets. Ajayi & Ogunyemi (1990) expand on the same concept, stating that when instructional materials are offered to satisfy the relative needs of the teaching process, students will have access to the reference materials indicated by the teacher, and each student will be able to learn at his or her own pace. As a result, students will do significantly better.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is well known around the world that the teaching materials used have a direct impact on student performance according to Akande, (20055). These educational resources are essential components of learning. According to Barnett (2002), teachers should cover curriculum content and prepare students for standardized assessments. The achievement of students in any teaching and learning scenario is critical. Unfortunately, as education specialists have regularly observed over the last decade, pupil performance in elementary schools in Nigeria has not been very encouraging. This issue of poor performance appears to be taking on a larger scope, potentially affecting the country’s entire economic predicament (Onasanya, 2002). Nonetheless, teachers have disregarded the use of teaching resources, and as a result, students’ drive to study has been diminished. All of this has an effect on the students’ performance. Year after year, many students perform poorly in their exams, and the problem is deteriorating. This, in turn, opens the door to a poor life in the future. This poor performance could be attributed to non-innovative teachers who do not wish to use educational materials correctly (Adeogum, 2001). Unqualified teachers may also contribute to this issue. In this scenario, it is necessary to do research to determine the specific nature of the problem.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary objectives of the study is to examine the impact of teaching resources on pupils academic achievement. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of the study are:
- To examine the extent teaching resources are used in primary schools.
- To examine the extent of availability of teaching resources in primary schools
- To determine the types of teaching resources used in primary schools
- To examine the effects of teaching resources on the academic performance of students in primary schools
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions which are in line with the objectives of the study will be answered in this study:
- To what extent are teaching resources used in primary schools?
- To what extent are teaching resources available in primary schools?
- What are the types of teaching resources used in primary schools?
- What are the effects of teaching resources on the academic performance of students in primary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Eminent educational academics have expressed worry about the state of teaching and learning in Nigerian elementary schools, and numerous studies have been conducted to improve the teaching and learning situation. Despite this, efforts must be made to improve the utilization of instructional resources in the classroom, which serves as the foundation for this research.
Nonetheless, the significance of this study is to promote massive improvement in teaching and learning in Nigerian primary schools through the use of teaching resources in order to achieve better and more sustainable results in the near future in order to improve government aims and objectives in primary schools.
Finally, this study will be beneficial to the scholars and students as it will serve as an existing material for further studies and future research.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be focused on the impact of teaching resources on pupils academic achievement. Specifically, this study will be focused on examining the extent teaching resources are used in primary schools, examining the extent of availability of teaching resources in primary schools, determining the types of teaching resources used in primary schools and examining the effects of teaching resources on the academic performance of students in primary schools.
Teachers and pupils of selected primary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area in Osun State will be used as participants for the survey.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
A study of this sort would be incomplete without addressing some of the difficulties that the researcher experienced. As a result, the different issues that limit the results of this research endeavor are addressed below.
This study is primarily based on the responses of pupils and teachers. The time allotted for this study was insufficient; as a result, the researcher was unable to conduct a thorough and comprehensive investigation into the subject.
In the local government region used as a case study for this research, there was another period of long vacation for teachers and pupils.
Finally, all of the questionnaires distributed to the researcher were not returned by instructors, students, or counselors. And this would only encourage him to work with those who were closest to him.
1.8 Definition of Terms
A marked effect or influence
A material that is designed to help facilitate learning and knowledge acquisition.
A person who is taught by another, especially a schoolchild or student in relation to a teacher.
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
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