Impact Of Social Media Use And Time Management On Secondary School Student’s Academic Performance
This study was carried out to examine the impact of social media use and time management on secondary school student’s academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area, Imo State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain the extent of social media utilization among secondary school students, ascertain whether social media usage affects students time management skill, ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between time management and students academic achievement, and ascertain whether social media engagement affect the academic performance of secondary school students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of some selected secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area, Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of social media utilization among secondary school students is high. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between time management and students academic achievement. Therefore, it is recommended that students should be monitored by teachers and parents on how they use these networking sites and students should better manage their study time in and prevent distractions that can be provided by the social media. There should be a decrease in the number of time spent by students when surfing the net. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Social media is a type of electronic communication that makes interaction easier based on certain interests and characteristics. They are media for social interaction, and use highly accessible and scalable publishing based technologies which are able to transform broadcast media monologues into social dialogues through the favourite realm of internet sites such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, 2go, Whatsapp, Instagram, BBM, Eskimi, LinkedIn and YouTube. Social media are computer mediated tools that allow people to create, share information, ideas, pictures and videos in virtual communities and networks.
Ames (2013) defined social media as ‘a group of internet based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of web 2.0 and all the creation and exchange of user generated content’. Burke and Kraut (2014) defined social media as ‘the many relatively inexpensive and widely accessible electronic tools that enable anyone to publish and access information, collaborate and build relationships’. That is, social media can afford its users unlimited access in as much as they intend to make use of it. Thus, the reason for the adoption of social media is as a result of its ubiquitous access, flexibility, functionality as well as its convenience. The social media rely on the mobile and web based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities can share, discuss, co create and modify the user generated content. These platforms introduce substantial and penetrating changes to communication between organizations, businesses, individuals and communities (Baumer, Adams, Khovanskaya, Liao, Smith, Schwanda & Williams, 2013).
Facebook has continued to be the most widely used form of social media (Nielson Company, 2014). Social media use as a whole can by no means be characterized as proportionate with Facebook use. A range of social media sites like YouTube, Twitter, Instagram and Reddit have been created primarily for social and leisure purposes, and are also widely used by the millennials and college students in particular (Nielson Company, 2014). College students form the largest number of users of social media. According to Lenhart, Purcell, Smith and Zickuhr (2010), 72% of all college students have a social media profile with 45% of them using social media at least once a day.
Time management consists of tools and activities that help an individual effectively manage and strategize his time. Through effective time management, one can increase individual or group productivity and experience larger profits that will lead to a more satisfying overall life experience. Eilam and Aharon (2003) defined time management as a way of monitoring and controlling time.Time management as defined by North (2004) is the organization of tasks and events by first estimating how much time a task will take to be completed, when it must be completed and then adjusting events that would interfere with its completion so that completion is reached in the appropriate amount of time.
Many Nigerian students may have time management problems as they have become addicted to the use of social media to the extent that they care little or nothing about their studies. As a result of this, they practically spend their whole time using the social media and it has affected them psychologically and in their studies so much that they perform poorly. This situation has created fear in the hearts of parents as to what the future holds for their children (Nalwa & Anand, 2003). The heavy use of social media has raised many questions about how students incorporate social media into their lives and whether by doing so, it supports or hinders students’ broader social and academic development, which is reflected in the ability to read deeply, think critically and form authentic friendships.
Karpinski and Duberstein (2009) were of the view that among the various unique distractions of every generation, social media has remained a major distraction of and for the current generation. The use of social media has been increasing among students of all ages. Students use at least one type of social media platform in their daily lives. Many students face problems when it comes to managing their time and they feel the need to improve themselves in order to excel in their academics. However, with the proliferation of social media, youths spend more or most of their time in and on the social media which they believe to derive pleasure from the technological devices. Hence, Olubiyi (2012) observes that the bone of contention of the social media is the obsessive attitude of Nigerian youths towards its use. He points out that youths waste time through idle chats and other immoral acts. The result is that quality time that ought to be spent on academic research and other productive networking is lost.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a common sight to see youths chatting in highly organized places like classrooms and sacred places like the church and mosque. Some are so engrossed that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation of students using cellular phones at their disposal, as students no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they send and receive messages. Attention has now shifted from visible friends to invisible friends, while important ventures like study, reading and writing are negatively affected in the process. This phenomenon has become a source of concern to many who believe in knowledge and how to manage their time.
Time is very important in a student’s life. The use or abuse of it may largely determine the outcome of a student’s academic pursuit. With the growing interest in the social media and all the distraction it constitutes, the ability of students to manage their time in the face of all these has become a matter of grave concern especially in relation to the rigorous demands of excellence in academics.
Secondary school students these days are always busy with their handsets and laptops. Give most students access to the internet and they can spend considerable time chatting, checking their emails, their Facebook profile, their MySpace Web page, updating their Twitter accounts and their Linkedln accounts and this does not happen only once a day. It is said that an average Nigerian youth spend about 6-7 hours on the internet daily, some do all night browsing. One then begins to wonder when do they have the time to read or study their books and make research.
The exposure and use of social media tend to have implications on students’ time management style. When students spend considerable time socializing through the social media and spent less time on their studies, this may result to low academic outcome. Social media usage may contribute to students’ long stay on the internet. Hence, time management may be a problem that students encounter, most especially when it comes to social media usage. Thus, the problem that this study examine the impact of social media use and time management on secondary school student’s academic performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of social media use and time management on secondary school student’s academic performance. Specially, this study sought to:
- Ascertain the extent of social media utilization among secondary school students.
- Ascertain whether social media usage affects students time management skill.
- Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between time management and students academic achievement
- Ascertain whether social media engagement affect the academic performance of secondary school students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide this study:
- What is the extent of social media utilization among secondary school students?
- Does social media usage affects students time management skill?
- Is there a significant relationship between time management and students academic achievement?
- Does social media engagement affect the academic performance of secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: Social media usage does not affects students time management skill and academics performance.
- Ha: Social media usage affects students time management skill and academics performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings from this study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, curriculum planners, Counsellors and Psychologists, and other stakeholders in education as well as the society at large. For example, the result of the study will help students see how social media can affect the way they manage their time when they spend more time than expected to the detriment of other important tasks (academic pursuit) and other activities they are supposed to attend to. It will also help them adjust and manage their time properly and wisely to achieve maximum utilization in both their studies and other important tasks in their everyday lives. Teachers on the other hand, will benefit from the findings of the study as it will help them gain knowledge on the current challenges that students experience when it comes to managing time on the social media and find appropriate measure to help the students. It will also be of help to teachers, to vary their methods of teaching by including the use of social media in their teaching to foster understanding among students and also encourage students to spend more time on the social media for assignments, studies and doing researches than on mere social media socialization.
The findings from this study will also serve as a guide in helping the curriculum planners in the course of planning academic programmes for students by drawing their attention to the need to incorporate the use of social media and how well to manage time for academic purpose in their curriculum which will go a long way in helping the students. It will help stakeholders in education to introduce time management among students in their use of social media into the educational system which will help students to allocate time wisely to their studies and other important activities in their daily lives. It will also help Counsellors and Psychologists to guide students well on how to adequately and wisely manage their time, by guiding them to plan and allocate time to each activity they may engage in, so as to avoid time management problems that may affect their studies and other important activities. Findings from this study will provide information on time management for academic purpose to Counsellors and Psychologists which will help them attend to clients facing such challenges. Also, the findings of the study will serve as reference material for those who intend to embark on similar research and study and how it affects other spheres of life.
However, this information will get to students, teachers, curriculum planners, guidance counsellors and psychologists, stakeholders in education and the society at large through seminars, workshops, conferences, educational talks and newspapers.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study boarders on impact of social media use and time management on secondary school student’s academic performance. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area, Imo State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology.
It is the analysis of how working hours are spent and the prioritization of tasks in order to maximize personal efficiency in the workplace, (Collins EnglishDictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014). In this study, it refers to aability of a person (particularly student) to perform a task while managing
Refers to accomplishing the goals of schooling through school and class attendance, mastering the content, doing assignments and research, sitting for exams and obtaining good grades.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of social media use and time management on secondary school student’s academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area, Imo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of social media use and time management on secondary school student’s academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area, Imo State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the extent of social media utilization among secondary school students, ascertain whether social media usage affects students time management skill, ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between time management and students academic achievement, and ascertain whether social media engagement affect the academic performance of secondary school students.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of some selected secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area, Imo State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The extent of social media utilization among secondary school students is high.
- Social media usage affects students time management skill.
- There is a significant relationship between time management and students academic achievement.
- Social media engagement affect the academic performance of secondary school students.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Students should be educated on the influence of Social media on their academic performance.
- Students should be monitored by teachers and parents on how they use these networking sites.
- Teachers should ensure they use the social media as a tool to improve the academic performance of students in schools.
- Students should better manage their study time in and prevent distractions that can be provided by the social media. There should be a decrease in the number of time spent by students when surfing the net.
- Social Networking Sites should be expanded and new pages should be created to enhance academic activities and avoid setbacks in the students’ academic performance.
- The students should create a balance between chit-chatting and academic activities. More attention should be directed to research.
- The use of Social media network by students should focus on the academic relevance of those sites instead of using them for negative purposes.
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