The Impact Of Teacher Motivation On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Surulere Local Government Area Of Lagos State)
This study is on the impact of teachers’ Motivation on the academic performance of students in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state. The general purpose of the study was to find out the impact of teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of students in Surulere Local Government Area. The study was a descriptive survey and the researcher employed the use of structured questionnaire in gathering data from the population of four hundred (400), drawing the sample size of one hundred and seventy (110) respondents. The data collection was analyzed using simple percentage techniques. In the course of the study, the researcher found out that teachers in Surulere Local Government Area did not receive regular payment of salaries and allowances and that poor salaries reduced the teachers’ performance in the class room. From the above, the findings, I recommended that regular payment of salaries and allowances should be made available to the teachers in Surulere Local Government Area, and that government should increase teachers’ salaries to help increase the job performance of the teachers.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is largely a matter of a learning process that involves interactions between teacher and learner. When this process works well, real learning takes place. In the past, academic performance was often measured more by ear than today. Teachers’ observations made up the bulk of the assessment and today’s summation, or numerical, method of determining how well a student is performing is a fairly recent invention. Grading systems came into existence in the United States in the late Victorian period and were initially criticized due to high subjectivity. Different teachers valued different aspects of learning more highly than others, and although some standardization was attempted in order to make the system fairer, the problem continued.
Today, changes have been made to incorporate differentiation for individual students’ abilities, and exploration of alternate methods of measuring performance is ongoing. The tracking of academic performance fulfills a number of purposes. Areas of achievement and failure in a student’s academic career need to be evaluated in order to foster improvement and make full use of the learning process. Results provide a framework for talking about how students fare in school and a constant standard to which all students are held. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious, minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of every grade. Performance in school is evaluated in a number of ways. For regular grading, students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral tests, performing presentations, turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions. Teachers evaluate in the form of letter or number grades and side notes, to describe how well a student has done. At the state level, students are evaluated by their performance on standardized tests geared toward specific ages. Many people emphasize the importance of good teachers, and some policies are designed to promote teacher quality. Research using student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some teachers are more effective than others and also reveals that being taught by an effective teacher has important consequences for student achievement and based on a set of achievements students in each age group are expected to meet.
Many factors contribute to a student’s academic performance, including individual characteristics and family and neighborhood experiences. But research suggests that, among school-related factors, teachers matter most. When it comes to student performance on tests, a teacher is estimated to have two to three times the impact of any other school factor, including services, facilities, and even leadership. Teachers at all levels of the education system should be adequately trained, respected, remunerated, and able to participate in decisions affecting their professional lives and teaching environments. When teachers are enabled to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively. A well-motivated teacher always completes the tasks set for him, even when such tasks or assignments are difficult or seem uninteresting.
Motivation involves a number of psychological factors that start and maintain activities towards the achievements of personal goals and refers to reasons that underlie behaviour that is characterized by willingness and volition. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behavior towards subjects matter, Ormord (2003). Motivation of teachers and students in the teaching and learning process can direct behavior towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy, enhances cognitive processing, increases imitation of and persistence in activities, determines what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance. Orphlims (2002) is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job and, as a result, they are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determined to give their best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers in Nigeria have expressed a lot of dissatisfaction about the lack of human resource development, poor working conditions, poor remuneration and poor human relations that exist in schools. This has resulted in high teacher turnover coupled with poor results in Senior High Schools due to lack of commitment towards work. Some newly recruited teachers stay at post for barely one year. The operating conditions of service appear to fall short teachers expectation manifesting in resignations, vacation of post, non –resumption at post after teachers leave of absence and study leave. The general mood of those remaining is not encouraging as they exhibit other forms of withdrawal behaviour such as absenteeism, lateness and passive job behaviour. Unfortunately, in spite of the importance and complexity of these issues, there is very limited good quality literature has been published on them (Bennel 2004). This research focus on the above mentioned factors. The researcher set out to throw more light on factors influencing teacher commitment to teaching so that management of education institutions can do something to motivate teachers to improve their level of performance.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The objective of this research is to find out the effect of motivation on teachers’ performance in the school system. The study specifically tends to:
- Find the extent to which government pays salaries as at when due to the teachers.
- Find out the extent to which promotion of teachers at and when due influences teachers performance.
- Find out the extent which such programs like seminars, conference and workshops that are conducted for the teachers can enhance their performance in the class.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does irregular payment of teachers’ salaries affect teachers’ performance on their work?
- To what extent do seminars, conferences and workshops for teachers influence teachers’ performance?
- To what extent does inadequate promotion of teachers affect teachers’ performance in the classroom?
- To what extent does negligence of teachers’ welfare affect teachers’ performance in the classroom?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- H1: There is a significant relationship between teacher’s motivation and their job performance.
- H2: There is a significant difference between public and private school teacher’s performance.
- H3: There is a significant difference in motivation in both public and private school teachers.
- H4: There are differences in motivation and performance across individual demographics.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is hope that the final result of this research work will help in finding possible ways in which motivation can influence productivity/ performance in teaching and learning process and also improve learning on the part of students. It is important for the researcher to put into consideration, the significance of teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students.
However, this research will be significant in the following ways:
- When teachers are being motivated, the society/ government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best, the students will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of its citizens.
- Parents will also benefit when teachers are being motivated in the sense that the students will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out family responsibilities.
- Students will benefit equally when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them to enhance and improve their performance.
- The teachers also benefit a lot when positive motivation is given to them in terms of promotion, fringe benefit, salaries are paid at and when due, they will give in their best in the teaching process. And also their standard of living will improve.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covers some selected secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area; and is limited to finding the effect of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The following problems limited the extent to which the researcher to have gone in carrying out the research.
- Inadequate financial resources affected the study; hence the sample size was small.
- Limited time available to the researcher also influence the research. This was because; the research was carried out during the school academic program.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A person whose job is teaching, impact knowledge in an individual.
A Person who is studying in school.
How well or badly you do something.
A reason why somebody does something or behaves in a particular way.
A room where a class of children or students is taught.
This deals with making headway in school.
A place where learners are educated.
Discussion, Conclusions, Implications of the Study and Recommendation
In this chapter, the result of the data analyzed in chapter four are interpreted and discussed. Also, the educational implications of the findings, recommendations, suggestions for further study, summary and conclusion were made.
5.1 Discussion of Findings
Research Question 1
Does irregular payment of salaries and allowances hinder teachers’ dedication to duty?
The result of the research as shown in table 4.3 indicates that teachers in Surulere Local government area do not received regular payment of salaries and allowances. 61 representing 55.45% respondents agreed that teachers are not regularly paid and also 62 representing 56.36% respondents agreed that allowances do not come often.
From the above, it can be concluded that irregular payment of salaries and allowances hinder teachers’ dedication to duty. This view is upheld by Eliogu and Harries (1997) saying that lack of motivation of teachers has contributed to teachers’ poor performance which, as well affects students’ (economics students inclusive) performance adversely. To them, a teacher performs better when motivated than when not promoted.
Research Question 2
Do poor salaries reduce teachers’ performance in the classroom?
As shown in table 4.4, the result indicates that teachers in SurulereLocal Government Area receive poor salaries as 65 representing 59.09% respondents agreed to that. It was also observed that the situation affects the performance of teachers in the classroom.
From the result above, poor salaries reduce the teachers’ performance in the classroom. Following the result, Equity theory of motivation suggests that an individual’s motivation, performance and job satisfaction depends on the individual’s comparism of his or her contribution and rewards with those of others in similar situation. However, since teachers in Surulerefia Local Government Area receive poor salaries which when compared with others in similar situation is nothing to write home about, their performances are affected adversely.
Research Question 3
Does non-implementation of teachers’ promotion reduce the morals of teachers?
The result of the research as shown in table 4.5 indicates that teachers in Surulere local government Area do not receive or are not promoted as at when due. This was confirmed by 60 representing 54.55% respondents who agreed.However, it can be seen that non implementation of teachers’ promotions reduce the moral of teachers. In view of this, promotion which is one of the incentives that encourage growth on the job, when it is lacking, teachers’ morale on the job get reduced or affected.
Research Question 4
Does the working environment under which teachers teach affect their interest in the job as well as their output in teaching and learning?
The result of the research as shown in table 4.6 indicates that teachers’ interest in the job and their output in teaching and learning are affected due to unconducive working environment. In a school where nature of the classroom, laboratory facilities and library are all in discouraging state, the interest of teachers as well as the output would be hampered in the course of discharging their duties. To this end, 63 representing 57.27%, 64 representing 58.18% and 73 representing 66.36% respondents attested.
Bernes (2014) upheld the findings of the study by asserting that the motivational elements are incentives granted to an individual to enhance his or her performance.
These rewards and incentives contribute to strategy for effective implementation of descried goals and shaping of individual’s or group’s behaviour. When teachers are motivated their performances would be directed towards achieving educational goals.
In conclusion, this study has shown that with adequate motivational elements such as regular and prompt payment of salaries and allowances, upward review of salaries, implementation of promotions, provision of conducive working environments, availability of teaching aids/instructional materials etc. would help to improve the job performance of teachers and the standard of education.
5.3 Educational Implication of the Study
When teachers are not adequately motivated, they will not be satisfied with their jobs. This would no doubt make them not to be committed as expected of them. Owing to this and many more, low productivity will set in and the adverse effect will be on the students who would irrefutably perform below academic standard in SurulereLocal Government Area of Lagos state and Nigeria at large.
However, these findings provides possible clue to why the various arms of education have failed to yield fruitful and expected maximum outcomes. Most implementers of educational programmes do not received adequate motivation hence, loss of interest and poor performance sets in.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made.
- Regular and prompt payment of salaries and allowances should be made available to teachers in SurulereLocal government area, in order to enhance their dedication to duties.
- Government of Surulere local government council and Lagos state government should look into the allocation or monthly salaries and allowances of teacher with a view to reviewing and increasing it, since the economic situation in the country is not static and favourable. This will help to increase the job performance of the teachers.
- Promotion exercise should always be conducted annually and as at when due and subsequently implemented without delay so as to reflect on their salaries.
- The working environment under which teachers perform their duties should be made conducive enough to boost there interest in the teaching and learning process.
- Adequate teaching aids and materials should be made available for effective teaching and learning.
5.5 Limitation of the Study
Each research work is subject to one form of limitation or the other and this research is not an exception. However, the research was aimed at sampling the entire secondary schools in the area of the study, but owing to the distance at which each school was from another and considering the transportation cost, only ten (10) schools were sampled. Consequently, respondents were found to be reluctant in supplying the needed information as they often entertain fear of indictment even with the use of the questionnaire method insisting that the name of the school could indict them. Nevertheless, efforts were made to ensure the objectivity of the study.
5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies.
- Since the study was limited to Surulere Local government area, the same research could be conducted in other local government areas to compare the finding
- Similarly, one can investigate the matter of job satisfaction among male and female teachers to find out if gender has anything to do with job satisfaction among teachers.
- Research work could be carried on how labour (union leaders) can influence the government to effect implementation of policies that has to do with welfare of teachers at various levels.
- A study or an investigation into the influence on the productivity of teachers in order to find out whether the qualification of teachers have any influence or impact on their productivity level.
5.7 Summary of the Study
This study focused on the impact of teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of Economics student in Surulere local government area of Lagos State. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, ten (10) schools where selected out of twenty (20) secondary schools in the local government area. Questionnaire were designed distributed administered, collected, analyzed and findings or results interpreted.
In the light of the results, the educational implications of the study where pointed out based on the findings.
Furthermore, some recommendations were also made and if adequately followed and implemented, would go a long way in ensuring greater job performance of teachers both in Surulere local government area and other local government areas in Nigeria.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the impact of teacher motivation on academic performance?
When teachers are enabled to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively. The trust of this paper is on ‘the impact of teacher motivation on academic performance of students’. Concept of Teacher Motivation Teacher motivation refers to those variables, factors that influence teachers to do things.
Can motivation improve the standard of education at secondary school level?
Motivation could lead to an upliftment in the standard of education at secondary school level.
What influences teacher-learner interactions for better student academic performance?
Determinants of teacher-learner interactions for better students’ academic performance were found to include-the status of teachers, class size, increasing workload, professional freedom, the work environment, teacher education and professional development, teachers’ salaries and negotiations and consultations.
How can teachers’ work environment affect their work performance?
The study implied that teachers’ work environment (offices, offices fittings and furniture etc) help to raise the ego and value system of the teacher regarding his/her work. Thus, educational administrators should ensure a conducive and serene working environment for their teachers.
What can teachers do to motivate their students?
Teachers’ positive, caring, and trusting relationships with their students can instigate students to learn. Teachers motivate their students to learn by providing them with positive feedback, in order to develop competence.
How important are teachers in improving student performance?
The quality of teachers shows a stronger relationship [than school facilities and curricula] to pupil achievement. Furthermore, it is progressively greater at higher grades, indicating a cumulative impact of the qualities of teachers in a school on the pupil’s achievements.