Impact Of Social Networking On The Academic Performance Of Office Technology And Management Students In The Polytechnic

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Impact Of Social Networking On The Academic Performance Of Office Technology And Management Students In The Polytechnic


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of social networking on the academic performance of office technology and management students in the polytechnic. Specifically, the study examined various areas Social networking has affected students academic performance including their grade point average (GPA). The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 230 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopted the students involvement theory which explained that the level of time committed by students can determine the outcome of the students’ performance. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that Social networking to a significant extent distract students from studying, this is as a result of many students studying with their phones close-by. Furthermore, the impact of Social networking is significant on students Grade point average. This is as the Pearson correlation test showed a positive significant relationship (.922**) between the use of Social networking and students academic performance. The study recommend students creative awareness on the negative effects of Social networking on academic performance. More so, there should be a regulation of Social networking usage by the students as the possibility of total stoppage is not feasible.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Review of Concepts
  • 2.2 Review of Related Literature
  • 2.3 Review of Empirical Studies
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The use of Social networking (internet powered) in the 21st century has become a core integral part of humans everyday life. Beyond the visible observations in our environment, some researchers have also attested to the pervasiveness of this global situation. Far back 2012, Nielsen, a communications company in the United States of America reported that internet users across the country have continued to spend additional time than the usual on Social networking when compared to any other category of website ever had. This report further detailed that as at July 2012, Social networking usage time was 121 billion minutes which shows a rise from 88 billion minutes in July 2011. Global Web Index (2019, p.3) reports that average Social networking user now spends 2 hours and 16 minutes each day on Social networking platforms, which equates to roughly one third of their total internet time and one-seventh of their waking lives. Increased usage of Social networking can be tagged a global phenomenon.
Online technologies have continued to erase the line between the traditional media and their audience. This significant success has been facilitated by the two-way communication system which Social networking provides than the one-way broadcast method of the traditional media. Social networking have given masses a voice which the traditional media though committed to achieve has not yet totally achieved.

With the continuous improvements in information and communication technologies and increasing possibilities for ubiquitous internet connectivity, more freedom is anticipated for using Social networking whenever and wherever one wants. Relating to freedom, and as indicated by Nielsen (2012), Social networking (appearing in the form of MySpace, LinkedIn, Facebook, Mebo, Twitter and others) continue to alter the way in which humans access, generate, share and use information (Cabral, 2011). With the possibility for more freedom (i.e. of connectivity and access) regarding networking online anywhere and at any time, it is not difficult to note that Social networking use will remain a regular aspect of humans everyday life. Social networking use is already pervasive in all contexts, but many implications of the specific use of Social networking in the lives of specific sets of users are not adequately conspicuous and they may not be until further researches are focus on their exposure.

Students are a specific group of high percentage Social networking users. For example, the study on Social networking use involving selected students from all the colleges at the University of New Hampshire in the United States of America showed that 96% (1,082) of the surveyed students were regular Facebook users (Martin et al 2009). The widespread use of Social networking by students, in general, is no more remarkable than the implications of the use of it in their academic lives. The need to examine these implications (i.e. in other social contexts unlike the United States of America) is quite important for researchers today to understand how the use of Social networking impacts learning either by enhancing it or eroding it.

The place of time used for academic and extra-mural activities by students could not be overlooked especially when considering how they use Social networking. As noted in the study conducted by Bronnert (2016) which focused on time management regarding the use of social networking websites, people have time for using Facebook and they are capable of managing their time except that there are various factors that generally influence fundamental behavior of time usage.

The advent of Social networking has impacted significantly on how students learn and the mode instructors teach. In today’s higher education settings, Social networking has influenced instructors, students, and others to cooperate with each other on the tasks of knowledge construction in learning and teaching environments. Social networking applications can strengthen class material and positively influence discussions collaborative work, and authoring (Devi, Eragamreddy, Lakshmi & Vijaya, 2019, p.96).

According to James (2010, p.80) educators and researchers are constantly experimenting with Social networking technologies hoping to stimulate critical thinking skills, collaboration, and knowledge construction . However, the fact that these media are generally open to the world implies a need to carefully consider its’ benefits, impacts and risks of openness as well as need for ongoing communication with students in order to address their concerns and deal with issues in the use of Social networking as they arise.

Academic excellence or achievement plays an important role in an individual placement, be it in the academic institutions or job placement. Due to this, many people are concerned with the ways they can enhance their academic achievement. The emphasis on academic excellence which is also prevalent worldwide has encouraged many studies about the conditions promoting it. Kyoshaba (2009) contended that the role of academic achievement as one of the predictors of one’s life success and also in the aspect of academic placement in schools to higher institutions as well as the level of employability in one’s career is inevitable.

Academic performance, which is measured by the examination results, is one of the major goals of a school. Hoyle (1986, p.22) argued that schools are established with the aim of imparting knowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all this is the idea of enhancing good academic performance.

Academic performance or achievement is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. In support Annie, Howard & Mildred (1996) also notes that academic performance is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important, procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts.

A direct relationship exists between Social networking usage and the academic performance of students in universities. However the darker side within technological evolution has resulted in dilemmas such as the setback of real values of life especially among students who form the majority of users interacting through the use of social networking sites. Online social networking sites focus on building and reflecting social associations among people who share interests and or activities. With so many social networking sites displayed on the internet, students are tempted to abandon their homework and reading times in preference for chatting online with friends. Many students are now addicted to the online rave of the moment, with Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Social networking has gradually become one of the many habits of students. This acquired habit has mopped its way into their personal time substituting time meant for reading, library and other academic activities. More interestingly is the continued conversation of students on topics bothering on Social networking trends other than their curriculum. This upward habit have bothered scholars such as Choney (2010, p.13), MehMood & Taswir, 2013, p.111), Kist, 2008, p.245), Jacobsen & Forste (2011, p.275) to earnestly agree that the continuous use of Social networking is among the important factors that can influence academic performance of students positively or negatively. The usage by Social networking has been debated by authorities as its negative effects continue to permeate the society. Despite this public and private outcry, students have continued to access and use Social networking (Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram) on an increasing ratio. It is based on this premise that this study seeks to examine impact of Social networking on the academic performance of office technology and management studentsstudents in Federal Polytechnic, Bida.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the impact of Social networking on the academic performance office technology and management students students in Federal Polytechnic, Bida Specifically, using academic performance:

  • Assess how the study of the student is impacted upon by Social networking .
  • Examine the impact of Social networking on the overall grade point average (GPA) of students.
  • Assess how the frequency of Social networking usage has impacted the students academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guides the study:

  1. How do Social networking impact students’ study?
  2. What is the ascendancy of Social networking on students’ grade point average (GPA)?
  3. How has the frequency of Social networking usage impacted students’ academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The study developed for testing the following null hypothesis:

  • H01: There is no significant positive relationship between Social networking usage and students grade point average (GPA) achievement.
  • H02: There is no significant positive relationship between Social networking usage frequency and student’s study habits.

1.6 Significance of the Study

An understanding of Social networking, its usage and how it is impacting students learning environment would be of great relevance to students, researchers, students affairs practitioners and all the various bodies that comes to play when talking of Social networking and school life. The outcome of the study will help students to strategize and reconstruct their attitude regarding the use of Social networking. It will also push people further to identify the exciting opportunities and threats Social networking add to human and student life as a whole.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is focused on assessing the impact of Social networking on students academic performance. This study will be carried out among the office technology and management students in Federal Polytechnic, Bida. The various ways Social networking affects students academic performance will be examined in this study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Networking:

In this study, this term refers to network platforms used for social interactions like facebook, Instagram, twitter and tik tok.

Student:

A person who is studying at the university or other place of higher education.

Academic:

Relating to education and scholarship.

Performance:

This refers to the positive achievement expected from students in terms of learning and character.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of Social networking on the academic performance of office technology and management studentsstudents. Carefully, the researcher selected Federal Polytechnic, Bida as the place of study. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the kind of influence Social networking has had on students’ study habits; also the ascendancy of Social networking on students’ grade point average (GPA) achievement was examined and finally the frequency of Social networking usage and its corresponding effect on academic performance. This study reviewed and anchored its framework on the students involvement theory and the gratification theory.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 230 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active on Social networking. The findings revealed that Social networking though helpful in speedy communication and interaction, is a threat to the concentration of students. It is an object of distraction and as such divides the study time of students, rendering students’ study habit likely ineffective. Many students study with their phones close-by and are distracted by Social networking notifications from facebook, twitter, whatsApp and Instagram. While a lot of students are always up to date with recent trends, and activities only, they tend to spend more time on Social networking apps, viewing, commenting and replying to comments on Social networking applications. The student is bound by time and every continuous time a students spends on what is not directly or indirectly beneficial to his/her academic success has a negative implication on the overall academic performance.


5.2 Conclusion

Performing excellently in school is the priority of parents/guardians when they send their children/wards to school. The importance cannot be overemphasized. This is because being at certain levels of education is bound by time and as such students are expected to make judicious use of this limited time and avoid much distractions. Social networking is a contemporary networking systems that has made communication easy, fast and entertaining. The numerous features attached to Social networking has created an entire world out of the physical world, statistically, young people happen to be more active on Social networking compare to older people.

While the use and engagement on Social networking is promising, informative and entertaining, the underlining questions from parent, teachers, and policy-makers is; how is Social networking influencing the academic performance of students? This is because most students who are in the category of young people stay active on Social networking applications longer than normal and risk substituting the time meant for academic activities for Social networking activities. The consequence is poor academic performance. Poor academic performance have ripple effects on the students, the parents, the teachers and also the society. Therefore there should be a balance to the use of Social networking by students. Balance is required because one cannot totally stop the accessibility and usage of Social networking by students.

While, its negatives exists, the positives also exist, at least psychologically. Therefore, in this study, we conclude that the use of Social networking by students is high. This is as young people are eager to participate in public discussion both locally and internationally. Also, the frequency of usage is high. This is because young people (students) wants to stay updated to the latest information and even prefers to break the news. The implication of this is academic distraction which is huge minus to excellent academic performance. If parents, teachers and policy makers desire the students to do well, then, they must of all necessity take viable actions to bring balance to the usage of Social networking and excellent academic performance in students.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. First, students have an awareness need on the accessibility and use of Social networking. While Social networking facilitates communication, there is also a need to sensitize students on the importance of spending less time on Social networking and the academic implications of Social networking constant usage.
  2. While mobile phones have data limit, there should also be a policy regulating the use of Social networking and educating people on its profitable use. This is because one cannot totally stop the usage of Social networking applications by students but with the right education and strategy, its use can be productive and the performance of students can be improved if they are duly informed.

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