Impact Of Social Media On Students Mental Health In Tertiary Institutions

Project And Seminar Material On Psychology Education

Impact Of Social Media On Students Mental Health In Tertiary Institutions (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions using Lagos state university as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extent of social media usage among undergraduates in Lagos state university, determine whether there is a significant relationship between social media usage and the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university, and ascertain the effect of social media experience on the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of undergraduates of Lagos state university. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a high extent of social media usage among undergraduates in Lagos state university. Furthermore the study also revealed that the use of social media has caused negative influences on mental health like an increase in anxiety, depression, isolation, and low self-esteem. Therefore the study recommends that the exercise of safe social and balance use of social media should be encouraged among the youths. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

With the continuing technological advancements, social media—also known as social networking—has become the most popular form of communication and interaction between people of all ages throughout the world. Social media (SM) is a way to communicate and share content through various technological platforms (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010) such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, Tumblr, etc. Research on the growing popularity of social media use has found that nearly 8 in 10 Americans use social media, which amounts to a total population basis of 68% on Facebook, 21% on Twitter, 25% on Pinterest, and 26% on Instagram (Greenwood et al, 2018). Statistics show that the extent of time people spend on social media sites amount to significantly high rates. On average, 28% of the time spent using the internet is for social media interaction (Huang, 2018).

There are some benefits associated with social media use. These include—but are not limited to—awareness and destigmatizing mental health, additional access to resources, and a platform for individuals to relate to one another regarding their mental health symptoms while using the apps (Lattie et al., 2019). Social media can also serve as a positive outlet to reduce the potential barriers individuals of all backgrounds face when living with a mental health diagnosis (Andrews et al., 2018). However, the literature contains several studies that link social media use with several psychiatric disorders, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, and low self-esteem (Lin et al., 2016; Pantic, 2014). Users of social media may experience bullying, shaming, negative responses to their posts. These users may also experience discomfort due to comparison of their self-image and life satisfaction to other users (Belluomini, 2015). Additionally, negative social media behaviors can cause isolation, depression, and mood changes based on negative content users see while scrolling (Belluomini, 2015).
With an increase in the use of social media over the last decade, it is important to assess any impact social media might have on mental health. There is as yet is little action implemented by the mental health professionals regarding the implications of social media for mental health. Additionally, there has been minimal research done regarding the knowledge and preparedness of mental health clinicians to address the impact of heavy social media use on the clients’ mental health.

Social media’s impact on mental health complicates social service delivery on the micro level due to the significant growth of mental health symptoms. As more individuals are presenting with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, etc. due to their social media use, increased service providers are needed. Mental health service providers need to be aware of social media’s impact on mental health to better serve individuals affected by this issue. There is also a need for further training on how to assess for social media use and the potential impacts on mental health. Having an increased understanding of the impacts of social media use will lead to more efficient and effective treatment for clients.(Lin et al., 2016; Pantic, 2014). In the bases of the above, this study seek to investigate the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The increase in social media use is indisputable, there are many conflicting views on the effects of frequent use. From a positive perspective, Levy, (2015) recommend that engagement in social media helps a teen develop important knowledge and social skills and encourages them to be active citizens who create and share content. This is supported by the assertion that social acceptance like that provided by social media networks is an important component of an individual’s life (Miller, 2018). Similarly, Sutton,(2013) allege an increase in self-awareness and self-esteem reportedly experienced by users who actively update their social media profiles.

However, others point to emerging evidence that extensive use of these websites may be harmful to one’s mental health because an intense connection with the online environment can trigger depression in some individuals(Nyasaland, Grande,Brenner,& Elwy, 2014 ), raising the need for greater understanding of how this pervasive social media use affects individuals’ mental health and well-being.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s main goal is to examine the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions using Lagos state university as a case study.

The study specifically attempted to:

  1. Determine the extent of social media usage among undergraduates in Lagos state university.
  2. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between social media usage and the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university
  3. Ascertain the effect of social media experience on the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the extent of social media usage among undergraduates in Lagos state university?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between social media usage and the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university?
  3. What is the effect of social media experience on the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between social media usage and the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between social media usage and the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The proposed study is essential due to the limited number of research studies conducted on how mental health practitioners are responding to increased social media use and the impact on mental health. The observation of a technological society has brought to question what the impacts of high social media use are on a client’s mental health. As society evolves into a digital culture, mental health practitioners need to be prepared to screen clients for possible negative side effects of heavy social media. The findings of this study will have implications for the field of social services by identifying gaps in service provision, assessment, and treatment planning with respect to social media’s impact on mental health. The findings may lead to updates in a clinician’s approach to assessing the client’s concerns and developing a treatment plan to address treatment goals. Although this study’s main emphasis is on the micro-level (interaction between clinicians and clients), the findings may contribute to social service provision on a macro level by updating service accessibility and policies regarding social media outlets.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the effect of social media on mental health of individuals. The study will be carried out among students of Lagos state university.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Media:

They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology.

Social Networking Sites:

A website where people put information about them and can send to others.

Mental Health:

A person’s condition with regard to their psychological and emotional well-being.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions using Lagos state university as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of social media on students mental health in tertiary institutions using Lagos state university as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extent of social media usage among undergraduates in Lagos state university, determine whether there is a significant relationship between social media usage and the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university, and ascertain the effect of social media experience on the mental health of undergraduates in Lagos state university.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are undergraduates of Lagos state university.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

Social media has turn out to be a critical part of human beings inside the present generation. It has influenced them in many ways. On the one hand, numerous advantages of social media consisting of on line chatting, audio/video calling, reviews sharing, posting images, reading the real time news and advertising is attracting users rapidly. On the opposite hand, excessive use of social media is causing negative influences on mental health like an increase in anxiety, depression, isolation, and low self-esteem as soon this study.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The exercise of safe social and balance use of social media should be encouraged among the youths.
  2. Parents should also be aware of the threats to mental health that their children face. By understanding how social media can effect the mental health of their children, parents can talk to their children about healthy social media habits and balancing their time on social media and help protect their children from experiencing mental health issues later in life.
  3. Proper time limitations should be fixed on certain applications for adolescents. They should only work at desired times only under the surveillance of their guardians.
  4. Parents should be ensured that there is adequate opportunity for every child to express their creativity apart from the social media in school and at home.

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