The Impact Of Sensitization Campaigns As A Means Of Reducing Examination Malpractice In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria

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The Impact Of Sensitization Campaigns As A Means Of Reducing Examination Malpractice In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education, according to the 5th edition of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, is a process of teaching and learning. According to Emaikwu, (2012), education is an essential process that prepares young individuals to lead productive lives based on their abilities and interests. Learners are not only educated, instructed, and sufficiently directed to gain important skills and information through education, but they are also taught how to adapt to acceptable public life. To others, education is viewed as a method of overcoming disadvantages, establishing greater equality, and earning prosperity and prestige for all. It is also frequently seen as a place where children may grow in accordance with their specific requirements and potentials, with the goal of developing each individual to their maximum potential (Emaikwu, 2012). The early years of schooling are devoted to the development of fundamental interpersonal communication and reading skills. Later in life, education focuses on acquiring the information and skills required to generate value and earn a living. People also pursue education for the sake of education, whether to fulfill intrinsic curiosity, to gain knowledge of a certain subject or skill, or for general personal growth. Certificates are used to assess the western knowledge acquisition system or formal education. However, a certificate is not a complete proof of knowledge retention. Before receiving a certificate, students must be tested or examined in the field in which they have been trained. According to Kpangban, Ajaja, & Umedhe, (2008), examination is a yardstick against which students’ or candidates’ competence and development in the education sector are formally assessed and judged. According to Emaikwu (2012), examination as part of educational assessment is intended to determine a learner’s degree of skill acquisition or intellectual competence and knowledge following a particular instruction. Adesina (2006) considers examination to be one of the most objective tools utilized in the measuring of learning outcomes at all levels of education in Nigeria and throughout the world. Exams can be given verbally, on paper, on a computer, or in a limited space in which an examinee must physically complete a set of tasks. Nonetheless, despite the importance of testing in teaching and learning circumstances, a variety of factors influence the reliability of exam results. Examinations play an important role in our lives.

Teachers and counsellors rely on them to conduct complete assessments of their pupils and clients. To determine if a student is worthy of being promoted to another class, a series of accomplishment tests must be administered, culminating in a well-founded conclusion. Human relations specialists and employment bureaux use exams in industrial settings to determine an individual applicant’s employability. Despite the importance of examination or test taking in Nigerian institutions for diagnostic, placement, classification, and quality control, the integrity and credibility of public examinations have been greatly eroded and corrupted as the incidence of examination malpractice has increased (Airahuobhor, 2007).

There are varying definitions of examination malpractice. Examination malpractice can be defined as the use of unorthodox techniques to get a score or combination of scores in an examination that is ordinarily outside a candidate’s mental competence or level of readiness for that examination. It can also be defined as abnormalities that are prepared and sustained by candidates or their agents in order to get an unfair advantage in the examination. Examination malpractice has become a pandemic in the world thus the need to curb this spreading cancer. One of the ways to curb examination malpractice is through sensitization campaigns. Examining organizations have initiated a number of efforts to educate the public about the dangers of examination misconduct.

Different campaigns have been carried out in the media, religious bodies etc. Kpangban, et al; (2008) listed these as some of the ways examination bodies carry out sensitization programs:

Sensitization of Government/Stakeholders: As a matter of policy, examination bodies informs the government and stakeholders of decisions made by its respective Committees on reported incidents of misconduct.

Sensitization for Candidates: examination bodies publish the rules and regulations governing its examinations in book form as well as on its website. These describe the numerous offenses and the penalties that apply to them.

Public sensitization: this is letting the public know of the prevalence and dangers of examination malpractice. The effort inadvertently gave rise to the country’s current Examination Ethics crusade. This is usually done through the media or other forms of communications that will reach the masses quickly.

Anti-Malpractice Billboards: Anti-malpractice billboards are placed in strategic locations around the country to raise public awareness of the dangers of examination malpractice.

These and more are some of the ways sensitization is done by examination bodies.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Airahuobhor, (2007) says that many steps have been put in place in Nigeria over the years to remove examination malpractice by the government, institutions, school authorities, civic society, and well-meaning people. However, the problem continues to expand across Nigeria, with all sorts of test misconduct, as though there is no long-term remedy. Exam misconduct has undoubtedly been a social issue for decades, but the volume and method with which it is being performed now is cause for considerable worry. The prevalence of this crime has grown to the point that there is almost no inspection everywhere at all levels and beyond the formal educational system, implying that there is no one sort of criminal conduct or another (Nkwoh, 2011). Examination malpractices are ubiquitous everywhere, and each test season sees the rise of new and inventive methods of cheating. Sensitization has been carried out over the years but has the effects been felt? Has sensitization campaigns of exams malpractice been effective? This study will look into these.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of sensitization campaigns as a means of reducing examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Other objectives are:

  1. To find out the different sensitization campaigns carried out in the fight against exam malpractice.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of sensitization campaigns in the reduction of examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.
  3. To examine the benefits of sensitization campaigns in the reduction of examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

These research questions will guide this study

  1. What are the different sensitization campaigns carried out in the fight against exam malpractice?
  2. How effective are the sensitization campaigns in the reduction of examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria?
  3. What are the benefits of sensitization campaigns in the reduction of examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to tertiary institutions as the findings will show the effects of examination malpractice and the need for effective sensitization campaigns to reduce the scourge. It will also be of benefit to examination bodies as they will see how effective their sensitization campaigns and how to improve on it.

Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for further reference and future studies.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on assessing the impact of sensitization campaigns as a means of reducing examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. It will also show the benefits of sensitization and its effectiveness.

Lectuerers and students of University of Ibadan, Ibadan serve as enrolled participants for this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study will be limited to assessing the impact of sensitization campaigns as a means of reducing examination malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. It will not be focusing on the challenges and solutions of this scourge.

Findings of this study will be gotten from lecturers and students of University of Ibadan and as such it cannot be used anywhere elase in the world except further studies is carried out.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Sensitization Campaigns:

The process of making somebody/something more aware of something, especially a problem or something bad


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Frequently Asked Questions


Why is examination malpractice a concern in Nigeria?

Despite the importance attached to examination in schools and society at large and the stringent rules and regulations governing the conduct of examination, complaints about malpractice are very prevalent. This is an issue of great concern not only to the survival of our educational institutions but also to the leaders of our country, Nigeria.

What is brutnting’s view of the Nigerian educational system?

Brutnting (1976) maintains that success in examination not only determines entry into higher education but also to professional posts. He further stresses that success or failure in examination is the criterion for future prospects. This is of course true as far as the Nigerian educational system is concerned.

Is examinations malpractice destroying our youth?

Examination malpractice is an evil wind blowing nationwide, that does no one no good. It is also an act of stealing that is destroying our young generation, turning them into cheats at all levels of their lives. A nation built on academic corruption, cheating and moral misfits cannot survive.

What was the first massive examination leakage in Nigeria?

The infamous ‘expo’ 77 that rocked the nation was the very first publicly known massive examination leakage. This exam was conducted by the WAEC in May 1977 and all the questions to all the subjects were leaked to students. 

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