The Impact Of Staff Welfare On The Productivity Of Workers

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The Impact Of Staff Welfare On The Productivity Of Workers


Abstract


Employees are a company’s livelihood. How they feel about the work they are doing and the results received from that work directly impact an organization’s performance and, ultimately, its stability. An unstable organization ultimately under performs. The study was conducted with the main objective of establishing the impact of staff welfare on the productivity of workers. A case study of Madonna University Okija. The study had the following specific objectives: to establish the relationship between rewards system, and employees’ productivity in private universities, to identify the relationship between recognition and employees productivity in private universities, to determine the influence of leadership style on employees’ productivity in private Universities, to determine the effect of communication on employees’ productivity in private universities. To achieve these goals, a questionnaire was designed based on the objectives. The completed questionnaires were processed and analyzed using the SPSS. The study targeted the top management team, teaching and non-teaching staff of the university. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The population of 78 was stratified into three strata: Management staff, teaching staff and non-teaching staff. From each stratum the study used the census method to reach to the entire population of the study. Census method brought out the aspect of accuracy and reliability to this study, because, each and every individual participated to this study. Census method was chosen because the population was small, less than 100.The researcher administered the questionnaire to each respondent, and the return of questionnaire was 100%. The framework described the four effects of motivational system, which are, recognition, leadership, communication and rewards system. The employees’ productivity was measured under the high production, lower absenteeism, more cooperation and more innovation.

The information was therefore, available to the respondents. Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using SPSS and presented through percentage, mean, frequencies. Pearson correlation was used to assess if the relationship between the independent variables, and dependent variable which is employees productivity, was significant or not. The information has been displayed by use of bar charts, graphs and pie charts. The findings of this study were that employees’ productivity depended on motivational system. Rewards would be given according to the individual performance. There was a significant correlation between independent variables and dependent variables. Money was not only the tool for motivation; other tools were effective communication, leadership, rewards system and recognition. The major recommendation of this study is that private universities should design the rewards system which is based on personal performance, in order to maintain employees and to achieve the goals and vision of the organization


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2. Conceptual Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical review of the Study
  • 2.4 Theories of Motivation
  • 2.4.1. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
  • 2.4.2. Hawthorne Effect
  • 2.4.3. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 2.5. Reward system
  • 2.5.1 Creating flexibility
  • 2.5.2 Personal involvement
  • 2.6 Recognition
  • 2.7. Communication
  • 2.8 Leadership Style

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Target population
  • 3.3. Sample and sampling technique
  • 3.4. Data Collection Instruments
  • 3.5 Data Analysis and Presentation

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion


Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to the International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (2014), today, the biggest challenge faced by the managers of different organizations is how to get the qualitative employees who will help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. These are employees who are committed and put in their best towards the accomplishment of organization’s goals and objectives. A strong bond should be created and maintained between employees and organizations human resources to overcome these challenges between managers and employees.

All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people. Therefore, the subject of adequate incentives for workers, as derived from the so many attempts made by management practitioners, is to look for the best way to manage so as to accomplish an objective or mission with the least inputs of materials and human resources available (Forson, 2012).

Robbins (2001) defines motivation as the forces that energizes, direct and sustains a person’s effort. Motivation is an important determination of human behaviour. It is the one which moves one towards the achievement of the goals and objectives. Motivation is an art targeted to getting people work willingly, and an art of inducing one to behave in a particular manner to achieve a task. Motivation is the reason why employees want to work hard and work effectively for the business. It is the desire to achieve a goal. Some people are self -motivated. This means that they have driven to achieve goals on their own. They do not need any encouragement. However, others need to be motivated. They need a push, a pressure, or incentives. The employee motivation is very important because, if a business has a well-motivated workforce, it will perform better. Labour productivity will be higher and therefore, profits are likely to be high. The main benefits of well-motivated employees are lower absenteeism, higher production, more innovation, pleasant working environment, more co-operations, lower staff turnover (Jones, 2011).

Bryans and Crouin, (2005) say that certain individuals have problems of inadequate motivation. These problems arise the concern of those individuals who come into the work situation with differences in expectation, behaviour and outlook. The problems of individual motivation inadequately may be classified into two groups: the first is the inability of certain individuals to be motivated may stem from the fact that there is a deficiency in their personality. For such people, the desire to avoid failure may be too strong while paradoxically, the motive to produce positive results may be too weak. This could produce a general resistance to achievement-oriented activity that should naturally be overcome by other extrinsic modes of motivation if there is to be any spur to achievement oriented activity at all. The second is when the achievement motive is relatively strong, the challenges before the individual worker may be proven to be inadequate or too difficult, and whichever of these that apply to the individual worker will usually manifest themselves in different ways such as lack of enthusiasm or premature surrender (Forson, 2012).

Motivation strategy should aim to increase the effective contribution of members of the organization in achieving its objective. Motivation strategy will refer to the performance of management and reward systems and in particular to the type and scale of financial incentives which are to be provided. But it will also be concerned with other process which should yield favorable attitudes including job design participation, joint objective setting career development and any other processes relating to the individual need to achieve and maintain a sense of personal wealth and importance. Motivation is also affected by the quality of leadership in an organization therefore the selection, training and development of effective leaders should be part of the strategy (Armstrong, 1997).
In an organization set up two situations are likely to happen as far as employees are concerned. The first situation is that some workers leave the organization because they are not motivated enough .The second situations is that some are not willing to leave because they are having some benefit in the organization such as promotion, which leads to increase in salaries and wages, bonus and some other incentives. The managers need to create and maintain an environment in which employees can work efficiently and realize the objectives of the organization.
This study will examine to what extent staff welfare such as achievement, job security, recognition, advancement, job enrichment or the job itself, responsibility, decisional participation and management style employed to raise the morale of the worker for high productivity. The study identifies elements that promote human dignity and thus raise the morale of the worker for higher productivity. The study further investigates the effect of non-financial incentive packages here referred to as ‘non-economic motivators’ on the workers and the consequent output.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to Karen and Peter (2013) People work for a variety of reasons. The main reason why most people work is because they need to earn money to buy food and the basic necessities for life. But some work is voluntary and does not yield any money. One of the challenges faced by private universities and other private sectors is to maintain the employees. Individuals after being trained have a tendency to move to other organizations for better prospects. Lucrative salary, comfortable timings, better ambience, growth prospects are some of the factors which prompt an employee to look for a change. Employee Retention refers to the techniques employed by the management to help the employees stay with the organization for a longer period of time. Employee retention strategies go a long way in motivating the employees so that they stick to the organization for the maximum time and contribute effectively. Individuals work for money but they can switch off from one work to another for more money. At the same time people want recognition and also want to be proud of their company, they want very good relationships with co-workers.

Researchers have studied employee motivation at length; the biggest misconception was that good wages were always the primary motivational factor among employees regardless of the industry by which they are employed (TsangWong.1997. This generalization or supposed knowledge has misdirected frontline supervisors of industrial workers for years (Kovach, 1987). Effective employee motivation has long been one of management most difficult and important duties. Success in this Endeavour is becoming more challenging in light of organizational trends to downsize and in relation to the demands associated with managing a diverse workforce (Kreitner and Kinicki 1992). Employee motivation is a complex process as individuals are complex, diverse and often difficult to predict. No one theory of motivation can explain human motivation particularly across diverse cultures. The aim of this research therefore, is to determine the impact of staff welfare on the productivity of workers.


1.3 Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study was to find out the impact of staff welfare on the productivity of workers. A case study of Madonna University Ouija, Anambra state.

The specific objectives are as follows

  1. To establish the relationship between reward system and employees’ productivity
  2. To identify the relationship between recognition and employees productivity
  3. To determine the influence of leadership style on employees’ productivity
  4. To determine the effect of communication on employees’ productivity

1.4 Research Questions

The questions are as follows

  1. What is the relationship between reward system and employees’ productivity?
  2. What is the relationship between recognition and employees’ productivity?
  3. What is the influence of leadership style on employees’ productivity?
  4. What is the effect of communication on employees’ productivity?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant relationship between reward systemand employees’ productivity
  • HO2: There is no significant relationship between recognition and employees’ productivity

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study on the effects of motivation on employees’ productivity in private universities will assist private universities to retain the employees for long time, which will lead them to the desired productivity. The research findings have the potentialities to enable the Universities’ managers and their policy makers to be aware of the role of motivation in their strategic plan. Furthermore, this study will be of immense benefit to policy makers in the human resources functions of the organizations and it will assist management in designing and putting in place together welfare incentives for the workforce, enables the organization identifies various types of needs and expectation of people at work, outline different approach to work motivation, explain the meaning and underlying concert of motivation.


1.7 Scope of the Study

For this study to be successful, it was carried out in all departments of Madonna University Okija. The study population involved Management team, teaching and non-teaching staff of the university.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Staff Welfare:

Is a term which includes the perks and benefits provided to the employees of the organization apart from their regular salary or remuneration, the main motive of serving employee benefits services is to improve or enhance the employee’s well-being.

Productivity:

Is the efficiency of production of goods or services expressed by some measure. Measurements of productivity are often expressed as a ratio of an aggregate output to a single input or an aggregate input used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input, typically over a specific period of time.

Reward System:

Is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience, associative learning, and positively-valanced emotions, particularly ones involving pleasure as a core component.

Recognition:

Identification of someone or something or person from previous an organization based on their performance and achievement.

Leadership Style:

Is a leader’s method of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Various authors have proposed identifying many different leadership styles as exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields.


1.9 Organization of study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents the summary and conclusions derived from the findings in the previous chapter. The aim of these conclusions is to answer the research questions, and recommendations are for improvement, then suggestions for the future study are presented. The main purpose of the study is to establish the effects of motivation on employees’ productivity in private universities in Kenya: a case study of Marist International University College (MIUC).A constituent of CUEA.


5.1 Summary

The study sought to establish the impact of staff welfare on the productivity of workers. The study does confirm that indeed motivational system affect the employees’ productivity, therefore, motivation system must be correlated to organizational goals. Thus, the individual/employee goals must be harmonized with the organizational goals. It must be modified to the situation and to the organization and it requires modifying the nature of individual’s jobs. The jobs should be redesigned or restructured according to the requirement of situation. Any of the alternatives to job specialization – job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, etc. could be used.

The study first sought to determine the relationship between rewards system and employees’ productivity in private universities. The findings showed that there is a significant relationship between rewards system and employees productivity although the correlation index is weak positive. This means that the high salary is not the only tool to motivate workers increase of productivity, although employees need the salary to perform their daily activities. Employers should also use other means to motivate the employees such as leadership style, communication and recognition. Secondly, the study sought to identify the relationship between recognition and employees productivity in private universities. The study showed that there was significant relationship between recognition and employees productivity which have the positive correlation index. The findings of this study revealed that employees need to be appreciated in order to perform very well in their daily activities.

Thirdly the study, sought to know how does communication influence employees’ productivity in private University. The findings show that communication is very important in organization set up. Informal communication is very necessary because it helps in fashioning the organizational culture and bringing out the sense of sociability in the organization. Communication of jobs, duties and services in this organization still low, therefore, there is a need to improve the channels of communication. The organization should invest in a better communication system, like having an outlook email accounts for each and every staff in the organization. The communication channels should be spelt out well and followed to avoid the secondhand information or rumors. Those in leadership of the organization should provide information openly to their juniors and some information should be in written. Poor communication leads to the failure of the organization.

The findings of this study have shown the role of leadership style in motivating employees. The organization cannot run without a manager. This means that the organization needs a manager to succeed in its everyday activities. The importance of a manager in the organization is shown by Pearce and Robinson, (2007) that organizational leadership provides the management skill to cope with constant change. Managers have to know how to exercise their leadership. A good leader in the organization should be able to use both transformational and transitional leadership in the organization. Finally, this study had compared the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. There is a significant relationship between recognition and employees productivity which have a positive correlation index, the same as reward system. Communication and leadership style have the strong positive correlation index. This meant that these last factors very important as far as employees’ productivity was concerned. Therefore, according to this study, managers need to focus more on leadership and communication.


5.2 Conclusion

The study concludes that there is a significant relationship between variables. There is a weak positive linear relationship between reward system and employees productivity the same as between recognition and employees productivity. Communication and leadership style affect employees’ productivity on strong positive correlation index. This means that the most important effect of motivational system are communication and leadership. These two elements are the key of employees’ productivity in the organization.

The salary is not the only motivator for increasing the employees’ productivity. There are others ways the managers can use to increase productivity in the organization. These are communication, leadership style, recognition. The incentives both intrinsic and extrinsic are very important in boasting the productivity of employees in the organization. However, the managers need to know how to distribute these incentives to the workers in order to have effect on productivity. There is also a need to design the motivational system based on individual performance and monitored it.

Communication is a key important in the organization. The top management needs to facilitate communication in order to get the feedback from the employees and also allow the formal communication to prevail. The channel of communication like face to face, written and electronic communication needs to be improved on them in order to access on information on time. The communication on duties, service, and job of the employees must be done appropriately. This is because poor communication result, poor performance in the organization.

Leadership style is needed to give direction, staffing, controlling among other duties performed by the managers in the organization. The organization cannot move ahead without the good leadership. A leader should know how to relate to the employees. The employees need to be appreciated in their small achievements at work. This encourage them and help them to feel being part and parcel of the organization. Both transformational and transitional leadership is needed in the organization to allow the effective performance. Therefore, the best manager is the one who knows how to mix both of them in his/her leadership capacity.

In general, private universities need to improve on incentives and reward system in order to maintain the employees. Top management should encourage both internal and external communication in order to get the feedback from internal and external environment of the organization. Information about duties, services and job should be given on time so to improve productivity of the organization.


5.3 Recommendation

The management of the organization should improve on the way of distributing the incentives and awards among the workers. An appraisal of work should be done in order to see who deserve incentives, when and how. Incentives should not always be in kind of money. There is a need to vary the types of incentives given to the workers, may be supporting the employees morally and emotional. This is because money is not the only motivational tool for employee. There is a great need to work on the behavioral side of employees. The management should encourage horizontal, downward and vertical communication in order to build organizational culture. Communication is very important in an organization set up. Therefore, the managers need to get the feedback from employees and sometimes ask questions. It is encouraged to avail the suggestion box in the organization, to allow workers to express themselves freely. The team building outings should be emphasized on more, in order to allow employees to know each other and feel free to each other. Workers need to access on information relating to their jobs, services and duties on time. The management team should be able to recognize the achievements of some workers.This can be done verbally, or through a token.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Are there any scholarly works on staff welfare and productivity?

Apparently, there are some scholarly works on staff welfare and productivity (Owusu-Acheaw, 2010; Osterman, 2010; Singh, 2009; Cowling and Mailer, 1992; Coventry and Barker, 1988), but they mostly dwelt on industrial settings to the neglect of service organizations typified in government ministries and parastatals.

What is the concept of employee welfare?

Employee welfare is a dynamic concept as new welfare measures are added to the existing ones along with social changes. The modern concept of employee welfare entails all those activities of the employers, which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages and salaries.

What is the importance of workplace welfare facilities?

Welfare facilities are essential for the health of the organization since they bear a close connection with the productivities of the labour force.

Is it possible to run an organization without employee welfare?

In fact in this age and era it is almost impossible to operate an organisation without offering a basic set of benefits for employees’ welfare. Organizations should understand that a healthy and stress free worker is a major asset to the organization and should therefore provide welfare services and programmes. 

How does staff welfare affect productivity of workers?

Employee welfare measures increase the productivity of organization and promote motivation, healthy organizational relations thereby maintaining industrial peace and retain the employees for longer duration. These problems make it glaring that there is a need to carry out a study on the impact of staff welfare on the productivity of workers.

Is employee welfare within the framework of welfare?

Closely related to this is the employees’ right to enjoy health and safety and the right to be managed fairly, which Cowling and Mailer (1992) argue to be within the framework for welfare. Employee welfare is a dynamic concept as new welfare measures are added to the existing ones along with social changes.

Is it possible to run an organization without employee welfare?

In fact in this age and era it is almost impossible to operate an organisation without offering a basic set of benefits for employees’ welfare. Organizations should understand that a healthy and stress free worker is a major asset to the organization and should therefore provide welfare services and programmes.

What is the importance of workplace welfare facilities?

Welfare facilities are essential for the health of the organization since they bear a close connection with the productivities of the labour force.

What are the objectives of employees welfare measure?

Objectives of Employee Welfare Employee welfare is in the interest of the employee, the employer and the society as a whole. The objectives of employee welfare are: It helps to improve. * It improves the loyalty and morale of the employees. * It reduces labor turnover and absenteeism.

What is employee welfare and how does it work?

When the employer offers facilities, benefits and an array of services to the employee it is often connoted as employee welfare. These measures could well include monetary benefits or may even be offered in kind.

What happens if there is no HR in an organization?

The smaller the organization, the more likely HR is only associated with transactional duties such as managing benefits and payroll. The bigger the organization, the more HR engages in strategic decision-making and employee welfare. The potential implications of having no HR are related to the valuable activities HR professionals perform.

How can an employer cater for the welfare of its employees?

An employer may also cater for employees’ welfare by monitoring their working conditions. Employee welfare raises the company’s expenses but if it is done correctly, it has huge benefits for both employer and employee.

How to improve employee welfare?

If you are wondering as to how to improve employee welfare then you would in all probability explore the viability of improving the working environment. One of the most effective ways of improving the workplace environment continues to be by modifying the worker environment interface.

What are the benefits of having a welfare facility?

Welfare facilities are necessary to protect the health and safety of employees in the workplace. Welfare facilities on-site cover a wide range of basic health, safety and welfare issues. To be compliant with HSE regulations implementing welfare facilities should not just be a norm rather than a concern for the well being of your employees.

Why are health and safety welfare facilities important in the workplace?

Your workers need to be well trained in using health and safety welfare facilities such as the first aid kit to deal with health problems that may arise. Welfare facilities are a basic requirement of any workplace and they should be of high quality to make sure your workforce is healthy and productive.

What is workplace welfare policy?

Providing welfare facilities and services to workers in the workplaces. It examines welfare facilities are promot ed and provided in the workplaces. It also looks at the consequences for failure to provide welfare facilities and services in the workplaces.

What are the facilities provided by the employer for welfare?

Welfare facilities include the provision of drinking water, clothing, accommodation, resting and eating facilities as well as lavatory / sanitary and washing facilities. Lavatory / sanitary conveniences must be provided for all employees to use.

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