The Impact Of Social Stigma On Mental Health Of Teenage Mother’s In Lagos State

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

The Impact Of Social Stigma On Mental Health Of Teenage Mother’s In Lagos State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of teenage motherhood in Lagos State, determine the factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State, find out public perception towards teenage mother’s in Lagos State, find out the impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State and ascertain the extent social stigma affects mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teenage mother’s Ajah in Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State includes: poverty, lack of sex education, exploitation by older men, lack of parental guidance, poor understanding of the menstrual cycle. The study also revealed that the impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State is nagative. Therefore, it is recommended that parents especially mothers should equiped their female ward on girls education, they should start from the early eage to education their female ward about the body change during adolecent stage, and make them have understanding about their menstrual Cycle and how to take care of their bodies during their flow. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In recent times, teenage motherhood has been increasingly problematised by policy-makers and in wider societal discourse. Teenage mothers are often perceived as a homogeneous group of immature, irresponsible, single, benefit-dependent, unfit parents (Campion 1995) who deviate from ideals of motherhood (Phoenix and Woollett 1991). In addition, their early parenthood raises many issues concerning transitions to adulthood. What at first might appear an accelerated transition is invariably more complex: ‘The transition to independent adulthood is not necessarily accomplished through motherhood which might serve the function (to the grandparent) of extending the dependency of the young mother’ (Jones 2002).

Teenage motherhood cannot be treated as a singular, uniform transition to adulthood; it is experienced differently by individuals drawing on economic and social support from a variety of sources. New Labour’s Teenage Pregnancy Strategy is based on arguments that explicitly link teenage child-bearing with social exclusion in adult life. The strategy aims to reduce teenage child-bearing and ensure teenage mothers are engaged in education, employment and training (Social Exclusion Unit 1999b). The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy is one of many initiatives aimed at preventing social exclusion among children, young people and families. Such measures are characteristic of the social investment state approach to policy, which includes investing in human and social capital, prioritising children as the citizen workers of the future, being future focused and redistributing opportunities as opposed to redistributing income (Lister 2003). Policies are seen as having an investment element in their tendency to encompass children, and therefore acting to prevent future social exclusion (Jenson and Saint Martin 2003).

The views of the British general public have much in common with those of the policymakers, evidenced in the British Social Attitudes Survey; for example, 71% of respondents agreed with the statement ‘teenage girls who want to get on in life usually don’t become teenage mothers’ (Clarke and Thomson 2001, p. 66), indicating that those who do become teenage mothers are limited in their aspirations. These widely held views are often reflected in the media portrayal of teenage motherhood.. focused around the derogatory ‘pramface’ or teenage ‘chav mum’ … it is the minority of teenage mothers considered to be problematic who make headlines and are thus stigmatised. The stories of teenage mothers doing well are not so newsworthy. (Hadfield et al. 2007).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Teenage pregnancy has come to be associated with a number of negative stereotypes which emphasise teenage mothers’ risks and deficits (SmithBattle 2013). Sensationalised media reports focussing on atypical cases such as those surrounding the pregnancy of 15 year old Chantelle Steadman are a prime example. The case sparked furious discussion which linked teenage pregnancy to family breakdown, welfare dependency, promiscuity and poor parenting.

Moreso, academic research has questioned such associations and draw attention to overstated negative outcomes of teenage pregnancy (see in particular Phoenix 1991; Luker 1996; Kelly 2000; SmithBattle 2000; Arai 2003; Selman 2003; Bonell 2004;) Nonetheless, young motherhood has come to be accepted as an individual calamity and serious social problem (Duncan 2007) and is stigmatised as such. And also discusses causes and experiences of the stigma attached to teenage motherhood. It draws on first-hand accounts of teenage mothers as they discuss their paths to motherhood.

Similarily, (Duncan 2007) explores how stigma frames, how young women narrate key decisions and experiences as they become teenage mothers. It is acknowledged that mothers of all ages may, ‘. . . feel stigmatised or assume a defensive stance about their parenting choices . . .’ (Macvarish 2010:2). Discourses of ‘good’ motherhood place high expectations on all women. Consequently, ‘. . . mothers tend to try to present themselves as fulfilling the necessary requirements. . .’ (May 2008:473).

Nevertheless, given the dominant representations of teenage parenthood touched on above, it is argued here that teenage mothers have an even greater investment in the need to portray themselves and their parenting choices in a positive light. This study demonstrates that the stigma attached to teenage parenthood remains and warrants challenge. It is argued here that stigma forecloses the opportunity for teenage mothers to access appropriate support, prevents teenage mother’sfrom a full and free consideration of options following an unplanned pregnancy and perpetuates the social exclusion of young mothers. Hence this study seeks to examine the impact of social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. To determine the prevalence of teenage motherhood in Lagos State.
  2. To determine the factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State.
  3. To find out public perception towards teenage mother’s in Lagos State.
  4. To find out the impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.
  5. To ascertain the extent social stigma affects mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of teenage motherhood in Lagos State?
  2. What are the factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State?
  3. What is the public perception towards teenage mother’s in Lagos State?
  4. What is the impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State?
  5. What is the extent social stigma affects the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Social stigma has no negative impact on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.
  • Ha: Social stigma has a negative impact on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study cannot be overstated. Foremostly it will bring to light the effects social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s. It will also help identify the the factors influencing teenage motherhood. It will also provide information on possible ways of overcoming the problems associated with exposure of teenagers to early motherhood. More importantly, the study will serve as reference material to teenagers, students, scholars, and institutions.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the impact of social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State. The study specifically seeks to determine the prevalence of teenage motherhood in Lagos State, etermine the factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State, find out public perception towards teenage mother’s in Lagos State, find out the impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State and ascertain the extent social stigma affects mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Stigma:

Social stigma is the disapproval of, or discrimination against, an individual or group based on perceived characteristics that serve to distinguish them from other members of a society.

Teenage:

A teenager, or teen, is someone who is between 13 and 19 years old. They are called teenagers because the number of their age contains the suffix “teen”.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of social stigma on mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State. The study is was specifically focused to determine the prevalence of teenage motherhood in Lagos State, determine the factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State, find out public perception towards teenage mother’s in Lagos State, find out the impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State and ascertain the extent social stigma affects mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teenage mother’s Ajah in Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The prevalence of teenage motherhood in Lagos State is high.
  2. The factors influencing teenage motherhood in Lagos State includes: poverty, lack of sex education, exploitation by older men, lack of parental guidance, poor understanding of the menstrual cycle.
  3. The public perception towards teenage mother’s in Lagos State is negative.
  4. The impact of social stigma on the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State is nagative.
  5. The extent social stigma affects the mental health of teenage mother’s in Lagos State is high.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Parents especially mothers should equiped their female ward on girls education, they should start from the early eage to education their female ward about the body change during adolecent stage, and make them have understanding about their menstrual Cycle and how to take care of their bodies during their flow.
  2. Governmet should organize seminars on sex education in order to sensitize female teenagers on the consequences of early motherhood.
  3. Parents should prohibit their female child from dressing indecently, to which leads to rape, child abuse e.t.c
  4. Schools should create out time in the school time table on days to host a prep- talk on sex education.

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