Impact Of School Infrastructure On Teaching And Learning Of Zoology Courses On Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education, Owerri
This study examined “Impact of School infrastructure on Teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education”. The purpose of this study was to find out how electricity, pipe-borne water, classroom and laboratory have impact on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education. Four research questions were asked and four null hypotheses formulated and tested using ANOVA at 0.05 level of significant. The research design adopted in the study was descriptive survey. Structured questionnaire was designed by the researcher and administered in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri. The major findings of this study revealed that hypotheses one and two retained while the third and fourth hypotheses were rejected. Based on the findings, it was recommended that College of education directorate should make effort to supply electricity at all times in schools, provide enough classrooms and other facilities in college of education.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Purpose of the Study
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Basic Assumptions
- 1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Theoretical Review
- 2,2 Empirical Review
- 2.4 Summary
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrumentation
- 3.6 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.8 Administration of Research Instrument
- 3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis
- 3.10 Ethical consideration
Data Analysis and Result Presentation
- 4.2 Data Analysis
- 4.2 hypothesis testing
- 4.3 Discussion
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusions
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1 Background to the Study
The subject of school infrastructure had received great attention from the public as well as educators in recent times. According to Building Educational Success Together (BEST, 2005), it was reported that the responsibility of every administrator is to ensure that every child had access to quality education in school infrastructure that provide an educational setting that was suited for teaching and learning. Also, implementing educational policies that resulted in high quality, high-performing, well-designed and maintained school infrastructure had a direct and indirect impact on the teaching and learning process (BEST, 2005). Effective facilities management therefore contributes to the success of every student in any school.
In a study carried out by Hale (2002) revealed that students in classrooms with large windows, natural lighting and well-designed skylights were found to perform well from 19 to 25% better than their peers in classrooms without these feature. Not only environmental conditions in schools affect the students but also the staff as observed by (Hunter, 2006) which include the inoperative heating system, inadequate ventilation and poor lighting system. The overall building condition, the age of the building, and the windows in the instructional areas were positively related to students’ achievement in learning (Bullock, 2007).
It is evident in their contributions (Broome, 2005; Hughes, 2005; Lyons, 2001) that students achievement depended upon the physical school facility, its age, the design and the condition of the school). School infrastructure played a significant role in directing the task of teaching and that of shaping students’ learning process in and out-of-school. No doubt, school buildings as a tool for instituting an effective teaching and learning process constituted sizeable investment of public funds over its development and maintenance by the administrators.
Today, most of the school infrastructure which are supposed to promote an enhanced teaching and learning in tertiary education are absolute in form and thereby, creating a serious challenge to the 21st century educational needs of the learners.
Others are dilapidated and not-suitable to motivate students to learn. School/Educational facilities are otherwise referred to as school plant. The school plants are the physical facilities provided for in the school, such as the school site, the buildings and equipment. These facilities are likened to capital in any industrial settings. In understanding the national goal of developing the educational system so as to provide a satisfactory flow of men and women, capable of acquiring the skills necessary to exploit to the fullest, the natural resources of the country make it imperative for facilities to be abundantly available in schools. Buildings are needed to shelter staff and students, laboratories are needed to generate manipulative skills in students’, sports/games facilities are needed to develop the mental, social and physical aspects of the students.
Dare (2010) defined school infrastructure as all the available assets of a school that can be used to foster and facilitate effective teaching and learning as well as to protect the physical well-being of the occupants. The school infrastructure are the physical expression of the school curriculum. That is, the school curriculum determines to a large extent the nature of school infrastructure to be erected and the purpose it will serve. School infrastructure are expected to be adequately and carefully planned, developed and maintained in order to ensure their relevance to the school curriculum and towards effective teaching and learning in educational institutions. A well designed and functional school building with a wide array of teaching aids therefore, provide effective delivery of the school’s curriculum and are positively related to student’s’ academic performance.
Aside the fact that, school infrastructure are the material things that facilitate teaching and learning processes in school, the duo concepts of teaching and learning are opposite sides of a coin, for a lesson is not taught until it has been learned. This is in addition to the fact that the importance of teaching and learning on the provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized. The dictum had been “teaching is inseparable from learning while learning is separable from teaching”. Lecturers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the lecturers. But be that as it maybe, school infrastructure are sine qua non to teaching and learning process.
Teaching, therefore, can be thought of as a process that facilitates learning. In this process, the teacher or any other school administrator has an important role to play because he acts like a catalyst, actively stimulating learning. The teaching process is such a task that had proved to be difficult in the light of the present scenario, where learning takes place in an unconducive environment. Most public federal college of education in Nigerian are found in this mess, arising the query over what measure of quality control are put in place. A means of evaluating the standard of education at any level of education is on the basis of physical infrastructures provided, which compliment others. This present research work was conceived following the anomalies experienced on the obsolete or dilapidated nature of school infrastructure and its impact on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is no gainsaying that, educational system in Nigeria has contributed in no small measure to support the nation’s economy through the provision of qualitative manpower and acquisition of knowledge, skills and values. In achieving this, in the 21st century, it has been a nightmare due to the poor state of school infrastructure which are poorly managed, out of use, aged and not conducive for teaching and learning process.
There are specific problems identified that could affect teaching and learning zoology in federal college of education.
One, lack of basic social amenities in most schools such as electricity, water supply, laboratories, classrooms etc. Effective and efficient operation of any school is in doubt with the absence of these facilities, affecting teaching and learning activities. This adversely create a discomfort to the lecturers, students and adequate operators of the schools’ administrative system. Fabunmi (1997) in support of this, asserted that school infrastructure when provided will aid teaching and learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of students. Indeed, supply of electricity and pipe borne water in any school building will help for the maximum use of such facilities and vice versa.
Two, unequal allocation of facilities to schools coupled with inadequate funding has compounded the myriads of problem linked to this study. Facilities form one of the potent factors that contribute to academic achievement in the school system (Hallak, 1990). If therefore, such facilities as school buildings, classroom, libraries, laboratories, furniture, recreational equipment and other instructional materials are not evenly distributed to schools due to political reasons, lack of funds or for any other reasons. Then, academic performance of students in such schools should not be queried because of the obvious reason(s) created. In his contribution, Ojoawo (1990) observed that certain schools are favoured in the allocation of facilities at the expense of others.
Also, the issue of funding to the sector has continued to receive public criticism in view of its contribution to other sectors of the economy. It is not too surprising with the United Nations recommendation of a country’s national; budget of 26% to the entire education sector. This perhaps, is to keep the system running ways from its perennial instability problem caused by poor infrastructure, industrial action and so on.
Lastly, failure of the concerned authorities to provide adequate facilities and teaching aid in schools could worsen the situation already created. Scholars like (Wilcockson, 1994; Lawal, 1995; Ajayi, 1996; Suleiman, 1996) have variously identified that poor facilities affect teaching and learning especially zoolpgy that need laboratories. They concluded that absence or poor (and or deteriorating) quality of educational facilities can affect teaching-learning activities and invariably, academic performance of the students. Most public schools exist in vacuum with virtually no facility to promote effective teaching and learning process. These facilities include libraries, textbooks, tables and chairs, classrooms, and laboratories or even test equipment.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set out to achieve the following objectives:
- Assess the impact of supply of electricity on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education.
- Find out the impact of supply of pipe borne water on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education.
- Identify the impact of provision of classrooms on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education.
- Determine the impact of provision of laboratory facilities on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions have been formulated in the study:
- What is impact supply of electricity on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education?
- What is the impact of supply of pipe-borne water on teaching and learning process in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education?
- Does provision of classrooms have any impact on teaching and learning process in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education?
- Does the provision of laboratory facilities have any impact on teaching and learning in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education?
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate impact of school infrastructure on teaching and learning of zoology courses on Alvan Ikoku federal college of education, Owerri
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is believed that the life-wire of any educational system is the extent of availability of school infrastructure (interms of quality and quantity) which occupies a crucial place in the realization of its goals. However, the result of the findings of this research work shall assist every stakeholders (policy makers, school administrators’, lecturers’, government and the students’) in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through the provision of a conducive learning environment. First, policy makers’ will be well equipped with a reliable and factual information which serves as an input for effective law making on issues relating to allocation of funds, timely released period and the legal framework guiding its activities. Secondly, it will provide an extensive knowledge of schools’ facilities to the school administrators to initiate, sustain and put to use. Thirdly, it will afford other researchers to look into grey areas not covered in the present study and seek ways of improving over it.
1.7 Basic Assumptions
The study was assumed on the assumption that:
- If conducive and required educational facilities are provided in school, teaching and learning could improve greatly.
- Academic output of students’ can be encouraging if only an appropriate teaching facilities are put in place.
- Short supply of educational facilities in schools drastically affects the implementation of federal college of education.
- Equal numbers of educational facilities are provided in all schools irrespective of size, purpose or objectives.
- There is no justification for providing facilities and are not being utilized or mismanaged by the school leadership.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study was to cover the school administrators, lecturers and students of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education located in Owerri. The students involved in this study are mainly those in year 2 classes because, it is believed that they would have learnt a lot of things before getting to this level. It is in view of this, that such variables like supply of electricity, pipe borne water, classroom and laboratory school infrastructure, its utilization, roles of stakeholders among others were looked into.
Conclusions and Commendations
In view of the outcome of the study, it was concluded that school infrastructure remained one essential factor in the realization of the goals of tertiary education in Nigeria. This is because of its great role on Teaching and learning zoology cut across the provision of essential services such as electricity, pipe borne water, laboratory and classrooms. They play a different roles in the promotion of Teaching and learning zoology.
The national policy on education recognized the impact of this essential services to the successful running of schools in its blueprint. Though, it has not been ascertained if this facilities are adequately provided for in the studied schools, important to note was that they are viable tools for productive Teaching and learning zoology. Based on these assertions, schools and educational system by extension should entrench endeavour to provide all
these facilities since they are goal-oriented.
The study has arrived at the following recommendations based on its findings and conclusions:
- Bearing in mind that the provision of these facilities are capital intensive project, the study recommended that Government should intensified her effort to increase funding of the system and ensure it is timely done.
- Effort should be put in by the schools to examine and report to the Government as at when due cases of such existing facilities that needed urgent attention.
- On the need to put the facilities into functional use, it recommends that Government should; map-out strategies to train and retrain every lecturer on the use and importance of these facilities.
- School heads, lecturers’ and students’ should be re-oriented to tap on how these facilities can improve considerably Teaching and learning zoology within their vicinity.
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies
This will enable other researches emanating from this present study to address other critical areas of interest in this research work. It has therefore suggested that the followings be looked into:
- Appraise the roles played by every stakeholder aimed at putting the facilities into functional use to enhance Teaching and learning zoology.
- Investigate the effect of bureaucratic problems involved in the smooth operation of military federal college of education from the viewpoint of its leadership style and the secrecy nature of information in the organization.
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