Impact Of Teachers Educational Qualification On The Performance Of Secondary School Students In Economics
This study examined the impact of teacher’s educational qualification on the performance of senior secondary school students in economics in a sample of Yaba local Government area of Lagos State. In this study five question and two hypotheses were develop frequency comp and percentages was used to analysed the table, the result from the analysis shows, that teacher qualities has strong influence in academic achievement of senior secondary students, significant relationship exist between teachers years of experience students academic performance is economic and it was recommend that there is need for quality planning quality assurance mechanism needs to be implemented for continuous monitoring of each public secondary school among others
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of content
- List of table
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
- 1.7 Significance of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 2.0 Introduction
- 2.1 The Nature and Definition of Teacher’s Educational Qualification
- 2.2 Concept and Causes of Poor Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Economics
- 2.2.1 Family Background and Poor Academic Performance of the Child
- 126.96.36.199 Types of Family and Students’ Academic Performance
- 188.8.131.52 Family Size and Position in the Family
- 184.108.40.206 Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status
- 220.127.116.11 Types of Discipline At Home
- 2.2.2 Finance
- 2.2.3 School Factors
- 18.104.22.168 School Location and Physical Building
- 22.214.171.124 Interpersonal Relationship among the School Personnel
- 126.96.36.199 Quality of Teaching Staff
- 188.8.131.52 Teachers’ Method of Teaching
- 184.108.40.206 Classroom Management
- 220.127.116.11 Learning Environment
- 2.2.4 Peer Group Influence
- 2.3 Factors Affecting Teacher’s Academic Qualification in Economics
- 2.4 The Need for Teacher Education
- 2.5 The Need for Educational Planning and Human Capital Development
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
Data Analysis and Discussion of Results
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Age of the Respondents
- 4.3 Gender of the Respondents
- 4.4 Qualifications of the Respondent Teacher’s
- 4.5 Hypothesis Testing
- 4.6 Discussion of Results
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
- Appendix 1: Questionnaire
List of Tables
- Table 4.1 Frequency distribution of the 50 students by age group
- Table 4.2 Frequency distribution of the 50 students by gender
- Table 4.3 Frequency distribution of the 50 respondents by the highest educational qualification attained by their teachers
- Table 4.4 Respondents data 1
- Table 4.4.1 Hypothesis testing 1
- Table 4.5 Respondents data 2
- Table 4.4.2 Hypothesis testing 2
- Table 4.6 Respondents data 3
- Table 4.4.3 Hypothesis testing 3
- Table 4.7 Respondents data 4
- Table 4.4.4 Hypothesis testing 4
- Table 4.8 Respondents data 5
- Table 4.4.5 Hypothesis testing 5
1.1 Background to the Study
It is imperative to enunciate the nature and trend of educational progress in any developing country. Education is a systematic intellectual and moral training, geared towards obtaining knowledge, development of character and also mental development that will ensure human survival. This becomes a reality through effective teaching and learning. The performance of students in school greatly depends on the ability and capacity of the prospective teachers and the school administration.
Hence, an efficient, reliable and courteous teacher equipped with professionalism, creative imagination, costly ingenuity and depth of experience is a necessity for optimal performance in the 21st century.
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Adebule, 2004). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination. The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results (SSCE)
conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects.
The National Policy of Education states, “No Education system can rise above the quality of teachers in the system” (Fgn, 2006). Orgunsaju (2004), states that the academic standard in all Nigerian educational institutions has fallen considerably below societal expectations. Blumende (2001), corroborated this view when he reported that the decline in the quality of education cannot be ignored by anyone who is aware of the significant role of education as an instrument of societal transformation and development.
There is a need to focus on teachers’ adequacy and competency in respect to their pedagogical practices and strategies and mastery of the curriculum and subject content (Chall & Popp, 1990; Stuart, 2004; Rodgers, 2001). In support of the aforementioned scholars, Ekwesili (2006), institutionalized the Private Public Partnership (PPP) and School Based management Committee (SBMC) to manage secondary education and to promote school effectiveness since students’ success depends on the amount of learning that takes place in the classroom and other related how effective and efficient the teacher performs in schools. Ijaiya (1998), concurred and opined that improving the quality of the teaching force in schools is seen as the key to raising student achievement. Thus, raising educational standards should be the government’s number one priority. Similarly, Lassa (2000), and Guga (1998), claimed that education cannot be provided by just anybody, it requires a teacher who plans and
delivers the lessons or instruction in such a way that objectives can be achieved. An uncertified teacher cannot prepare students for WASCE/GCE because it is unlikely that they could pass. Corroborating this,,. Owolabi (2007), stated that government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system. The Baguada Seminar Reports on Quantities and Qualities in Nigerian Education (NERC, 1980) as cited by ESA, (2005) also shared the consensus that teachers are the main determinants of quality in education: If they are apathetic, uncommitted, uninspired, lazy, unmotivated, immoral, and anti-social, the whole nation is doomed. If they are ignorant in their disciplines and thus impart wrong information, they are not only useless but dangerous. Therefore, the kind of teachers trained and posted to schools may well determine what the next generation will be like. Based on the aforementioned statement, this study examined the relationship between the quantity and quality of teachers/the relationship between the quality and quality of teachers/principals and students’ academic performance in economics.
Abraham and Keith (2006), used a questionnaire as the basis for constructing an index of school effectiveness. Their findings revealed that teachers were the key drivers of internal school conditions for effectiveness, development and school change. Ibitoye (2003), discovered that there is a significant relationship between enrolment, utilization of classrooms provided for teachers, the teaching of learning activities and students
academic performance. In the same way, Akpofure and N’dipu, (2000), reported the need for schools to maintain a manageable carrying capacity in utilization of classrooms, libraries and laboratories for effective teaching and learning. To them, this will pave the way for quality assurance in schools. A similar study by Aduwa (2004), on determinants of students’ academic success, reported that a student’s home environment, their cognitive abilities, self-esteem, self-concept, (2005), contended that the provision of all these factors may not have significant principals, teachers and other school teams. Also Ehrenberg and Brewer 1995), and Ferguson (1991) asserted that students learn more from teachers with strong academic skills. According to these researchers, teachers’ assignments depend on their qualification of the subject (s) being taught. Middle and high school students learn more from teachers who hold Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees in the subjects they teach and from experienced teachers than they do from less experienced ones (Darling-Hammond, 2000).
In a study on human resource and organizational achievement, Egungun (1992) found that the placement of only the right employees in the right jobs, at the right time and places assist greatly in attainment of organizational set goals and objectives.
Different studies showed that the most important resource input in the school is teacher quality (TQ) that predicts student achievement. The economists, who measure the effect of TQ on student learning and achievement, provide evidence of the importance of teaching. Researchers look for he teachers’ effectiveness as a determining factor for student achievement. An effective teacher will have students with a good test score. In this way, the researchers isolate the effect of TQ from that of other factors that may affect student achievement.
TQ has an important role in student achievement as Goldhaber (2003) stated that:
Teachers clearly play an important role in shaping the future of individuals as well as of entire generations and in recent years, new research has demonstrated the dramatic effect that teachers can have on the outcomes of students from all academic and social backgrounds.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The annual release of SSCE results conducted by the WAEC justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects including economics. In the just concluded SSCE examination, WAEC made known that only 20% of students passed five (5) compulsory subjects. Adebule (2004), stated that all over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. Parents and Government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Morakinyo, (2003) believe that the falling standard of academic achievement is attributable to teachers’ non use of verbal reinforcement.
So therefore, it is observed severally that senior secondary school students pay less attention to elective subjects i.e economics and teachers’ attitude towards changing this view in students through their prospective skills, method of teaching and level of experience is poor.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of teacher’s educational qualification on the performance of senior secondary school students in economics.
Specifically, the objectives of the study are:
- To Examine the impact of teacher quality on the academic achievement of secondary school students in economics.
- Determine the qualities that make up a good economics teacher.
- Examine the roles of economics teachers in improving students’ performance.
- Examine the relationship between economics teachers teaching method and students performance.
- Suggest for educational planners and policy makers in the state teaching service commission.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of teacher’s contribution towards student’s performance in economics?
- What are the qualities that make up a good economics teacher?
- What is the level of teachers increase in the performance of senior secondary school students in economics in this present millennium?
- What is students’ perception on their poor academic performance and teacher’s methods of teaching?
- How can educational qualities of teachers lead to students’ performance in economics?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research seeks to test the following null hypotheses and make decisions on their outcome based on the data that will be gathered.
H0: Teacher qualities have no strong influence on academic achievement of senior secondary school students.
H0: There is no significant difference between teachers’ years of experience and student’s academic performance in economics.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The research study will look at the impact of the teachers to the performance of senior secondary school students in economics.
Because of time constraint, This study will be delimited to the research design in the five (5) randomly selected secondary schools in yaba local government area of Lagos state, namely, Lagos city college, kings college Lagos, queens college, eletu odibo secondary school and our lady of Apostle school, Yaba.
Out of the five randomly selected schools, fifty (50) students offering economics will be randomly selected in all.
Research instrument will be the questionnaire, while a non-parametric test will be used to present the data.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of the research work will be of help to teachers, students, school management and educational planners as well as the entire society. It will guide the school management on what qualities and qualifications to look for in recruiting facilitators. It will also give teachers an insight into what is expected of them. Also, these findings can be used to guide educational planners about the need for qualified economics teachers to facilitate effective teaching and learning in secondary schools.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were define according to the circumstances of their usage.
This refers to the level of academic achievement of a teacher beginning from the level of teachers training to the level of in-service training.
This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.
Economics is a science of allocation and distribution of scarce means to satisfy human unlimited wants.
This refers to a means through which prospective teachers are trained to teach.
Human Resources Management:
It is a means of supervising, directing and controlling the numbers of people who have skills, educational and experience that are critical for the socio-economic development of a country.
This is a proposed intention at achieving educational aims and improving teaching and learning.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary of major findings in this study, draw conclusions and make recommendations for further studies.
5.1 Summary of Findings
The study was designed to determine the relationship between the qualification of teachers, principals and senior secondary school student’s performance in economics in selected secondary schools in Yaba local Government area of Lagos. General findings revealed the existence of teachers’ perception. Although it is worthy of note that teachers level of experience, readiness, attitude and interest all constitute teachers’ qualification. It was identified in the study that some schools lacked adequate qualified teachers.
However the funding situation of the secondary schools by the Government is worrisome to this fact, it was noticed that underfunding the areas of teacher education and manpower planning has made way for poor delivery of teaching and learning. In the field survey it was also identified that there must be a need for the proper orientation for staff so as to be conscious of the programmes and policies of teaching.
This study has shown a positive and significant relationship among quantity and quality of teachers and students’ academic performance in the Nigerian secondary schools. This shows that teachers competency and adequacy is a panacea for attainment of educational goals and objectives. It is therefore not out of place for the NPE (2006) to have equivocally stated that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers.
Implication of the Study for Qualitative Planning
Based on the findings from this study, there is a need for educational planners and policy makers to improve the academic situation of the secondary education from its present state, since most secondary schools in the state operate below specified standards in turning out graduates for higher education.
There is need for each public secondary school to map out its institutional values and goals within the framework of the National Policy on Education Policy thrusts, taking into account the expected trends development in their internal and external environment. This will provide each school a clear view of how it wishes to develop and the means of securing such development. This will also assist greatly in promoting system efficiency thereby paving a way for each public secondary school to operate with minimal wastage.
Implications for Counselling
The enormity and consequence of poor academic achievement call for a serious concern. The more reason why scholars have not ceased to turn their research beam light on the subject matter. A number of scientific and clinical remediation has therefore been proffered in this respect. They are as follows:
1. Parenting enrichment programme:
Unarguably, parents play and determine to a very great extent the academic achievement and overall success of their children. They are the prime educators of the children. Thus, they are fundamentally supposed to be equipped and re-equipped with some multi-dimensional skills. Such skills include: equipping them to understand the psycho physiological development of the child and providing psycho and cognitive stimulating environment for the children. This could be achieved by providing necessary toys and other attractive materials for their children. Parents also need to constantly acquire basic and modern learning skills and transmit the same to their children. In sum, parents should endeavor to imbibe, learning-enrichment and achievement sustaining behaviors to be able to help their wards acquire the same.
2. Psychological Therapy:
Some academic underachievement is best handled through psychological therapy. Psychological tests are therefore needed to make the therapy potent and result oriented. Examples of the psychological tests include: study habit inventory (SHI), student problem inventory (SPI), Slosson intelligent test (SIT), Adolescent Personal Data Inventory (APDI), academic performance 5- factor inventory, and a host of others. Through these tests, some militating causative factors on academic achievement could be diagnosed and necessary clinical remediation made thereafter.
3. Medical Therapy:
Not all problems of academic underachievement could be solved through psychological means. Research work and clinical case reportorial studies have shown that some academic malfunctioning require pathological attention. For instance, brain damage is best handled by a neurologist who would administer electroencephalography test (EEG) on the learners.
4. Relationship Networking:
Since meaningful academic achievement cannot take place in an emotionally loaded environment, it goes without saying that efforts should be made to foster good and positive interpersonal relationships among the various personnel associated with teaching learning situation. It is therefore recommended that relationship networking, skills like contact formation, starting, sustaining and nurturing friendship, asking for obligation, assertiveness, basic influencing skills, conflict resolution skills, problem solving skills and the likes should be imbibed by all to promote good academic achievement.
For qualitative planning of education in the state, a meta-level quality assurance mechanism needs to be implemented for continuous monitoring of each public secondary school’s inputs output effectiveness and practices. The following quality planning stages as outlined by Juran (1979) can be adapted for monitoring of learning achievement in Nigerian public secondary schools. The stages include:
- Breakdown of the Quality Assurance mechanism objectives into logical convenient sub objectives;
- Definition of the deeds to be done;
- Assignment of responsibilities for doing these deeds;
- Establishment of milestones and schedules;
- Description of methods and procedures;
- Provision of facilities, instruments, equipment and space;
- Selection and training of human resources;
- Provision for measurement and reporting of results for control; and
- Provisions for auditing.
These stages will help ensure qualitative learning in schools. In addition, there is need to have School Review Practices in order to guarantee qualified teachers. It is important for each school to have a review team consisting of participants from; the general environment of the school, the students, the teachers, and officials from the ministry of education. This review practice will be based on the domain of teaching and learning as observed by each of the review team members.
The purpose of the observation is to gather information about normal practices in schools on a regular basis as a way of improving the quality of teachers in schools. This will assist greatly in ensuring teachers competency, improving academic excellence in schools and also assist teachers to compete effectively in this constantly changing environment. Such review would also encourage teachers to upgrade their skills on a continuous basis to make them more competent in the delivery of educational services as curriculum implementers. In addition, teachers need motivation for such improvement and should be provided with all the necessary incentives such as adequate salaries, good working conditions and other fringe benefits that compare favourably with what their counterparts in other professions receive. Such practices will assist greatly in the improvement of teaching and learning in the senior secondary schools and will impact students’ academic performance. Additionally, all
teachers who are yet to undertake a post graduate diploma in Education should be encouraged to do so.
This will enable them to register with the Teacher Registration Council (TCR) and be identified as a qualified teacher. Government should, therefore intensify its efforts in monitoring learning achievement in schools and likewise provide schools with adequate facilities so as to encourage the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers in Nigerian secondary schools.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
Future research study is suggested in the following areas:
- Implication of teachers’ level of competency on the performance of secondary school students in economics.
- Students and economics teachers’ perception of the causes at poor academic performance in Nigerian secondary schools: Implications for counseling National development.
- Evaluating the effect of teacher degree level on educational performance in economics subject.
- Teachers and students’ academic performance in Nigerian secondary schools; implications for planning.
- Impact of teacher quality on the academic achievement of Nigerian secondary school students in economics.
Increased awareness of how these factors influence students performance will serve as guiding principles for achieving enhanced instruction and learning in senior secondary schools most especially in economics subject, as it serves as a basis for economic development as well as educational growth in general.
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