Impact Of Stress On Physiology Of Human Body Using General Hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State As A Case Study

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Impact Of Stress On Physiology Of Human Body Using General Hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State As A Case Study


Abstract


This study was carried out on the assessment of the impact of stress on physiology of human body using general hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of nurses and midwives in general hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 70 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that stress can lead to human brain functions complications. The study also showed that stress has a negative impact on human memory. Furthermore, it was discovered that stress has a negative impact on human cognition and learning abilities. Therefore, it is of the researcher’s opinion that though not all stressors cause life-threatening effects, stress’ negative effects on the body are irrefutable and can lead to complications as serious as heart attack and stroke, hence, the medical community needs to play a more significant role in educating the public and treat the patients accordingly using both pharmacological (medications and/or nutraceuticals) and non-pharmacological (change in lifestyle, daily exercise, healthy nutrition, and stress reduction programs) therapeutic interventions.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Stress can be defined as any condition, whether it be physical or emotional, that threatens to alter the state of homeostasis being maintained within the body (Martini, Ober, Nath, Bartholomew & Petti, 2015). The biopsychosocial model differentiates between three separate elements when defining stress; the external element, the internal element, and the interaction between these two factors. The external component is made up of factors in the external environment, while the internal component consists of the physiological and biochemical factors within the body. The interaction between the internal and external elicits physical and cognitive processes known as the body’s stress response (The American Institute of Stress, 2018). This response will be discussed in greater detail in the “Physiology of the Stress Response” section.

Since it is such a prevalent issue in society, it is important to understand how and why stress affects many individuals in such a negative way. Every human will experience stress in one form or another, likely multiple times a day. According to The American Stress Institute, two of the most common sources of reported psychological stress are money and work. 62% of individuals report feelings of stress regarding their financial situations, while 61% of individuals report stress concerning their workplace (The American Institute of Stress, 2018). While it is true that stress can have a negative lasting impact on many individuals who experience it, there are also some positive aspects of experiencing stress, since not all stressors are correlated with life- threatening situations. This positive form of stress is most commonly referred to as eustress. For example, a student about to take an exam may feel high levels of physical and mental arousal associated with the test. However, this is the body preparing them for a stressful scenario, and eventually, the stressful situation will likely be resolved without any lasting effects on physiological function or health. This is because the body becomes aroused by the impending.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A study done on whole-brain network efficiency drew two conclusions concerning stress’ effects on the brain; stress decreases whole-brain functionality and reduces the centrality of brain regions for emotional response (Wheelock, 2018). Frequent chronic stress will cause the heart to work too hard for too long, which can eventually lead to heart disease or heart-related health complications (The American Institute of Stress 2018). The constant attrition of both an individual’s physical and mental fortitude is very likely to lead to lifelong struggles with mental health afflictions such as anxiety and depression. The influence of chronic stress also weakens the immune system and makes an individual more susceptible to viral illnesses such as the flu and the common cold (The American Institute of Stress, 2018). Psychological stress will be the primary form of stress discussed and analyzed in order to more fully understand how it impacts physiological functioning and heart health in humans.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of stress on physiology of human body. Other objectives of the study:

  1. Find out whether stress can lead to human brain functions complications
  2. Determine whether stress has any negative impact on human memory
  3. Find out whether stress has any negative impact on human cognition and learning abilities.
  4. Determine whether stress has any negative impact on human Immune system functions
  5. Determine whether stress has any negative impact on the cardiovascular system functions of the human body
  6. Find out whether stress can lead to human gastrointestinal complications.

1.4 Research Objectives

This study will answer the following questions:

  1. Can stress lead to human brain functions complications?
  2. Does stress have any negative impact on human memory?
  3. Does stress have any negative impact on human cognition and learning abilities?
  4. Does stress has any negative impact on human body immune system functions?
  5. Does stress have any negative impact on the cardiovascular system functions of the human body?
  6. Can stress lead to human gastrointestinal complications?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study’s relevance stems from the fact that its findings may be significant to the society in determining the most effective techniques for managing stress. The study’s findings will assist people to know the effect of stress on the body’s functions. Additionally, the study will assist researchers/students interested in conducting research on these timely concerns.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on examining the impact of stress on physiology of human body. Specifically, this study is focused on find out whether stress can lead to human brain functions complications, determining whether stress has any negative impact on human memory, finding out whether stress has any negative impact on human cognition and learning abilities, determining whether stress has any negative impact on human Immune system functions, determining whether stress has any negative impact on the cardiovascular system functions of the human body and finding out whether stress can lead to human gastrointestinal complications.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Stress: A state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.
Physiology: Physiology is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, physiology focuses on how organisms, organ systems, individual organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions in a living system.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the assessment of the impact of stress on physiology of human body using general hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether stress can lead to human brain functions complications, determine whether stress has any negative impact on human memory, find out whether stress has any negative impact on human cognition and learning abilities, determine whether stress has any negative impact on human Immune system functions, determine whether stress has any negative impact on the cardiovascular system functions of the human body, and find out whether stress can lead to human gastrointestinal complications.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 70 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were nurses and midwives in general hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Stress can lead to human brain functions complications.
  2. Stress has a negative impact on human memory.
  3. Stress has a negative impact on human cognition and learning abilities.
  4. Stress has a negative impact on human Immune system functions.
  5. Stress has a negative impact on the cardiovascular system functions of the human body.
  6. Stress can lead to human gastrointestinal complications.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Though not all stressors cause life-threatening effects, stress’ negative effects on the body are irrefutable and can lead to complications as serious as heart attack and stroke, hence, the medical community needs to play a more significant role in educating the public and treat the patients accordingly using both pharmacological (medications and/or nutraceuticals) and non-pharmacological (change in lifestyle, daily exercise, healthy nutrition, and stress reduction programs) therapeutic interventions.
  2. It very vital that the physician providing treatment for stress understand the fact that all individuals vary in their response to stress, so a particular treatment strategy or intervention appropriate for one patient may not be suitable or optimal for a different patient.
  3. Individuals and organizations should also use few more interventions for stress management namely regular counseling sessions, time management and behavioural training, employee wellness program and sessions like art of living etc.

Impact Of Stress On Physiology Of Human Body Using General Hospital Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State As A Case Study


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