Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents


Abstract


With the achievement of puberty, the adolescent becomes sexually active and competent. This maturity involves the whole process of physical development, emotional feelings and social conditioning. It may well be for the adolescent a period of turmoil and awkward adjustment, of mystery and exchange of wrong information with other adolescents. Adolescents, therefore, need the best possible preparation to enable them to cope well with their sexual development and avoid the most obvious pitfalls. Proper sex education can correct misconceptions and help achieve the desired sexual behaviour among the adolescents. Most studies in Nigeria have generally concentrated on identifying the major sources of sex education for adolescents. It is less clear, however, which sexuality outcomes are influenced by different sources, and which sources have greater general influences on adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of various sources of education about sexual topics (family, peers, media, school and religion) on teens’ sexual knowledge and behaviour among public secondary school students in Ovia local government of Edo state .

The study used ex-post facto design to determine sources of sex education and its influence on secondary school adolescents’ sexual behaviour. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative analysis considered the inferences that were made from the opinions of the respondents. This analysis was then thematically presented in narrative form and where possible tabular form. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequency counts and percentages. These data were further subjected to significance tests using Chi-square test. The study established that the main sources of sex education were peers and the mass media. Parents and school were rated among the lowest with sources of sex education. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concludes that adolescents in secondary schools in Ovia local government of Edo state do not have adequate information about sex. This can be attributed to overreliance on peers for information about sex, and, because information from peers can be unreliable, most of the information that the adolescents have is often misleading. Consequently, most of the sexually active students do not use any form of protection during sexual intercourse, and this exposes them to the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, or getting unwanted pregnancies, which can result to school dropout or health complications as young girls attempt abortion. Other adolescents practice unreliable protection methods such as the withdrawal method due to lack of information.

Therefore, the researcher recommends that parents should be sensitized about the whole question of adolescents’ sexuality so that they can be more involved in teaching them about the same; the education system should put into consideration the idea of incorporating sex education into the school curriculum; the community should work hand in hand with community-based organisations and NGOs to educate the adolescents on responsible sex behaviour; the church should play a more active role in educating the adolescents/youth on sex education; and, since most peers prefer getting their information concerning sex from their fellow peers, all the parties should make effort to train the adolescents in order to ensure that they give right information to each other.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Sexual Behaviour
  • 2.2 Sex Education
  • 2.3 Effects of Sex Education on Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviour
  • 2.4 Summary of Literature Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Research Variables
  • 3.4 Location of the Study
  • 3.5 Target Population
  • 3.6 Sample and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.7 Research Instruments
  • 3.8 Pilot Study
  • 3.9 Validity and Reliability of the instruments
  • 3.10 Data Collection Procedures
  • 3.11 Data Analysis and Presentation
  • 3.12 Ethical Considerations

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Demographic Data of Study Participants
  • 4.3 Level of Sexual Knowledge among Students
  • 4.4 Sources of Sex Education among Students
  • 4.5 Sources of Sex Education among Sexually Active and Non-Sexually Active Students

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of the Study
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Sex education is enlightenment on issues to human sexuality which includes emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control ad sexual abstinence. According to the English Dictionary, unprotected sex is an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy performed without the use of a condom, thus involving the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. It was discovered that teenage girls are 35% more likely than boys to have unprotected sex the first time they have sexual intercourse regardless of any previous sex education instruction.

Boys generally have been thought to be more liable to risky behaviors, such as engaging in unprotected sex. In Nigeria, problems linked with adolescents’ sexual health comprise high rates of teenage pregnancy; a rising event of sexually transmitted diseases, high rates of abortion mortality and more. Medical problems associated with adolescents’ sexual behaviour are a major health burden to Nigerians. Problems are not limited to pregnancy, it includes secondary infertility and development of cervical abnormalities in adolescents. Early and unprotected sexual activity has negative consequences for young people, adolescents precisely.

Adolescents who become sexually active often fall victim of high-risk behaviour that leads to physical and emotional damage. Each year, influenced by a combination of a youthful assumption of invincibility, and a lack of guidance, millions of adolescents ignore those risks and suffer the consequences. Young men who have sex with men are liable to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. It was discovered that individuals infected with an STD are at least two to five times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire HIV if exposed to the virus through sexual contact. One study found that among gay male clinic patients screened for STDs, those 15 to 20 years old had the highest age-specific rates of rectal Chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Sexual activity has consequences. Though the teen birth rate has declined to its lowest levels since data collection began, the United States still has the highest teen birth rate in the industrialized world. Roughly one in four girls will become pregnant at least once by their 20th birthday. Teenage mothers are less likely to finish high school and are more likely than their peers to live in poverty, depend on public assistance, and be in poor health. Their children are more likely to suffer health and cognitive disadvantages, come in contact with the child welfare and correctional systems, live in poverty, drop out of high school and become teen parents themselves.

These costs add up, according to The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, which estimates that teen childbearing costs taxpayers at least $9.4 billion annually. Comprehensive sex education programs show that these programs can help youth delay onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of sexual activity, reduce number of sexual partners, and increase condom and contraceptive use. Importantly, the evidence shows youth who receive comprehensive sex education are NOT more likely to become sexually active, increase sexual activity, or experience negative sexual health outcomes.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The following are the problems of the study:

  1. 35% of teenage girls have unprotected sex the first time they have sexual intercourse regardless of any sex education instruction.
  2. Youth who do not receive comprehensive sex education are more likely to become sexually active, increase sexual activity, or experience negative sexual health outcomes.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The following are the objectives of the study:

  1. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents.
  2. To suggest the need for effective sex education for the young ones.
  3. To know if youth who receive comprehensive sex education are more likely to become sexually active, increase sexual activity, experience negative sexual health outcomes or not.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How can sex Education Intervention Programme reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents in ovia local government of Edo state?

1.5   Research hypotheses

H1 There is a significant relationship between the sources of sex education and students sexual knowledge.

H2 Sexually active students and students who are not sexually active have different sources of sex education.

H3 There is a significant difference in sources of sex education across students’ gender.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

  1. This research work will encourage young people to tell the truth, using computers instead of face-to-face interviews.
  2. Comprehensive sex education programs show that these programs can help youth delay onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of sexual activity, reduce number of sexual partners, and increase condom and contraceptive use.

1.7 Scope / Limitations Of The Study

The scope of this study centers on impact of sexuality education in reducing unprotected intercourse among adolescents in ovia local government of Edo state.

Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Sex Education:

Is enlightenment on issues to human sexuality which includes emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control ad sexual abstinence.

Education:

Is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research

Sexuality:

Sexuality includes our sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual).
Intercourse: the act carried out for procreation or for pleasure in which, typically, the insertion of the male’s erect penis into the female’s vagina is followed by rhythmic thrusting usually culminating in orgasm; copulation; coitus related adjective venereal

Unprotected Intercourse:

Unprotected sex is an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy performed without the use of a condom, thus involving the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

Adolescents:

The period between the onset of puberty and the cessation of physical growth; roughly from 11 to 19 years of age.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations arrived at. The chapter also gives suggestions for further studies that could be carried out in future.


5.2 Summary of the Findings

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of sex education on adolescents’ sexual behaviour in secondary schools in Ovia local government of Edo state . Data for the study was collected from 192 students and 48 teachers selected from 12 secondary schools in Ovia local government of Edo state . The students were selected from forms two and three classes. Among the students were 96 (50%) boys and 96 (50%) girls. Given below is a summary of the key study findings.

A large proportion of students did not have adequate knowledge on sexuality. Most of the students (50.5%) had average knowledge about sex, 68 (35.4%) had low knowledge levels, while 27 (14.1%) had high levels of sexual knowledge. Fifty (50%) of the teachers rated the level of students’ knowledge about sex-related issues to be average, 29.2% rated the level of knowledge high, while 20.8% rated it low.

Majority (84.9%) of the students indicated that their major sources of sex information/education were the mass media, followed by peers (65.1%), and then relatives (51.6%). Parents were rated the lowest with only 18.8% indicating them as a main source of sex education. Chi-square test results indicated that adolescents’ levels of sexual knowledge did not differ across the main sources of sex education. This shows that among the various sources of sex information, none was superior to the other in terms of giving reliable knowledge to adolescents.
The main methods through which teachers conducted sex education included guidance and counselling (87.5%), through other subjects like Biology and CRE (66.7%), and through interpersonal interactions with the students (56.3%). Other major sources of sex education for students were: through peer counselling club, through religious organizations; inviting speakers and facilitators through the counselling department; through magazines and other available literature; arranging for seminars and workshops; church, debates, contests and peers; Radio/TV programmes; through societies and chill clubs; and drama and music festivals.

A total of 131 (68.2%) reported that they had previously dated with a friend of the opposite sex. Fifty-three (27.6%) of the students agreed that they have had sexual intercourse with a partner of the opposite sex. Of these, 16 (30.2%) had the first intercourse when they were below 9 years, 15 (28.3%) were between the ages 10-13 years, while 22 (41.5%) at the age of 15-17 years. A significant number of students (49.1%) did not use any form of protection. Twenty four (45.3%) of the students used condoms, while 3 (5.7%) used withdrawal method. This shows that quite a large number (54.7%) of adolescents who are sexually active do not use protection. This includes the 5.7% who reported to use withdrawal method, which does not protect one from contracting HIV/AIDS and STDs, and is not a reliable method to control pregnancy.

Chi-square test results indicated that sexually active and non-sexually active students did not differ significantly in their sources of sex education. This shows that the sources of sex information used by adolescents have not been successful in assisting them make the right decisions regarding sex. Further, chi-square test results indicated that there were no significant gender differences in adolescents’ sources of sex education across gender.

Teachers were of the view that sexual activity among the students was on the increase due to exposure to pornography and contraceptives (58.3%), influence from mass media (56.3%), lack of proper and adequate counselling (43.8%), and lack of role models (35.4%) among others. On the other hand, some of the teachers indicated that sexual activity had been decreasing as a result of fear of contracting HIV/AIDS or getting pregnant (18.8%), involvement in co-curricular activities (12.5%), and increased knowledge on consequences of engaging in sex (8.3%) among others.


5.3 Conclusion

The study established that the main sources of sex education were peers and the mass media. Parents and school were rated among the lowest with sources of sex education. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concludes that adolescents in secondary schools in Ovia local government of Edo state do not have adequate information about sex. This can be attributed to over-reliance on peers for information about sex, and, because information from peers can be unreliable, most of the information that the adolescents have is often misleading. Consequently, most of the sexually active students do not use any form of protection during sexual intercourse, and this exposes them to the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, or getting unwanted pregnancies, which can result to school dropout or health complications as young girls attempt abortion. Other adolescents practice unreliable protection methods such as the withdrawal method due to lack of information. Withdrawal method is a method that does not protect one from contracting HIV/AIDS and STDs, and is not a reliable method to control pregnancy, yet some adolescents in the study indicated that it was the method they use. In light of this, it is important that the government, schools, nongovernmental organizations, and the community design effective sex education programmes targeting adolescents.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the study findings, the researcher recommends the following: –

  1. Parents should be sensitized about the whole question of adolescents’ sexuality so that they can be more involved in teaching them about the same.
  2. The education system should put into consideration the idea of incorporating sex education into the school curriculum.
  3. The community should work hand in hand with community-based organisations and NGOs to educate the adolescents on responsible sex behaviour.
  4. The church should play a more active role in educating the
    adolescents/adolescents on sex education.
  5. Since most adolescents prefer getting their information concerning sex from their fellow peers, all the parties should make effort to train the adolescents in order to ensure that they give right information to each other.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies

  1. A similar study could be carried out in other parts of the country to find out whether the findings of this study are replicable.
  2. This study covered public secondary schools in Ovia local government of Edo state . A study needs to be carried out covering private secondary schools to see whether the study findings tally with those ones of public secondary schools.

Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents


Disclaimer

This research material “Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Impact Of Sexuality Education In Reducing Unprotected Intercourse Among Adolescents” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.