The Impact Of Shared Responsibility On Workers Productivity In Government Owned Institutions In Nigeria
Effective shared responsibility has a positive influence on the performance of organizations. Organizations worldwide are striving to improve the effectiveness of their teams in order to be globally competitive. The study was carried out in selected public corporationss in Enugu metropolis, Enugu State. The purpose and objective of this study therefore was to establish the impact of shared responsibility on workers productivity in Kenya. The study was to evaluate the impact of organizational culture on formation of teams on employees, examine the various job descriptions of employees on achievement of organizational goals, to examine the impact of job satisfaction on job performance and to establish the impact of skills and qualification on performance of employees. The study was conducted in selected public corporations, Enugu metropolis. This study adopted descriptive research design. The target population for this study was 111, comprising of management and all other employees of selected public corporations, Enugu metropolis. Using the Morgan and Krejcie Table for determining Sample Sizes, a sample size of 92 respondents, representing 83% of the total population of SOS workers was drawn from each of the category of management and the general employees using stratified random sampling technique. Stratified random sampling was used to identify respondents.
The researcher used questionnaires, interviews, document reviews and observation techniques to collect data. Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. From the findings, the study established that there were more women than men in the number of employees at selected public corporationss in Enugu metropolis. The study also established that the ages of employees at SOS were generally over 25 years and that the importance of shared responsibility was apparent to most employees. However, job descriptions were found to be ambiguous and that there was responsibility overlaps in most cases, creating confusion and disagreements between employees. The study also established also that job satisfaction was to be achieved through recognition of achievement, promotions, good working environments and fair rewards and remunerations. This was to impact job performance if it was done correctly. They felt that internal staff training on importance of shared responsibility, appraisal and remuneration should be conducted regularly to sensitize employees. The study suggests that research on employee – manager relationship should be carried out to verify its impact on performance. Also the study suggests research into the impact of managers’ roles on career development of employees as a form ofmotivation.
1.1 Background To The Study
Considering its prominent place in the prevailing organizational discourse, shared responsibility has proven to be a favorite formula for organizational redesign. It is a promising concept which offers autonomy, responsibility and job enrichment in order to meet the aspirations of the employees. At the same time, shared responsibility is believed to enhance performance outcomes such as productivity and quality, on both the team and the organization level. Hence, management fashions such as business process re-engineering, lean production, the modern socio-technical approach and human resources management (HRM), all embrace the core principles of shared responsibility (Benders and Van Hootegem, 1999; de Sitter et al., 1997; Kuipers and van Amelsvoort, 1990).
A major argument for introducing and for developing shared responsibility in an organization stems from recent insights into the impact of human resources on organizational performance and productivity. In the current debate on HRM, the resource-based view of the firm states that the intangible, imperfectly imitable and imperfectly substitutable internal resources of the organization enable a firm to generate and to sustain its competitive advantage (Doorewaard andMeihuizen, 2000). This statement is true especially with regard to the impact of human resources on organizational performance and productivity in organizations that practices shared responsibility. Shared responsibility encourages team-based work. The performance in team-based working largely depends on the employees’ competencies and attitudes with regard to planning, performing and controlling team tasks in an autonomous way.
When analyzing which features of shared responsibility at work can add to the enhancement of team performance which can only be achieved with team work i.e. the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members. A larger allocation of job regulation tasks within the team among the team members is supposed to contribute more effectively to organizational goals than the allocation of these tasks to a separate team leader. However, hardly any empirical evidence exists regarding the relationship between shared responsibility structure and shared performance (Benders et al., 1999). This study is aimed at clarifying the impact of the structure of shared responsibilities on workers’ productivity considering its current challenges.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Apart from the variety of job regulation tasks in an establishment, the nature of the division of responsibilities is important in order to analyze the influence of the shared responsibility structure on organizational and worker’s performance and productivity. According to Benders and Van Hootegem (1999), the concept of shared responsibility is rather vaguely elaborated. Sometimes, shared responsibility is conceptualized as being the autonomy of the team as a whole, whereas at other times the concept strictly refers to the responsibility of individual team members. Bryman’s analysis (1996) of leadership appears to be adequate in providing a further elaboration of the concept of shared responsibility. This focuses on leadership as a process, rather than on leadership as a formal position within an organization.
As a process, leadership consists of a set of decisions concerning the coordination and regulation of work processes. Such a decision-making process can be organized in many different ways. In teams with autocratic or participatory leadership, for example, the responsibility for decisions is located within a formal position of team leader. In teams with shared responsibility (where a team leader appears to be absent), team members themselves make all the decisions. In day-to-day practices, various hybrid structures of shared responsibility exist (for example, the shared responsibility for work preparation, support and control might be restricted to a few team members only, or responsibilities might be divided among various team members).
For the purpose of this study, the researcher seeks to examine the impact of shared responsibility on workers’ productivity in government owned establishment carefully looking at its current challenges. However, in shared responsibility structure, team members themselves make decisions concerning work preparation, support and control in an autonomous way which also be highlighted in this study.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The general objective of this study is to analyze the impact of shared responsibility on worker’s productivity in government own establishment vis-a-vis study on its current challenges while the following are the specific objectives:
- To examine the impact of shared responsibility on worker’s productivity in government own establishment.
- To identify the challenges of shared responsibility in government own establishment.
- To examine the different structures of shared responsibility that can enhance worker’s productivity.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the impact of shared responsibility on worker’s productivity in government own establishment?
- What are the challenges of shared responsibility in government own establishment?
- What are the different structures of shared responsibility that can enhance worker’s productivity?
- HO: Shared responsibility cannot enhance workers productivity in government own establishment
- HA: Shared responsibility can enhance workers productivity in government own establishment
- HO: Shared responsibility has no challenges in government own establishment
- HA: Shared responsibility has challenges in government own establishment
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The following are the significance of this study:
Findings from this research work will educate head of governments, administrators and managers of corporate organizations on the impact of shared responsibility on workers productive as it will also throw light to its challenges thereby making this research work a guide for the stakeholders in decision making.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the impact of shared responsibility on worker’s productivity in government own establishment, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 Scope / Limitations Of The Study
This study on impact of shared responsibility on worker’s productivity in government own establishment vis-a-vis study on its current challenges covers all the Human resource services in government establishment in Nigeria. The study will also cover an overview of factors hindering worker’s productivity and the challenges of shared responsibility.
Limitation Of Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
A duty or obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task (assigned by someone, or created by one’s own promise or circumstances) that one must fulfill, and which has a consequent penalty for failure.
A measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory, system, etc., in converting inputs into useful outputs.
Productivity is computed by dividing average output per period by the total costs incurred or resources (capital, energy, material, personnel) consumed in that period. Productivity is a critical determinant of cost efficiency.
The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract
A group of people with a full set of complementary skills required to complete a task, job, or project.
- Operate with a high degree of interdependence,
- Share authority and responsibility for self-management,
- Are accountable for the collective performance, and
- Work toward a common goal and shared rewards(s).
A team becomes more than just a collection of people when a strong sense of mutual commitment creates synergy, thus generating performance greater than the sum of the performance of its individual members.
Conclusion And Recommendations
The study sought to access the impact of shared responsibility on workers productivity case of selected public corporations. From the data collected, analyzed and the findings got, this study has come to the following conclusions. Regarding the effect of culture on shared responsibility by selected public corporations, the study established that there are details that the employers should consider to maintain good shared responsibility. This study established that there should equity in job allocation to staff across all regions to enable people bring their diverse culture to the organization, acceptance and appreciation for diversity was highly recommended and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the organization. Regarding the Job Description and shared responsibility, this study established that adequate job descriptions are not
given to the workers and this makes them do duties outside their jurisdiction. This was done through the staff appraisals and supervision of the different tasks given to the employees.
Regarding the Job satisfaction of the workers, this study established that the organization is using strategies to achieve the best shared responsibility results. selected public corporations use employee recognition, good working conditions, good remuneration and employee promotion to achieve the best shared responsibility result. Regarding the Individual skills and qualification of employees the study established that the staff employed at selected public corporationss are qualified staff that has gone through training in various colleges. A range of reasons were established as to why organizations form teams: the study established that, organizational objectives, building organizational reputation, producing greater level of performance, increasing employees’ organizational commitment and to offer quality services to customers were the major reasons for the formation of teams in organizations.
From the study the following recommendation were made under the themes as follows: Regarding the effect of culture in selected public corporations, it should be noted that Culture as root metaphor sees the organization as its culture, created through communication and symbols, or competing metaphors. selected public corporations should strive for what is considered a “healthy” organizational culture in order to increase productivity, growth, efficiency and reduce counterproductive behavior and turnover of employees. They should have acceptance and appreciation for diversity. Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution.
Effective teams must have open lines of communication. Communication must be honest and flow between all team members equally. Team members who understand each other’s unique communication styles, or who agree on a single style of communication from the outset, are more likely to move the team in a productive direction that everyone understands and supports. Team members must never be hesitant to communicate with other members about issues and concerns, as well as new ideas or personal observations. Coordination on the other hand is equally important to enable teams work well and achieve the organizational goals. Coordination always involves a Coordinating of Project Actions and principles for doing the job well in an organization. Flick (2006). This study established that job description for individual team members is necessary and should encompass a job title, a job summary or work to be performed.
Two job descriptions with the same title and same level of pay may have differing duties, responsibilities, accountabilities and relationships. This would help individuals do their duties without feeling oppressed by doing someone’s work without any reward. Using job descriptions will help an organization better understand the experience and skill base needed to enhance the success of the company. They help in the hiring, evaluation and potentially terminating of employees. All too often, there is a misunderstanding of what a position entails and a well-prepared job description can help both sides share a common understanding. It is important for the organization to put in place adequate job description which typically outlines the necessary skills, training and education needed by a potential employee. It will spell out duties and responsibilities of the job. Once a job description is prepared, it can serve a basis for interviewing candidates, orienting a new employee and finally in the evaluation of job performance.
Using job descriptions is part of good management. From the study it was established that shared responsibility becomes a valuable experience for the workers involved. Regarding Job satisfaction it was realized that job satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs.
The strategies used by the organization to achieve the best shared responsibility results were such as employee recognition, good working conditions, good remuneration and employee promotions. Working in a team empowers people and helps them develop autonomy, which is a source of profound job satisfaction. Teams that possess a wide range of professional competencies can be more fully equipped to meet a wide range of challenges. When building teams, take time to ensure that each team member possesses skills and strengths that complement the skills, strengths and weaknesses of other team members. Bringing together people with common skill-sets can lead to a great deal of discussion with little subsequent action. Ensuring that each team member possesses a unique specialty allows team members to trust each other for certain aspects of performance, while fully understanding what their own contribution is expected to be.
The culture of the organization and the size of the organization matters when setting up teams. If an organization wants to improve its performance, it should improve the services offered and also train the managers and employees on how to improve on their performance. There is also need for Managers of SOS to equally note that among the strategies they have in formation of teams, they are to produce greater levels of performance, build reputation of the organization and offer quality services to customers in enhancing workers productivity. Internal staff training on importance of shared responsibility, appraisal and remuneration should be conducted regularly tosensitize employees.
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