The Impact Of Teachers And Qualification On Students’ Academic Performance In Mathematics

Mathematics Education Project Material

The Impact Of Teachers And Qualification On Students’ Academic Performance In Mathematics


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of teacher and qualification on students academic performance in mathematics using some selected secondary schools in Suleja Local government in Niger State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain whether teacher’s competence impact the teaching-learning of mathematics in primary school, find out the level of teachers qualification significantly influences students performance in mathematics and determine if there is a significant difference in the performance of students taught by highly qualified teachers than ones taught by unqualified teachers. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of mathematics teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Suleja Local government in Niger State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that teacher’s competence impacts the teaching-learning of mathematics in secondary school students. The study also revealed that there is a significant difference in the performance of students taught by highly qualified teachers than ones taught by unqualified teachers. Therefore, it is recommended that graduate teachers (HND holders, B.Sc holders etc) without teaching qualification should endeavour to proceed on PGDE or PDE programme in addition to their first degree to enhance their teaching method in Mathematics in secondary schools level. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The quality of education in a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ achievement in Mathematics is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Bamidele and Adekola (2017) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of students’ achievement in science and mathematics. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in science and mathematics. This report was in line with the findings ofAnyip (1988). The researchers opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE), the Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed), National Certificate in Education (NCE), and Masters in Education. Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gavethem professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from general education (Akpo, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic achievement. In Rivers State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiauzu and Princewell, 2011). Ehrenberg & Brewer (1994) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. Jonah (2004) investigated the influence of teacher’s qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. Also, Adeniji (2004), Adaramola and Obomanu (2011) and Daniel et al. (2007) found out that teacher’s qualification contributes minimally with variance to students’ cognitive achievement. This was contrary to the observations of Adeogun (2001) who found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement in mathematics and physics. A lot of variables according to them may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students; such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, and inadequate use of instructional materials among others which the present study sought to examine. Moreover, a study done by Adaramola and Obomanu (2011) show that lack of qualified teachers led to consistent poor performance of students in Science and Mathematics (SMT) subjects. Also studies done by other scholars found that teachers’ professional qualifications and teaching experience are not significantly related to students’ academic achievement (Rivkin et al., 2005; Buddin and Zamarrow, 2009; Mbugua et al., 2012; Valentin et al., 2018). Mixed and conflicting results however were noted on the effect of teachers’ qualification on academic performance of students in mathematics. For instance, in the studies of Jonah (2004), Adeniji (2004), Adaramola and Obomanu (2011), Daniel et al. (2007), Adeogun (2001), Okonwa (2014) and many other studies, mixed results were observed and thus brought about too many arguments on the issue of teachers’ qualification on academic performance of students in mathematics, so as a result, the study therefore becomes a necessity so as to bridge the gap in the literature. As it can be seen from the aforementioned empirical evidences, there are inconclusive and inconsistent results with regard to the effect of teachers’ qualification on academic performance of students in mathematics. However, from the literature reviewed, only few studies have been done on teachers’ qualifications on students’optimal performance and more importantly, no study on teachers’ qualifications had been conducted and emphasized particularly on secondary schools in Anambra State of Nigeria. This is another modest contribution to bridge the research gap in the literature and as well make suggestions based on the findings of the study on how these issues and arguments could be harnessed.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Educational planners, policymakers, and administrators throughout the world have been more worried about the quality of education delivered by the school system in recent decades. They have realized that many significant changes in the quality of education received by schoolchildren are heavily dependent on the quality of educators (Anderson, 1991). Importantly, studies have shown that instructors need to be academically qualified in their numerous teaching disciplines. In a study conducted by Etim (1985), he discovered that teachers learned adequate abilities from a preparation program to teach their topics at any school level. This emphasizes the need of teachers receiving sufficient subject-matter training so that their classroom instruction is above board. Otuka (1987) linked the misconceptions of students to be associated with that held by their professors. Therefore teacher understanding of specific subject matter, particularly at the secondary level, is also a good predictor of student progress, according to research. Monk (1994) discovered a strong link between teacher subject matter preparation in mathematics and student success for both low and high-scoring students, while Goldhaber & Brewer (2002) discovered that students perform better in mathematics when they are taught by a teacher who has a bachelor’s or master’s degree in mathematics. However, the importance of having a basic understanding of mathematics cannot be overstated. This concerning situation, as well as the need to improve students’ mathematics learning and achievement in Nigeria, necessitates further investigation on the impact of teacher and qualification on students academic performance in mathematics.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of teacher and qualification on students academic performance in mathematics. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. To ascertain whether teacher’s competence impact the teaching-learning of mathematics in primary school
  2. To find out the level of teachers qualification significantly influences students performance in mathematics.
  3. To determine if there is a significant difference in the performance of students taught by highly qualified teachers than ones taught by unqualified teachers.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. Does teacher’s competence impact the teaching-learning of mathematics in secondary school students?
  2. Does the level of teachers qualification significantly influences students performance in mathematics?
  3. Is there a significant difference in the performance of students taught by highly qualified teachers than ones taught by unqualified teachers?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1: Teacher’s competence does not impact the teaching-learning of mathematics in secondary school students.
  • HO2: There is no significant effect of teacher’s qualification on the academics performance of students in Mathematics in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is envisaged that a careful identification of the teachers’ qualifications will provide the state education board with possible means of improving student’s performance in the subject as it concentrates on the issues of teacher quality. The study will also help Further Mathematics teachers to see the need to improve their knowledge on the subject; by way of seminar and workshops or additional academic qualification so as to appropriately have more positive impact on their students. This study has provided the teacher and educational policy makers with information on the need for retraining so as to keep the teacher abreast with the latest and best practices in their area of specialization to give out the best in the dissemination of knowledge to the students. Findings of the study will also contribute to the body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to both scholars and student who wishes to con duct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the impact of teacher and qualification on students academic performance in mathematics. The study will further discuss if teachers competence affect teaching-learning of mathematics. More so the study will consider if there is any difference in the test score of students taught by qualified teachers than those taught by unqualified teachers. The study is however delimited to Suleja Local government in Niger State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only secondary schools in Suleja Local government in Niger State.. Thus findings of this study cannot be generalized for other primary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Student Academic Performance:

Refers to the display of knowledge attained or skilled developed in school subject designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teacher to the students. This shows a valued judgment placed on various means of evaluation of teaching-learning.

Mathematics:

Is a very desirable tool virtually all spheres of human endeavors be it science, engineering, industry, technology, and even the arts it is a key subject in the school curriculum and is considered a knowledge that is indispensable to an educated person

Mathematics Test:

This is a criterion test which includes varieties of questions. The questions require pupils to choose out of four options and individual pupils are scored into 4 levels.

Teachers’ Qualification:

Research shows that mathematics teachers quality is unevenly distributed in schools and students with the greatest needs tend to have access to the least qualified and least effective teachers (Peske and Haycock 2006)

Teaching Experience:

Teachers will be categorized according to whether or not they had more than five years of teaching experience mathematics. Peske and Haycock (2006) said that years of experience and educational background are useful indicators for measures of teacher quality. Yet while they are associated with characteristics, they do not guarantee success in student’s academics performance.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of teacher and qualification on students academic performance in mathematics using some selected secondary schools in Suleja Local government in Niger State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was onthe impact of teacher and qualification on students academic performance in mathematics using some selected secondary schools in Suleja Local government in Niger State as a case study.The study is was specifically set toascertain whether teacher’s competence impact the teaching-learning of mathematics in primary school, find out the level of teachers qualification significantly influences students performance in mathematics and determine if there is a significant difference in the performance of students taught by highly qualified teachers than ones taught by unqualified teachers.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent aremathematics teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Suleja Local government in Niger State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Teacher’s competence impacts the teaching-learning of mathematics in secondary school students.
  2. The level of teachers qualification significantly influences students performance in mathematics.
  3. There is a significant difference in the performance of students taught by highly qualified teachers than ones taught by unqualified teachers.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Since students taught by PGDE/PDE holders perform better than students taught by NCE holders in Mathematics, the study recommended that teachers with NCE should strive to improve their knowledge in Mathematics by acquiring additional qualification through in-service training or part-time or sandwich degree programme in the universities around their place of working.
  2. Graduate teachers (HND holders, B.Sc holders etc) without teaching qualification should endeavour to proceed on PGDE or PDE programme in addition to their first degree to enhance their teaching method in Mathematics in secondary schools level.
  3. The holders of M.Sc are also suggested to enroll in PGDE or M.Ed so as to improve on their teaching methods since teachers’ education is a significant predictor of educational achievement.

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