Impact Of Survival Farming Intervention Programme On Cassava Production

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Economics and Extension

Impact Of Survival Farming Intervention Programme On Cassava Production


Abstract


This study was on Impact of Survival Farming Intervention Programme on Cassava Production in Adavi, Okehi and Okene Local Government Areas of Kogi State and it also determine the factors that influence participation in SFIP. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. A total of one hundred and eighty (180) respondents comprising of ninety (90) participants and ninety (90) non-participants were interviewed with the aid of structured questionnaire which was also administered on ten (10) officials of SFIP to obtained vital information. Analytical tools used were both descriptive (frequency distribution tables, percentages and mean) and inferential statistics (logit regression and chow-test statistical tool). Attitudinal measuring scale such as likert-scale was also used. The results of the analysis obtained shows that majority of the respondents, 66% of the participants, 65% of the non-participants and 70% of the officials were within the age range of 36 – 55 years. Almost all the respondents are married with just few divorced and widowed. More also, about 12.2% of the participants and 47.8% of the nonparticipants had no formal education, while 76.6%, 52.2% and 60% of the participants, non-participants and the officials, respectively attended primary and secondary schools with only 7.8% of the participants and 40% of the officials who attended tertiary institutions. Based on the empirical evidence emanating from this study, planting material, access to credit, extension contact and training components of SFIP ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively, among the highly aware and most used by the participants. Logit regression analysis showed R2 of 0.67969 meaning that about 68% of the variation in the participation of SFIP are been explained by the independent variables in the model. Age (X1), Marital status (X2), Labour (X4), Education (X5), Household (X7), Awareness (X10), Extension contact (X12), Cooperative (X13) and Planting material (X14) had positive coefficients and direct relationship with participation in SFIP implying that one unit increase in their variable coefficient will result to an increase in level of participation. Chow test F-calculated for output, yield, income and level of living were 16.31, 16.65, 21.06 and 28.01 respectively, while that of F-tabulated value for 9 degree of freedom with sample size of 180 was 1.83 at 5% level of probability, hence there was significant impact of SFIP on cassava production output, yield, income and level of living of the participants in the study area. All the null hypotheses were rejected while the alternative hypotheses were accepted. Major constraints identified by the participants were poor road network (67.8%) and poor market for products (40.0%) while majority (90.0%) of the officials attested to poor extension to farmers‟ ratio as a major constraint to effective implementation of SFIP in the study area. In overall, there was significant impact of SFIP on cassava production in the study area, hence it is recommended that the programme scaled-up and replicated in other LGAs and States in the country including FCT, Abuja.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Nigeria has substantial economic potential in its‟ agricultural sector. However, despite the importance of agriculture in terms of employment creation, its potential for contributing to economic growth is far from being fully exploited (USAID, 2005). The agricultural sector has been the mainstay of Nigeria‟s economy employing 70% of the active labour force and contributes significantly to the country‟s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and foreign earnings. In 1960, 1970, and 1980, it contributed 55.2%, 40.7% and 18% to GDP respectively, while its contribution to GDP in 1996, 1997, and 1999 stood at 39.0%, 39.4% and 40.4% respectively (NPC and UNDP, 1999). In 2010 agricultural contribution to GDP stood at 30.0%, while currently as at first quarter of 2012, it is contributing 34.4% to the GDP (NBS, 2012). However, there have been recorded decline in agricultural contribution to the national economic growth for over three decades now since emergence of the oil sector. This decline could be associated with the gross neglect of the agricultural sector and over dependence on the oil sector (Ugwu and Kanu, 2012).

The agricultural sector had been constrained with factors such as poor rural infrastructure, poor fertilizer distributions and high cost of farm inputs that could have enhance its production capacity and contribution to the national economy. The oil-boom era had lead to importation of food items in massive scale at the expense of locally produced ones because the rural farmers do not have the technological resources to compete in international market. This discourages the farmers from producing much because they no longer realized the needed profit from their effort (Ogunwole, 2004). The goal of increasing food production and reducing food import has elicited many programmes and policies at the various levels of government (Kudi et al., 2008). In order to revamp the agricultural sector, the Federal Government of Nigeria had embarked on and implemented several agricultural policies and programmes some of which are defunct or abandoned, and some restructured, while others are still in place. Presidential initiatives on cassava production and a number of new programme interventionsare currently implemented to increase area of cassava production, processing and marketing across the country.

Cassava is one of the most widely cultivated crops in the country. It is generally cultivated on small-holdings in association with crops such as maize, groundnut, cowpea, plantation (such as coffee, coconut and oil palm), vegetables and cocoyam depending on the agro-ecological zone and relies on residual soil nutrients when intercropped with maize which has been fertilized or as following crop in rotation with legumes (IITA, 2004; Chukwuji, 2008). Cassava is grown mainly on impoverished soils with no soil amendments such as fertilizers. Continuous cropping of cassava particularly the high yielding varieties without adequate maintenance of soil fertility could lead to soil and environmental degradation (IITA, 2004). Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the World. Its production is currently put at about thirty-four (34) million metric tonnes a year (FAO, 2002).

Nigeria‟s cassava production was targeted at forty (40) million tonnes in 2005 and sixty (60) million tonnes by 2020 (IITA, 2002). The presidential Initiative on Cassava Production and Export has increased the awareness amongst Nigerians of the industrial crop, popularly referred to as the „new black gold‟. According to Nweke et al. (2002)cassava performs five main roles namely: famine reserve crop, rural food staple, cash crop, industrial raw material and earning of foreign exchange. Uses of cassava products are enormous. Virtually, the whole plant from the leaves, stem and the roots has one use or the other. Daneji (2011) posited that, cassava is one of the most staple food crops in many households in Nigeria. The fresh peeled cassava roots are eaten raw, boiled or roasted. They can also be boiled and pounded to obtain “pounded fufu”. This is most popular in the Eastern part of Nigeria. The processed cassava, either in the form of flour, wet pulp or “garri” is cooked or eaten in three main food forms: “fufu”, “eba” and “chickwangue” (Adebile, 2012). Cassava leaves are rich in protein, calcium, iron and vitamins, comparing favourably with other green vegetables generally regarded as good protein sources. Cassava can be processed into several other products like chips, flour, pellets, adhesives, alcohol, starch, etc which are raw materials in livestock feed, alcohol/ethanol, textiles, confectionery, wood, food and soft drink industries (Iheke, 2008).

In a similar vein, Adebayo (2009) stated that processing the bulky, perishable crop is an obstacle to its full commercialization in sub-Saharan Africa. To motivate farmers, especially women who are the main processors of food in the village, to grow and process their cassava, we need to provide them with labour-saving implements such as graters, peelers, and crushers. There is also need to link them to markets. Cassava roots are bulky and with about 70.0% moisture content, are very perishable. It is therefore, expensive to transport cassava especially along poor access roads. Therefore, a well-developed market access infrastructure is crucial for cassava marketing (Adeniji et al., 2006). However, focus should not be on the exportation of cassava but to develop the enormous local and regional markets for cassava that exist in the country, West African sub-region and Africa as a whole rather than start exporting the industrial raw material to Europe. According to Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics (2008) Nigeria‟s cassava export in 2005, was 2,100 tonnes compared to the leading exporter, Thailand, with 4,384,350 tonnes. The performance evaluation of marketing component of cassava initiative include, establishment of cassava processing centers in each Local Government Area(LGA) of the cassava producing States (Yisa, 2009). In this regard, rural people are encouraged to add value to cassava products by processing it for industrial application and human consumption. Processing of cassava into various shelf-stable and semi-stable products is a widespread activity in Nigeria carried out by traditional cassava processors and small-scale commercial processing units (Henk et al., 2007).


1.2 Problem Statement

Nigeria has a huge agricultural resource endowment and yet the population is facing hunger and poverty. The agricultural sector is facing the problem of sustaining food production to meet up the need of increasing population in the country (Okolo, 2004; Ironkwe, 2005). Various governments in Nigeria have consistently declared policies aiming at self-sufficiency in food. The means toward achieving this objective has always been an expansion in cultivated area and improvement on the yield. Cassava is one of the major staple crops grown in Kogi State particularly in the study area. Government intervention programmes and policies, and the efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in support of production, processing and marketing of cassava date back to the 1970s (Adeniji et al., 2006).

Some of the Government agricultural intervention programmes and policies aimed at increasing agricultural production especially cassava production include the Farm Settlement Scheme, National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP), Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs), River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs), National Seed Service (NSS), National Centre for Agricultural 5

Mechanization (NCAM), Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI) and Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF). Others were the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB), Agricultural Banks, Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Green Revolution (GR), Directorate of Foods, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFFRI), Nigerian Agricultural Insurance Company (NAIC), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA) and Specialized Universities for Agriculture.

Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) is an integrated approach which came into being as a result of the failure of special crop programmes to achieve rural development and food security objectives of government in Nigeria. As intervention strategies, these programmes have been designed to increase productivity in cassava sub-sector, as well as enhancing farmers‟ income from agriculture (Yisa, 2009). The NGOs efforts include Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Project (SARDP), Rural Poverty Eradication Project (RPEP), Cassava Enterprise Development Project (CEDP) and others. All these programmes and policies due to one reason or the other have failed to meet the objective of self-sufficiency in food production.

A number of new initiatives are also currently being implemented to increase area of cultivation, yields, processing and marketing of cassava products in the country. These include the presidential initiatives on cassava production, the National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS), Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) and Rural Banking Scheme (Ugwu and Kanu, 2012). The Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) was formulated between 1995 and 1997 to consolidate the gains made under the Cassava Multiplication Project (CMP) of ADP in order to enhance national food self-sufficiency and improve rural household food security and income of poor farmers within the southern and middle belt States of the country.

At the expiration of the Root and Tuber Expansion Programme time-frame in 2007, the Kogi State Agricultural Development Projects (KADP) formulated an intervention programme in Okehi LGA termed Survival Farming Intervention Programme (SFIP) with the aim of enhancing cassava production, adding value to cassava products through processing and creating markets for the processed products especially “garri” which are packaged into various categories for sales, though, other finish products of cassava such as starch, flour, pellet and chips are also still under consideration. The programme was in later years expanded to include other LGAs.

The SFIP was formulated in October, 2007 with the major objective centered on improving cassava production through the provision of planting materials and other inputs, processing and packaging, and marketing along the value-chain approach to improve the production capacity of the cassava stakeholders and their level of living. The main thrust of the survival farming intervention programme is on the development of cassava processing industry that converts fresh cassava root tubers into primary cassava-based commodities that are tradable in domestic and international markets. The long-term objective is to commercialize cassava production in order to improve the income, food security and living conditions of small-holder households in Kogi State. So far, huge amount of money and human resources have been expended on the programme.

However, since the inception of the programme, no studies have been conducted to assess its impact on the target population. This constitutes a gap in knowledge that need to be filled making this study very imperative. Moreover, according to Delta State Ministry of Agriculture (2004) research findings show that one of the reasons for failure of past government sponsored agricultural development programmes was lack of data base for policy formulation, programme implementation, monitoring and impact evaluation. The study further states that without adequate evaluation, one cannot be sure whether the objectives of a programme have been achieved or not. It was against the backdrop of the aforementioned reasons that this study was conceived to assess the impact of the Kogi Agricultural Development Project Survival Farming Intervention Programme in Adavi, Okehi and Okene Local Government Areas of Kogi State.

The study, therefore, provides answer to the following research questions:

  1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the programme participants and non-participants in the study area?
  2. What is the level of awareness of survival farming intervention programme components?
  3. What are the factors influencing participation of respondents in survival farming intervention programme on cassava production in the study area?
  4. What is the impact of survival farming intervention programme on cassava production of the participants and non-participants in the study area?
  5. What is the impact of survival farming intervention programme on income and level of living of the participants and non-participants in the study area?
  6. What are the constraints to effective implementation of survival farming intervention programme in the study area?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study was to assess the Impact of Kogi Agricultural Development Project Survival Farming Intervention Programme on Cassava Production in Adavi, Okehi and Okene Local Government Areas of Kogi State. The specific objectives are to;

  1. Describe the socio-economic characteristics of the programme participants and non- participants in the study area;
  2. Assess the level of awareness of the survival farming intervention programme components by the respondents in the study area;
  3. Determine the factors influencing participation of respondents in survival farming intervention programme on cassava production in the study area; iv. assess the impact of the survival farming intervention programme on cassava production of the participants and non-participants in the study area;
  4. Assess the impact of the survival farming intervention programme on income and level of living of the participants and non-participants in the study area, and vi. identify the constraints associated with effective implementation of survival farming intervention programme in the study area.

1.4 Justification of the Study

It is important to note that a lot of work has been done on cassava as a crop in terms of its production, processing and packaging but there have been great variation in the scope of coverage (Adeniji et al., 2006; Adebayo, 2009; Yisa, 2009 and Chikezie et al., 2012). This study assessed the impact of survival farming intervention programme which is involve in production, processing and packaging of cassava produce. It is hoped to provide relevant information about SFIP that will be of benefit to both small and medium scale processing firms of cassava products.

The findings are also expected to be useful to agricultural project/programme planners and implementers, donor agencies, project/programme supervising agencies, the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Mineral Resources (FMAMR), researchers and beneficiary of a project/programme in term of policy formulation and design of programme that better the life of rural people.


1.5 Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested in this study:

  1. There is no significant difference between the participants and non-participants of survival farming intervention programme in terms of cassava output in the study area.
  2. There is no significant difference between the participants and non-participants of survival farming intervention programme in terms of cassava yield in the study area.
  3. There is no significant difference between the participants and non-participants of survival farming intervention programme in terms of income from cassava in the study area.
  4. There is no significant difference between the participants and non-participants of survival farming intervention programme in terms of level of living in the study area.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study was on Impact of Kogi Agricultural Development Project Survival Farming Intervention Programme on Cassava Production in Adavi, Okehi and Okene Local Government Areas of Kogi State and it also determine the factors that influence respondents‟ participation in SFIP in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for this study. The first step involved the purposive sampling of the two districts from each of the Local Government Area giving a total of six districts comprising of participant groups (Adavi-West, Ihima and Okene districts) and non-participant groups (Adavi-East, Eika and Okengwe districts). The second step involved simple random sampling of two wards from each district giving a total of twelve (12) wards. The third step involved simple random sampling of fifteen (15) respondents from each of the ward to get a total of one hundred and eighty (180) respondents comprising of ninety (90) participants and ninety (90) non-participants that was interview with the aid of structured questionnaire. Questionnaire was also administered on ten (10) officials of SFIP to obtained vital information. Data was obtained purely from primary source.

Analytical tools used were both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics involved frequency distribution tables, percentages and mean where necessary while the inferential statistics involved the use of logit regression and chow-test statistical tool. Attitudinal measuring scale such as likert-scale was also employed in this study. The results of the analysis obtained shows that majority of the respondents, 66% of the participants, 65% of the non-participants and 70% of the officials are within the age range of 36 – 55 years in the study area. Almost all the respondents are married with just few divorced and widowed. More also, 12.2% of the participants and 47.8% of non-participants did not attend school at all. But, 76.6%, 52.2% and 60% of the participants, non-participants and the officials respectively attended primary and secondary schools. However, 7.8% of the participants and 40% of the officials attended tertiary institutions. Majority of the respondent 84.5%, 75.5 and 100% of the participants, non-participants and the officials respectively have experience in farming activities within the range of 1 – 20 years. In terms of awareness of SFIP, 82.2% of the participants were aware of SFIP while 81.1% of the non-participants were not aware of SFIP. In the same vein, planting material, access to credit, extension contact and training components of SFIP have high awareness and ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively among the participants.

From the logit regression on factors influencing participation of respondents, the value of coefficient of determination, R2 was 0.67969 meaning that about 68% of the variation in the participation of SFIP is explained by the independent variables in the logit regression model. Chow test statistics was to assess the impact of SFIP on the output, yield, income and level of living. Chow test F-calculated for output was 16.31, while that of F-tabulated value for 9 degree of freedom with sample size of 180 was 1.83 at 5% level of probability, hence there is significant impact of SFIP on cassava production output of the participants in the study area. In terms of yield, Chow test F-calculated was 16.65, while the F-tabulated value for 9 degree of freedom with sample size of 180 was 1.83 at 5% level of probability, hence significant impact of SFIP on cassava yield. More also, Chow test F-calculated for income was 21.06, while that of F-tabulated value for 9 degree of freedom with sample size of 180 was 1.83 at 5% level of probability, hence there is significant impact of SFIP on income of the participants in the study area. In the same vein, Chow test F-calculated for living standard was 28.01, while that of F-tabulated value for 9 degree of freedom with sample size of 180 was 1.83 at 5% level of probability, hence there is significant impact of SFIP on living standard of the participants in the study area.

The hypotheses that there is no significant difference between the participants and nonparticipants in terms of cassava output, yield, income and level of living was rejected while the alternative hypotheses were accepted. Finally, the major constraints identified by the participants were poor road network (67.8%) and poor market for produce (40.0%). Majority (90%) of the officials attested to poor extension to farmers‟ ratio as a major constraint to effective implementation of SFIP in the study area.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the empirical evidence emanating from the findings of this study, it could be concluded that there was high level of awareness of the Survival Farming Intervention Programme (SFIP) by farmers in Kogi State with the majority of the participants aware of the various components of the programme. Participation in SFIP had broaden the knowledge base of the participants through the advisory services of the programme, enhanced the output/yield, increased the asset base, increased the income and living conditions of the participants more than that of the non-participants in the study area. In overall, there was significant impact of SFIP on cassava output, yield, income from cassava and level of living of the participants compared to the non-participants in the study area. However, some of the major constraints identified were poor road network, poor market for products, poor storage facilities, poor extension contacts and training.


5.3 Recommendations

From the findings of this study, the following recommendations, among others are put forward:

  1. It was revealed from the finding of this study that there was low level of awareness among the non-participants of SFIP. Therefore, for full acceptance and participation in agricultural programmes, it is recommended that extension agents should increase their contacts and use better medium of communicating to farmers.
  2. Age, marital status, education, labour and extension contact were found to influence participation; it is therefore recommended that Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should provide basic amenities such as schools, hospitals, portable drinking water, recreational centers and others that will improve the socioeconomic status of the farmers especially in the study area.
  3. SFIP was found to have significant impact on cassava output, yield, income and level of living among the participants. Based on the success of the programme in the study area, it is hereby recommended that to be scaled up, replicated in neighbouring villages, Local Government Areas (LGAs) and other States including Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Stake-holders, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Agricultural banks and relevant Government institutions should partner in promotion of agricultural programmes to achieve a sustainable agricultural production.
  4. It is also recommended that farmers should join cooperative societies as this would facilitate access to vital information and credit provided mostly by financial institutions for large scale cassava farming which could in turn increase cassava output, income and improve the level of living of the farmers.
  5. Poor road network and storage facilities were among the constraints identified in the study area. It is therefore recommended that Government should provide rural infrastructures (such as road network, electricity, water and others) that will aid movement of produce from farm to the market and ware-houses.
  6. More so, as mentioned as constraints by the respondents, rural markets should be linked to the urban market through relevant stakeholders to attract good value for cassava products thereby enhancing living standard of the farmers especially those in the rural areas.
  7. There is need for Government to look into the salary and welfare package of agricultural staff in order to enhance their performance for effective discharge of responsibilities. Constant training and re-training is also necessary to ensure capacity building of personnel.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Study

From the findings and conclusion of this study, the following suggestions for further study are made:

  1. There is need to carryout comprehensive study on the impact of Survival Farming Intervention Programme (SFIP) on cassava processing and marketing in the study area.
  2. Comparative study of Survival Farming Intervention Programme (SFIP) and other agricultural programme of Kogi State Agricultural Development Project (KADP) is further suggested in order to evaluate their performance and contribution in improving the living conditions of the targeted population.

5.5 Contributions to Knowledge

The results of this study have contributed to knowledge in the following ways:

  1. This study has extended the frontier of knowledge in terms of impact assessment studies particularly in the study area. Chow test F-calculated 16.31, 16.65, 21.06 and 28.01 revealed impact of SFIP on cassava output, yield, income and level of living of participants, respectively, in the study area. This will be a good source of information for researchers going into impact assessment studies.
  2. It is also evident from the logit regression that 68.0% variation in the participation of respondents are been explained by the independent variables in the model which are the socio-economic and institutional variables in the study area. This implies that, improving on the socio-economic status of the respondents will enhance their participation in SFIP.
  3. Result on the constraints for effective participation shows that poor road network (67.8%) for transporting produce and poor market for produce (40.0%) as a result price fluctuation are the major constraints highlighted by the participants, while majority (90.0%) of the officials attested to poor extension to farmers ratio as a major constraints for effective implementation of SFIP in the study area.

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