Impact Of Social Responsibilities In Nigeria (A Case Study Of United Bank For Africa. UBA)

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Impact Of Social Responsibilities In Nigeria (A Case Study Of United Bank For Africa. UBA)


Abstract


The study looked into the social responsibility of commercial banks in Nigeria With particular reference to metropolis. United Bank for Africa (UBA) was used as a case study as would be seen in chapter four. The research is geared towards finding the extent commercials banks are responsive to social responsibilities in the environments they operate and how the government encourages them in carrying such responsibilities I actual sense. The treatment of corporate social responsibility is very complex either in theory or practice. There have been problems ranging from conceptual definition to application, problem of enforcement etc. these problems have surfaced in the Nigerian context very widely. It is the intention of this study therefore to identify the facets of corporate social responsibility, to identify being socially responsible and see the role of the government towards regulating such responses. The questionnaire and verbal interview conducted with the official of the bank shows appreciate contribution on their part towards their social responsibility, they however, noted that the welfare and health of the people is the responsibility of the government. The satisfied with the level of cooperation received from various groups contacted in the course of writing the project hence the contribution of this to the good quality of the work. Also believed this work will assist as well as other interested members of the public. Finally, the problems were critically analyzed hence useful suggestions and recommendations were made.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction / Background

No one question has received attention by businesses, government, politicians and people in general in the past few years than probably the question of what the social responsibility of business should be. This question, though originally aimed at profit oriented business in now being posed to non-profit oriented business institution in the society; Universities, hospital governmental agencies, charitable organization etc. are all increasingly being confronted with similar demand and being attacked for not assuring responsibility for society’s ills and problems. As society awakens and become vocal with respect to the urgency of social problems is asking the managers of all kinds of organizations particularly those at the top as to what they are doing to discharge their social responsibility and why they are not doing more.

About decade ago, a broad movement probably of an evolutionary nature began in the utilized countries of the world. It is movement to take institutions particularly business institutions more responsive to human needs. The business firm is thus caught up in the stream of events as it is being pressed by public sentiment and legislative and regulatory action to respond to issue beyond its traditional task of producing and distributing goods and services at a profit.

Traditionally, managers of business enterprises have been asked by society to concentrate on using efficiently the resources at their disposal to produce goods and services that customers wanted at agreed prices, they were willing to pay, maximize profits. But today, businesses are being asked to contribute more to the quality of life.

In discussing and analyzing commercial Banks and social responsibility in Nigeria, the emphasis is not on what commercial bank should or might do to tackle and solve problems of society, rather than problems of their employees, shareholders and customers. The concept of social responsibility for social and political goals and that they became the keepers of society’s concern and not merely keepers of society’s financial resources. The emphasis is on the contributions banks can make to such social problems and social issues as support of education, health and medical care, support for disables and unemployed persons, than maintenance and restoration of the physical environment, improving public transportation and involvement in community development (e.g. borehole construction, children park, local market construction etc)

It is pertinent to point out that the, social demands on business have been and will continue to increase significantly and the role of business firms in the society.

The amount of attention give not the area of social responsibility by both management and society has increased in recent years and probably will continue to increase in the future.


1.1 Background of the Study

The modern commercial banking dates bank to the colonial period during which Nigerians was under the political administration of Britain. It is not surprising therefore that the banking scene was dominated by British banks which were affiliates of the leading banks in United Kingdom.

Banking began in Nigeria in 1892 “under the initiative of foreign investors, when the Elder Dumpster lines, a shipping company started some form of banking business in the country to facilitate to own transactions. By 1894, what was then the bank of British West Africa, later Standard Bank Ltd, and now First Bank of Nigeria plc, became the first to establish banking business in Nigeria. It remained the sole bank until 1917 when later colonial bank, later Barclays Bank of Nigeria limited and now Union bank of Nigeria Plc, open branches in the country. The British and French Bank now United bank for Africa affiliate of the banquet Nationale Pour’le Commerceetl’ Industries, a large French banking establishment, came in 1947 to make the third expatriate bank which dominated early Nigeria commercial banking. Together the banks controlled close to 90% aggregate bank deposit.

The indigenously owned commercial banks were of more recent origin, from 1914 to the early 1930’s several abortive attempts were made to establish locally owned and managed banks to break the foreign monopoly in banking many of these attempts were unsuccessfully due to under capitalization, poor management over expansion, and aggressive competition from expatriate banks.

The first ill-fated bank, the industrial and commercial bank, set up in 1929, went under in 1930 in 1931 the Nigerian Mercantile Bank was established, and dissolved in 1936. national Bank of Nigeria was set up in 1933, which turned out to be the 1st indigenous banks to survive but died down in 1990 the next private indigenous banks to be established were the Agbonmagbe Bank in 1945. the bank survived until 1969 when its assets were taken over by the then western state government and its named charged to Wema Bank

The fifth bank, the Nigeria penny Banks, setup in the early forties collapsed in 1946. African continental bank Plc came into being in 1947 and the bank of the North (now Unity Bank) was established in 1961 all the other commercial and cooperative banks were established in the later sixties or early seventies all of then being wholly owned by Nigeria institution and industrials.

The period 1892 -1952 is perhaps remembered as the period of free for all banking with no licensing required and no regulation of any sort to restrict and control the establishment and operation of a Bank. The Banking industry did not come under any regulation until the bank ordinance of 1952. besides the 1952 Bank ordinance and its amendment in 1958 the banking (amendment) Act of 1962, and the banking decree of the 1970’s took several actions to put the banking practices and operation on a sound footing. The banking ordinance of 1958, which established the central Bank of Nigeria marked the turning point in government efforts to harness the activities of the banks for national development. This, it could be said that, the legislative control of banking activity was triggered by the crises associated with the early history of banking in Nigeria.

The number of commercial Banks and their branch offices has increased tremendously. Today there are many banks in the country although some of them are merchant and development banks.

The dichotomy between indigenous and expatriate commercial banks which was very distinct in the 1960 had been significantly blurred capital of the expatriate banks in the 80’s they have now been sold wholly to the public by government disinvestments through privatization and commercialization. These privatization and commercialization of the banks, which had started as private banks, has helped significantly to put those banks on a stronger forting to play their role in the development of the economy.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Commercial banking is a business and as in any other business. Its management chief concern is to make profit. So the first task is to make the institution, whether business, hospital or Academic institution perform the function and make contribution for the sake of which it exists. But the institutions performance of its specific mission is also society’s first need and interest. Society does not stand to gain but loose if the performance capacity of the institution in its own specific task is diminished or impaired performance of its function is therefore the institution first social responsibility.

Commercial banks look upon their business as one of primarily attracting deposits and other funds by offering financial services. Banks collect their deposits from private individuals, public and private companies and governments. The funds thus collected are used to make loans and investments at higher rates of return.

Banking this is basically a services industry that offers financial services to the participants (governments, private and public companies individuals). In other words, banks are keepers of society’s financial resources.

The poor state of services offered by some commercial banks in Nigeria, such as irregular rendering of bank statement or the rending of wrong statements, the delay of clearing cheque ledger. Failure to receive proper guidance or reliable advice, the untidy conditions and endless queues at banking halls and numerous other frustrating and agonizing experience of customers generate dissatisfaction with the bank.

This points out clearly that the society is dissatisfied with some bank basic service function not to talk of their involvement in social programmes. There for the research work will try to examine the extent to which commercial banks involve in social responsibility, how when and where does it expand this responsibility.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study includes the following:-

  1. To examine the extent of social responsibility of commercial Banks.
  2. To determine the causes for lack of adequate social responsible action
  3. To offer suggestions as to how the institution can be improved.

1.4 Scope of the Study

The scope of any study refers to the extent (coverage) a research work focuses or limited to. However, the student intends to limit his study to Commercial Bank and social responsibility with a particular reference of selected Commercial Bank within Kaduna metropolis, i.e. United Bank for Africa (UBA).


1.5 Significance of the Study

The researcher intends to carryout the study based on selected commercial Banks in Nigeria, so that to investigate their social responsibility to the society.

The researcher is also intending to alert the community, against the social responsibility and its impact to development of Nigeria. And effective investigation should be carryout, and highlighted to the Commercial Banks of Nigeria regarded to their responsibility, to the benefits of the societies.

Therefore, this study is expected to assist the society to achieve maximum development i.e. construction of infrastructure and social amenities.


1.6 Hypothesis

Hypothesis is formulated as a starting point of this study.

  • H0: That commercial banks in Nigeria are not adequately socially responsible.
  • Hi: That commercial banks in Nigeria are adequately socially, responsible.

1.7 Definition of Terms

In the course of the study some operational definitions were used which are to be seen strictly and mainly in the height of this study.

1. Community:

A group of people living in one place

2. Environment:

Surrounding or the external and internal settings in which a business operates.

3. Management:

The group specialized persons who manage an organization

4. Objective:

An end towards which an enterprise activity is aimed.

5. Policy:

A written statement that guides decision making and sets limits within which decisions are made.

6. Social Impact:

The effect of regular economic activities of institutions, particularly business institutions in the society.

7. Social Responsibility:

The obligation of business to pursue those policies, to make those decision, or to follow those lines of actions which are desirable the society.

8. Society:

Mankind considered as a whole, a community of people, a group of people joined together for a purpose.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

The whole of this study centered on commercial banks and their social responsibility towards the community within which thy operate with particular reference to United Bank for Africa in Kaduna metropolis.


5.2 Summary

Social responsibility can be defined in term of specialize action programmes which a corporation my take to offset the social costs of its operation on the society.

Several list of such programme have been complied, the first by the committee for economic development (CED), include in the list were the classical responsibility of business relating to economic efficiency and growth, education employment and training pollution abatement, urban renewal and development, conversion and recreation. Medical care, general community services and host of others.

Based on information collected from commercial banks through their managements indicated that they are providing some social activities such as education and training, welfare transportation, direct financial aids to school civic, and other organizations.


5.3 Conclusion

Traditionally the responsibility of business enterprise was predominately economic with very little, if any, concern for social matter. But today business are being pressed and asked to contribute more to the quality of life than just supplying qualities of goods and services, that is to assume social responsibilities are strongly loaded with the notions of intend, goodwill, sacrifice and voluntary initiative.

In any developing society like Nigeria, one would expect business, especially commercial banks to be heavily involved in the social development of this country. But contrary to this most business undertake only legislate social responsibility activities.

Since commercial banking is one of the must closely regulated and price controlled industries, it goes without saying that only legislation can make them to undertake social programmes.

However, from the overall study of commercial banks and social responsibility there is substantial evidence to support the hypothesis that most managers have indicated that they do undertake some social activities, much is still desired and expected from them. Adherence to legislated social responsibility any represent the minimum standard of social responsibility performance that banks must achieve.

With regard to the second hypothesis that corporate managers of banks to perceive their banks as “open social system” there is abundant evidence to support this. Generally, the Nigeria manager are now be able or at least willing to perceive their organizations as “open social system”. They do fully understand the extend to which their survival depends on such positive response to end interaction with their external environment on the country, the managers operating understands clearly, that the company can not operate in isolation without continuous open interaction with the environment, on when the system depends for survival. If the manager choose a close system, then they stand to loose.

Hence the managers are fully aware of the positive effect of open system concept of the organization and they have understood clearly that the organization is continuous and most continuously interact with the environment on whom the system depends for its impacts in term of man, money material and machine.

The manager know that the firms environment is very precious to it, indeed, since the survival of the firm is derived for that of the environment, so fro the interview on this writ up, it is evident that managers of commercial banks show concern with the environment partly from honoring such calls at important community events. It is also evidenced that much is desired and expected from them, partly information sometimes are or never being presets at certain community events.


5.4 Limitation of the Study

The limiting factor was that of time i.e. the time for writing this project is short, this as a result of other final very work, the researcher is engaged himself in one thing and another and financial difficult faced in the conduct of this research work. A large sample size would have been taken especially that of commercial banks, but the researcher restricted himself to the capabilities of his finance.

Finally, the bank official refused to disclose some information and data saying that they were “classified”.


5.5 Recommendation to Government Top Bank Officials and the Society Leaders

5.5.1 Government

The welfare of any society depends largely on the government. To this ends it is the responsibility of government, through legislative action to prescribe and set guidance for social activities that banks can undertake. Certain minimum percentage ratio of bank annual gross profits, for example, could be prescribed by the government for the purpose of undertaking and executing some specific social programmes for the benefit of the society. This is to say that more areas of social responsibility should be legislated and embodied in the national policy.

Legislative process, and problems of enforcement and compliance, a choice should be made on whether the banks should donated specific or determinable sums directly to social causes of their choice or to government. The government on its own part should give certain incentives to business that embark on social activities to encourage more business to the socially responsible.

5.5.2 Top Bank Official

A positive change of management attitude of top management of banks is highly recommended as it stand to day, the top executive (Board of Directors inclusive of commercial banks and other business in Nigeria as a whole, and in Kaduna particular have from traditional closed system concept of the firm to full open system concept since they now know what they stand to gains by so doing. They now see the need to interact with the external environment and as such social responsibility will have full place in the agenda of Board of Directors of annual meetings.

Also highly and desirable socially responsibility approach to meeting social obligation should be incorporated as social goal in the annual planning, present reports to the board of directors and shareholders a social responsibility programmes, and forecasts social trends within organizational environment along with more typical performed economic, political and technology trends forecast. This change of attitude means not only moving from the closed system to open one, but also includes the application of modern management practice. For example, the decision making process could be decentralized to enable branch managers take which they operates.

Statement such as “we do not have the mandate of our head office to handle cases of this nature” or “you are advised to send your questionnaire to out control office” is a clear indication that branch manager are not encouraged for social involvement. Furthermore, the top management would establish a public division that holds the primary responsibility in the area of social affairs. Though some banks have public relation division, it is strictly centralist.

It is also recommended that every time, top management plans, they should take into account the needs and desire of members of society on the outside of their organization.

5.5.3 Society Leaders

The society various leaders have a stake in commercial banks involvement in social activities. These leaders, chiefs, Emirs, Obas, leaders of charitable and religious organization etc. society, through the social business on what it doing to meet its social responsibility. To achieve this, open communication between business and social leaders must exist if the overall welfare of the society is to be maintained or improved.

Also the commercial banks should send their representatives to such important social events like launching to announce their donation openly to secret conversion of funds.

In conclusion, all organizations especially business organization like commercial banks must constantly respond to an interact with a complex dynamic environment external to them. The top executives of commercial banks should realize that the social environment of business in changing and so is the role of business in the society. It is therefore important to banks, both in the short run, to consider the responsibility of voluntarily performing social responsibility activities beyond those legally required. Banks must therefore delinate the social dimensions of their business and establish priorities because no company can take significant action in every area of social responsibility.


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