The Impact Of Staff Training And Development In Tertiary Institutions
This research work is poised to look into the Impact of Staff Training and Development in Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study of Kogi State University, Anyigba) The study is aimed at examining the Impact training and development has on the staff of tertiary institutions in the country particularly on Kogi State University, Anyigba, as well as reviewing relevant literatures on the types of training, training responsibility, training and development needs, evaluation of training and the benefits training has on staff development. The researcher used both primary and secondary sources of data. In analyzing the data, the use of simple percentage method was adopted for easy understanding. It was revealed after the. After review and updating various works written by different authors in relation to training and development, useful recommendations were made which will go along way in education various organizations on the best method of training to be adopted in increasing performance in their organizations.
1.1 Background to the Study
Staff training and development serves as a bed rock and important thing in any tertiary institution because it help employees of an organization to acquire basic skills needed for actualization of their various activities effectively.
It is obvious that the absence of staff training and development facilitates to update the knowledge of the employees in an organization which would affect the competence of employees in handling their job effectively.
Staff training and development is a necessity because it helps to maintain a high quality skilled labour that can perform a given task in an organization, mainly because the complexity of organizational programmes coupled with the challenging nature of activities expected to be performed by employees required the need for training of employees in order to improve their skills and performance towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. For this reason mentioned about, it is very glaring that training and development must be encouraged in the organization in order to improve the productivity of the employee
Training and development of works are vital programmes necessary for the growth, efficiency and sustenance of any viable organization. This is because workers would be prepared to handle their job perfectly if they are adequately trained and developed.
In some organization, training and development are very informal and unstructured whether or not the system is to invest in the education and development of its employees by formulating and implementing a human resources development strategy that includes programmes, objectives and procedures for development and off the job training and other learning experience.
It is important to note that staff training should be accorded much prominence. This perhaps might be borne of the saying that ‘’training and development of labour force is their corner stone of any organizations survival and needs a positive approach to objective realization’’.
It is the responsibility of the personnel department to formalize training policies and draw up training programmes for the various levels of workers in any organization, however all line managers should endeavour to contribute to the training of their subordinates on the job.
The purpose of training is to give employees at all level sufficiently and prepare them for the higher responsibilities.
The advancement in modern technology calls for training and development of staff in order that they might be able to cope with challenges in the job situations, such as the introduction of the new machinery and equipment the training and experience from school of learning is not enough for the workers to the early month of employment.
Training has always been an essential part of human life particularly in the working environment workers perform better if they are trained in the skills necessary for their jobs, and managers are better leaders if they are knowledgeable about happy productive staff. The concept of training predates history. One of the earliest types of training was on the job training (OJT) which is still in wide use today. On the job training (OJT) involves learning the skills. The experienced workers teaches the inexperienced how to perform tasks. This types of training is very useful and extremely cost effective as it requires no organized lessons, workshops or programmes of the job site. Trianign through the use of conceptual case studies began in China in 4th century B.C. Taosta and confusionist presented parables to their students and asked them to contemplate possible solution to them. The case study is in wide use today, mostly in professional schools. It is an effective tool to encourage learners to think philosophically about difficult and problematic situations without having to experience them first hand as time went on, modern theories of psychology, training and staff skilled, knowledgeable, and motivated Abraham Maslows and Fredrick Herzberg developed separate but related motivational theories that are often used when developing staff training programmes their theories are concerned with motivational factors related to career and personal growth.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Great advancement and changes in technology have occurred in offices, nowadays, training and development have become necessary to improve the performance of the employee and increase the productivity of the organization.
Many organization do not have substantial budget for training and development and in some organization, training need for workers are created to handle training need for workers and in some other organization, specialist are employed to design, develop and administer the training and development programmes of their workers.
This research work is an attempt to critically determine the impact of staff training and development in tertiary institution and to determine the extent to which the impact of staff training and development can brings about increase in the performance of the workers.
Also, there will be increase in the productivity of the workers as a result of the impact of staff training and development.
Therefore, the problem to investigate is the impact of staff training and development in tertiary institutions with special reference to Kogi State University, Anyigba.
Also to determine if there is any increase in output or services as a result of lack of training and development.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This research work was carried out to find out the impact of staff training and development in tertiary institution. The study was aimed at:
- To ascertain the impact of staff training and development on employees performance.
- To provide information on the benefits of staff training and development.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Since good performance of employees is upon which every organization stands employee training and development are very important. The research work sill be of benefit to the researcher, it will enlighten him on the impact of staff training and development in tertiary institutions. The result of the study will as well help management of tertiary institutions to know the needs of training employees.
It stimulates managers to create training programmes for employees. It improves the quality of manpower in tertiary institutions.
It serves as a reference materials to intending readers and student who may wish to carry out further research on similar topic.
1.5 Research Questions
In an attempt to carry out this research work, the following research questions have been put forward;
- What are the impact of staff training and development in tertiary institutions
- What are the conditions requiring training and development in tertiary institutions
- What are the benefit of staff training and development in tertiary institutions.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study would consider the impact of staff training and development in tertiary institution. Using Kogi State University, Anyigba as a case study. This research work would consider the effects of human resources training and development on workers productivity. This research study would also consider the effective programmes put up by Kogi State University, Anyigba to promote efficiency and high productivity within 2008-2011 respectively.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
There is no doubt, that every human endeavour is an engaging venture and this comes along with a lot of challenges and limitations.
This limitations of the research work are or may be;
Due to the limitations for the presentation of this work, coupled with high academic schedule, the researcher was unable to get adequate data for the purpose of this work.
Attitude of respondents:
The indifferent and uncooperative nature of certain respondents to give coherent answers and unwilling to spare time to fill questionnaires.
Carrying out a research of this nature not doubt will some financial implication which includes getting relevant material like books newspapers, magazines etc that would aid a good research work.
1.8 Organization of Work
For easy understanding and comprehension of this study, the study is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one shall include background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research questions, scope of the study and limitations of the study.
Chapter two contains review of literature, meaning and definition of training and development, types of training responsibilities, training and development, types of training responsibilities, training and development needs, evaluation of training condition requiring training, and benefits of training and development.
Chapter three covers the history of Kogi State University, research design, method of data collection, research instrument used, validity/reliability of instrument used and data analysis procedures.
Chapter four covers data presentation, analysis and discussion of findings.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter gives a summary of the study with conclusions based upon the results of the study and recommendations for the way forward.
5.2 Summary of Findings
This research examined the effect of training and development on employees’ performance, motivation, retention and morale, a case of kogi State University. The research had the objectives to find out how training and development of employees contribute to the achievement of the goals of the University. Again it found out whether there were organizational issues that constrain training and development in the University. Further more it investigated how training and development needs of employees were determined.
To achieve these objectives a sample of 50 senior staff were selected and questionnaire were administered. This was further supported with an interview of the rector, registrar and finance officer of the University. The study revealed the following interesting findings:
Firstly total respondents representing 100% indicated that training and development contributed to achieving effectiveness and efficiency of Kogi State University goals. Additionally this same percentage mentioned that training and development has traditionally been used to ensure that, the right person is in the right job at the right time. Again the total respondents representing 100% said that there were organizational issues constraining training and development at kogi State University.
Further more, 60% of the sampled employees admitted that, impact of training on their work performance was excellent. They indicated also that, training content was relevant to achieving their personal needs, goals and self development. Below are the summary of findings itemised:
- A large number (60%) of the sampled employees admitted that impact of training on their work performance was excellent.
- The study also revealed the training content was relevant to achieving their personal needs, goals and self development.
- Total respondents representing 100% all indicated that training and development contributed to achieving effectiveness and efficiency of Kogi State University goals.
- Regarding analysis on the organizational issues constraining training and development at Kogi State University, total respondents representing 100% indicated that there were organizational issues constraining training and development at A Poly.
- The research also revealed that 40% indicated that the lack of top management support for the training and development at Kogi State University was the main organizational issue, 20% said employees failure to understand the training needs of Kogi State University whilst 10% said inability to gain the understanding and acceptance of employees.
- A large percentage (50%) of the respondents mentioned a development strategy and system that grows the technical, core and leadership competencies which accelerate Kogi State University’s performance was the current training and development strategy which has influenced the achievement of Kogi State University goals.
- All the 50 respondents representing 100% mentioned that that training and development has traditionally been used to ensure that the right person is in the right job at the right time.
Based on the results of the study, it became clear that training and development strategy was a haphazardly carried out activity at Kogi State University. Although the respondents were aware of the various aspects of training and development, there was no strategic framework in place as the basis for an operational plan for the training and development strategy even though all respondents indicated that training and development was part of the strategic business plan process of kogi State University.
Furthermore, it can be concluded that clear human resource management in general, and training and development in particular at kogi State University, should become more closely tied to the needs and strategies of kogi State University. As this occurs, training and development at kogi State University will be the thread that ties together all other activities and integrates these with the rest of the departments.
It became clear from respondents that the major organizational issue constraining training and development at kogi State University was lack of top management support for the training and development programs. Therefore kogi State University in its attempt to enhance employee performance, motivation, retention, and morale competition must endeavour to ensure effective training and development strategies across all departments.
Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are outlined for addressing challenges identified as well as ways of improving training and development at kogi State University:
- Training and development should be seen not only as the thread that ties together all human resource practices, but also as the instrument for establishing and signalling when and how work practices should change. In other words, employees of kogi State University should take on the role of organizational change agents (Beer & Walton, 1987). To be effective in this role, the HR manager will need to create a framework for making HR decisions based on kogi State University vision and strategic plan.
- In order to position kogi State University for success, management must empower departments in the various branches to engage in training and development.
- Some key examples of how departments can plan for the future training and development must be outlined in a document and should be used to help mitigate any negative impacts as a result of demographics, kogi State Universitys priorities and competency requirements. The documents can also help ensure that kogi State University departments have what they need to get the job done, and that there is efficient matching of skills and competencies to departmental tasks, requirements and outcomes.
- To better compete in the global market, kogi State University will need to create and implement corporate strategies to promote itself as a “preferred employer” – investing in progressive HR policies and programs with the goal of building a high-performing organization of engaged people, and fostering and creating a work environment where people want to work, not where they have to work.
- Retention and attraction in today’s changing labour market requires kogi State University to look at the key drivers that are important to it and potential employees. Examples of these include offering employees:
- Diversified and Challenging Work
- An Attractive Compensation Package (not just salary)
- Advancement Opportunities
- Access to Continuous Learning
- Opportunities for Personal and Professional Growth
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