Impact Of Social Media Advertisement Of Alcoholic Drink On Drinking Habit Of Youth
The study examines the influence of social media advertisement on drinking bahaviour of youth. The study was anchored on the persuasive theory. The survey design was used to fulfill the objectives of the study. The population of the study was the total number of registered students of Delta State University, Abraka. One hundred and twenty copies of the questionnaire were administered to the same number of respondents (purposive sample). The study finds there is significant alcohol advertisements and the drinking behavour of youths. The study recommends that alcoholic drink advertisement on the social media should be reviewed to discourage heavy drinking by the youths; the social media platforms should also maintain high ethical standards in advertising alcohol drinks so that negative adverts on alcohol drink will be reduced on social media.
1.1 Background to the Study
Social media is most suitable in definition as a group of new kinds of online media, which enable users to share their individual experience from distance location. Anthony (2015) sees social media as participation which encourages contributions and feedback from everyone who is interested. It blurs the line between media and audience.
The social media services are open to feedback and participation. They encourage vital media activities like voting, commenting and most importantly sharing of information. The social media is better seen as two-way communication or conversation within the communities. Social media strive on their connectedness feature making use of links to other sites, resources and people.
Crosbie (2002), in explaining new media said they are three different kinds of communication media; interpersonal media as ‘one to one’ mass media as ‘one to many’ and new media as individuation media or many to many”. In support to Crosbie, Samuel (2014) states new media is a term meant to encompass the emergence of digital, computerized or networked information and communication technologies in the later of the 20th century.
Carley, cited in Flew (2002) states social media, an offspring of new media, typify these features as they have eliminated geographical distance in global communication. In discussing further of social media, Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) see social media as “media designed to be disseminated through social interaction, created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. It uses internet and web-based technologies to transform broadcast media monologues (one to many) into social media dialogue (many to many).
Interactive possibility of the social media has distinguished social media from mass media. To an extent, the mass media depend on social media to make mass media interactive. Interaction is the basis of mass communication. According to Adelabu (2011), one of the major attributes to social networking is its high level of interactivity”. This aid communication values through its ability to facilitate meaningful conversation with, and between users of social media.
One of these values to update of information that is the update of information that is recent. Healthfield (2013), social media are the tools and platforms that people use to publish contents and interact socially online. Healthfiedl went on to say, user generated contents includes: conversation, articles images, or pictures, recipes and anything that an individual might share with others in their daily life. On his part, Greendhow (2009) said “social media refers to media for social interaction which use highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. They include the various online technology tools that enable people to communicate easily via the internet to share information and resources.
The advent of the internet encouraged the social media usage. The internet opened the opportunities of interacting with social media. Samuel (2014), the invention of the internet brought a new dimension to the media landscape. The internet is the connection of computer through the web system. This is better called network of computers what becomes a distinct line between social media and social networking Daniel (2010) argues that social media is hard to define and is a two-way street that gives you the ability to communicate. Does that means that a social media is an instrument of communication just like any other social network.
In response to the questions above, Cohen (2009) said social media can be called a strategy and an outlet for broadcasting while social networking is a tool and a utility for connecting with others”. He further buttresses his point of view by saying the difference is not just semantics but in the features and functions put into these web sites by their creator which dictates the way they are to be use”.
According to Chiemele, Ovute and Obochi (2015), social media is a means of interaction among people in which they create, share and exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. Social media depends on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and communities share, concrete, discuss and modify user-generated content. Today’s society is faced with the continual growing problem of electronics and social media. What used to be considered precious treasure is now the cause of teenage obesity, lack of concentration, inadequate communication and above all a far less intellectual society?
Social media have evolved over the years to the modern day which uses digital media. However, this social media is not that new in social communication. Also, it did not start with the advent of computer, but instead the telephone. The key word here is social interaction. As at that time telephone was a new media of social networking and interaction. You could see someone with a diary containing name of friends with their telephone numbers.
Advertising helps in selling new ideas, products and services through the art and strategy of persuasive communication, (Dhar, 2011). Advertising calls the attention of consumer to buy product or service, persuade user to buy the product or service, show them the uniqueness of the product, create awareness and brand loyalty to the user and remind user of the existence of the product in the market. Companies spend a large part of their budget to produce and run advertisements (adverts) or promotions to communicate information about their company and products.
Advertising as a marketing tool is used by business organization to inform consumers that the right product is available at the right place, right price and to convince the consumer to purchase them. Advertising comprises all messages that are paid for in the media, owned and controlled by people other than the company making the advertisement. One of the earliest means of advertising was the use of signs. Early craftsmen used signs to advertise their wares and some traders like Phoenicians planted commercial messages on prominent rocks.
Advertising is a prominent feature of modern business operations and also a form of communication that attempts to interpret the qualities of products services and ideals in terms of consumer needs and wants. Some companies or organizations embrace advertising to achieve good will high market share and sales. A successful national economy depends on sales promotion in the form of advertising to maintain factory production, creation of employment and so the money goes round and round. Advertising is a mass media content that provides a platform for firms to create awareness about their products or services and how consumers can make the best out of such products.
It is known that advertising affect human and humans are in constant activities to sell to the eyes of the public. Anywhere a person looks, he will always see some form of advertisement. In fact, billboards, posters, fliers and other printed media are visible almost everywhere. Basically, all these promotional materials aim to inform people about the existence of a certain product or service.
According to Kofi and Mark (2014), advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the products or services in the minds of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it. The American marketing association defined brand as any name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of these that identifies the maker/seller of the product or service and differentiates it from competitors.
Therefore, advertising must be tailored towards consumer’s satisfaction and organizational performance. One could encounter advertising messages through various traditional media including mass media such as Television, Radio, Magazines, Newspapers, outdoor, direct mail or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages, as advertising has a stimulating influence on purchasing behaviour of the consumers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The social media have power influence on the people through the packing of message. One of the messages of the mass media is in advertisement. Advertisement target to persuasive audience to develop interest to a particular product or services the advertisers wish to sell as well as stimulating the audience to make purchase. According to Opeyemi (2016) opinion that advertising engaged by appeal refers to packaging products, services, organizations, or individuals in a variety of ways that clearly deliver a certain benefit, stimulation, identification or reason to explain what consumers are thinking about and why they buy products. This is to appeal arouse the psychological motive of the consumer for buying. Many believed that the manner of presentation of alcoholic drink advertisement is the problem with binge drink among the youth.
However, some people believed that one cannot be influenced in drinking acohol because of the media advertisement. The drinking habit of people starts within their peer group activities.
Therefore, the study seeks to study the influence of advertisement of alcoholic drink on drinking habit of youth in Nigeria. The study shall close knowledge gap as it regards to finding out the frequency at which Star lager beer advertisement in television; determine the influence of advertising on Star lager beer on drinking habit of Delta State University students; discovered whether the Star lager beer advertisement on television are professionally presented and establish possible ways to control the contents of Star lager beer advertisement on television.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study has the overall purpose of investigating the influence of advertising on the drinking habit of the youth. It will specifically study the followings;
- To find out the extent at which alcoholic drink advertisement appears on social media.
- To determine the influence of social media advertising of alcoholic drink on Delta State University students.
- To find out whether social media alcoholic drink increase drink habit of Delta State University students.
- To establish possible ways to control social media alcoholic drink advertisement.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the extent at which alcoholic drink advertisement appears on social media?
- What is the influence of social media advertising of alcoholic drink on Delta State University students?
- Do social media alcoholic drink advertisement increase drink habit of Delta State University students?
- What are possible ways to control social media alcoholic drink advertisement?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is purposed to investigate the influence of social media advertisement on drink habit of Delta State University students. The study shall be beneficially to the students on how to curb bad drinking habit and the same time help media organization to strictly follow the ethics of advertisement as well as monitor the frequency of alcoholic drink advertisement.
There has been need to research on this topic because of the increase in drinking habit of university students in recent time. So this study will reveal the gap that exists as well as providing the resolutions adopted in recent time to close the gap the influence of advertisement of student drinking habit by determining the extent at which alcoholic advertisement in the mass media, the influence of advertising on drinking habit of Delta State University students, whether there are ethical issues in the advertisement of alcoholic in mass media and establish possible ways to control the contents of advertisement of alcoholic drinks those are unethical.
The result from the finding will provide knowledge for any researcher who deem fit to research of a topic related to this study and the recommendation will bring solution to mending issues as relate to high drinking habit.
The findings from this study will provide scholars with knowledge for further research. Also, it will be guiding principles to students and lecturers of mass communication and other related field of study.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In examining the influence of social media advertisement on drinking habit of the Delta State University, the study shall cover students of State University, Abraka. The focus shall be on the students in two departments in Faculty of Social Sciences and these are Economics and Business Administration. The students shall be selected from 100 level to 400 level. The study seeks to cover one year period; from January to December, 2018.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
This is the stage of live that covers the age bracket 12 to 30.
This is the habit of taking in alcoholic drink for pleasure by youths.
This refers to behaviour that is controlled by something factors.
The continuous attitude of doing something often. It is addiction to something
These are new form of new media for social interaction among users. It include all social networking sites like facebook, twitter, Instagram e.t.c.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
The research was duly conducted to bring recent issues witnessed in the television advertisement of alcoholic drink in Nigeria. The study seeks to discover some issues that had cause the increase of alcohol drink among Nigeria youth. The study adopted the persyuasive theory of mass communication to understand the influence of alcoholic drink on drinking habit of the people. The result from the finding shows that the mass media has be influential in the behaviour of the people. The influence of alcohol advertising on youth drinking habit has become the recent concern of media practitioners. The finding, indicates that advertisement of alcoholic drink have shown influence on the youth as it encourage the youth to drink more of alcoholic drink agent their choice. It also shows due to the negative influence of alcoholic drink advertisement on youth drinking habit is on the increase as mass media advertise promote binge drinking. The finding indicate that alcoholic drink advertise should be promoted in the mass media.
Finally, the findings show that alcoholic drink advertisement can reduce bad drinking habit of the youth when the regulatory bodies enforce sanction on the mass media and total restriction alcoholic drink advertisement.
The findings from the study show that the influence of alcohol advertising on the drinking behaviour of youth is related to the alcohol sales figure. It shows that bar on alcoholic advertising could reduce the monthly consumption of alcoholic by youth.In recent years the effects of alcohol drinking advertising has moved to the effects on the determinants of drinking behavour itself. These determinants form the link between alcohol advertising and the actual behavour of drinking alcohol.
On the basis of research it has been proved that alcohol advertising effects behavioural determinants such s the extent to which advertisement are remembered and appreciated, the expected consequences of drinking and behavioural intention. Relatively news is the fact that this study no longer look only at the influence in the drinking behaviour of large populations, but also focus on the effects of advertising on specific target groups like youth.The conclusions of this study show that alcohol advertising indirectly affects people thinking about alcoholic and the intention to drink it shown that a relationship in alcohol advertising the more formula they are with it and the more they appreciate it – the greater the like hood that they already drink and/ or will in the feature.
Therefore, the study concluded that:
- Alcoholic drink advert on television always appear in the afternoon and evening.
- Most of the presentation of the adverts appear in form of videos and pictures
- Most young people’s behaviour is influenced towards drinking alcoholic drink especially Star lager beer.
- Many of the respondents claimed to share messages of alcoholic drink to their friends.
- The study concluded that the use of celebrity and homour in presenting alcoholic drink adverts on television influence youth more.
- The study conclude that government and television station have role to play to the control of negative alcoholic drink advertisements on television.
The study through justification from the findings of the influence of alcohol drink advertising in the drinking habit of the youth provides the following recommendation.
- Alcoholic drink advertisement on the television should be review to discourage heavy drinking on youth.
- The television should maintained high ethical standard in advertising alcoholic drink so that negative advert on alcoholic drink will not appear on television.
- The alcoholic drink advertisement should be targeted to adult not youth so that the youth who are under 18 will not be influenced early. This will make the people to be aware of the age acceptance.
- The advertisement of alcoholic drink should show the negative impact of alcoholic drinking habit in order to discourage binge drinking.
- Television should dwell more on good products & service for advertisement to keep the mass media afloat rather than to engage in illicit product advertisement.
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