Impact Of Teaching Methods And Students’ Academic Performance In Business Studies In Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Business Education Students

Impact Of Teaching Methods And Students’ Academic Performance In Business Studies In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of teaching methods on student academic performance in business studies using some selected junior secondary schools Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the impact of the discussion method on student academic performance in business studies, examine the impact of the demonstration method and student academic performance in business studies, determine the impact of questioning method on student academic performance in business studies, find out the impact of lecture method on student academic performance in selected secondary schools in business studies. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of business studies teachers and students of some selected junior secondary schools Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that discussion method of teaching has an impact on student academic performance in business studies. The study also revealed that questioning method of teaching has an impact on student academic performance in business studies. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should continue to home their skills by attending workshops seminars and other teaching enhancing programmes that can enable them be on top of their game, teachers should be aware of the right teaching methods to apply in teaching when one method is not effective since a combination of methods is considered most appropriate To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Teaching at any level of education is to bring about a fundamental change that will facilitate the process of knowledge transmission in the learners. At this instance, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that would best suit specific objectives and outcomes. In the traditional era where teaching and learning gained much development, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the field of educational research. Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in students learning.

Teaching involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. It is the learner who must be engaged for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn.
According to Ibe-Bassey (2015), the skillful and competent teacher uses as many methods and techniques as possible because, there is no single method which is regarded as the best for every teaching situation. In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the caliber of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of teaching. Studies have shown that appropriate instructional materials coupled with right choice of methods facilitate learning achievement to a large extent. This applies at all levels of education and particularly secondary school which deals with foundation of learning and development.

There are many definitions of teaching method by different authors. Kimweri (2012), notes that teaching method can be defined as a practical application of teaching principles based on the nature of learner, the nature of the subject and the learning needs of the students/students. According to Oyekan (2014), teaching methodology is concerned with what method techniques or approach, individuals or group of teachers select and use in actual classroom situation. The success of teaching always lies mainly on the know-how of the subject involved and the use of appropriate method(s) that is required per time during the process of transfer of knowledge. A successful teaching is a product of effective and efficient teaching process.

Vin-Mbah as cited in South and Laslett (2013) described teaching as an all-purpose profession engaged in human resource development for individual and economic growth. Teaching is the process of helping someone to acquire skill, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in behaviour, or in tendencies toward behaviour in his students.

Effective teaching involves informing and explaining stimulating, direction, guiding, administrating, identifying what to learn, method of learning, problems, evaluating, reporting, recording, classroom management, socialization and school-community relationship among others Mba (2011).

It is of a necessity that a skillful teacher needs to be conversant with various teaching strategies which may be applied to subjects at different class situations. Adufe (2008) affirms that many methods of teaching exist in education and these methods are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. Also, the impact of any teaching method is not only limited to the conditions surrounding the teaching but also the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular method in a particular situation should not be left out.

According to Ckenzie, as cited in Adesanya (2016) argues that the objectives of the teacher should also be considered before the selection of any method. This implies that what the teacher intends to achieve at the end of the lesson should be in line with the selected method. In the light of all these, the study therefore sought to find out the influence of different teaching methods and students’ academic performance in business studies in secondary schools in the study area.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many methods of teaching exist in education. All the methods are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little attention is considered by the teachers when selecting the methods to be used in their lesson delivery. Also there are complaints by the teachers, parents and educational stakeholders on the methods used by teachers in teaching the students on the suspicion that they are not effective and these have brought about students’ poor academic performance. It is also observed that students cannot easily follow instructions in class, lessons become dull and boring, it also engender negative attitude, low interest and poor performance among students.

The researcher therefore deemed it necessary to reexamine various teaching methods that may be appropriate in the teaching and learning of business studies in secondary schools as a means for improve students’ academic performance in business studies and its effect on students’ academic performance in Business Studies in secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of teaching methods on student academic performance in business studies. The study will specifically;

  1. Find out the impact of the discussion method on student academic performance in business studies.
  2. Examine the impact of the demonstration method and student academic performance in business studies.
  3. Determine the impact of questioning method on student academic performance in business studies.
  4. Find out the impact of lecture method on student academic performance in selected secondary schools in business studies.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Does discussion method of teaching have an impact on student academic performance in business studies?
  2. Does demonstration method of teaching have an impact on student academic performance in business studies?
  3. Does questioning method of teaching have an impact on student academic performance in business studies?
  4. Does lecture method of teaching have an impact on student academic performance in business studies?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: there is no significant relationship between teaching methods and students academic performance in Business studies.

Ha: there is a significant relationship between teaching methods and students academic performance in Business studies.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is aimed at adding to the teaching and learning processes, in secondary schools it will assist teachers, students, school proprietresses and administrators and other researchers who want to embark on study in this area.

The teachers will explore other teaching methods that can be applied in teaching business studies and how each affect students’ academic performance.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the impact of teaching methods on student academic performance in business studies. This study will focus solely on discussion method of teaching, demonstration method of teaching, questioning method of teaching, and lecture method of teaching. The respondents for this study will be obtained from some selected junior secondary schools Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching

Teaching often involves inquiring, listening, providing information, explaining a phenomena, showing a skill or process, testing understanding and ability, and enabling learning activities

Teaching Method

Teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.

Student Performance:

This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of teaching methods on student academic performance in business studies using some selected junior secondary schools Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of teaching methods on student academic performance in business studies using some selected junior secondary schools Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the impact of the discussion method on student academic performance in business studies, examine the impact of the demonstration method and student academic performance in business studies, determine the impact of questioning method on student academic performance in business studies, find out the impact of lecture method on student academic performance in selected secondary schools in business studies.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arebusiness studies teachers and students of some selected junior secondary schools Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Discussion method of teaching has an impact on student academic performance in business studies.
  2. Demonstration method of teaching has an impact on student academic performance in business studies.
  3. Questioning method of teaching has an impact on student academic performance in business studies.
  4. Lecture method of teaching has an impact on student academic performance in business studies.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should continue to home their skills by attending workshops seminars and other teaching enhancing programmes that can enable them be on top of their game, Teachers should be aware of the right teaching methods to apply in teaching when one method is not effective since a combination of methods is considered most appropriate.
  2. School owners and administrator should employ qualified teachers, train and retrain them from time to time so that they can meet up to the set standards.
  3. School owners and administrators should create a conducive teaching a learning environment, particular in the area of class size.
  4. Government should provide incentives that can boost the educational sector which the schools fait under in terms of infrastructure and basie amenities like, Water table, electricity supply, desks and chairs, chalk boards improved toilet facilities etc.

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