The Impact Of Rural Urban Migration On The Nigeria Economy (Nigeria Rural Urban As Case Study)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This work tends to present the remote impact of rural-urban migration in Nigeria economy. The study emphasizes as a whole the development of our rural areas through the provision of basic amenities like pipe-born water electricity, good roads, schools and hospitals the basic thing is access to them also the building of industries to provide opportunities since the basic factor that pushes young men to migrate is available in urban areas is essential because it is the right step to greater and sustainable developments.

This study has been able to cover new growth which has either been neglected by the governments. If development strategies are adequately utilized in our rural areas it will be a stepping stone and reduction of rural-urban drift. It is also to observe that the effect of development strategies in our rural areas my not be witnessed in long run, this is the reason for rural-urban drift.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Scope and limitation
  • 1.5 Significance of study
  • 1.6 Research question
  • 1.7 Definition of terms
  • References

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature review

  • References

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Design

  • 3.1 Methods of data collection
  • 3.2 Sample size
  • 3.3 Sampling techniques
  • 3.4 Data analysis techniques
  • References

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Data presentation
  • 4.2 Data analysis
  • 4.3 Research findings
  • References

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaires

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Although rural-urban migration in the third world countries is a well documented process the cause of an impact of rural-urban migration is a dynamic phenomenon that keeps changing as external forces assume different dimensions in south Africa rural-urban migration labour system has its roots in the development of mining and industrial sectors and also in the early primitive stages of commercial capitalist agriculture.

The martial impact of this migrant system was a rapid deterioration of rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity.

However, during the last decodes, technological advancements have lead to changes in labour requirements by mining industrial and manufacturing sector consequently not only for rural labour resolves but also for individual rural house-holds.

The level and extent of poverty in rural areas and the need for cash income have increased.

A closer analysis of rural-urban migration reveals very complex complicating and at times contradicting processes leading to rural-urban migration whilst poverty and continued deteriorating of rural-agricultural economy appears to be the main causes of rural urban migration. It is also true that rural-urban migration accelerated the deterioration of rural agricultural economy.

The purpose in this paper is to explain the economic causes of migration and also to investigate the impact of rural-urban migration on rural economy.

This paper will focus on the impact of rural urban migration on economy of rural area and how does the oscillatory migration system affect government and non-government development programmed.

This paper also attempts to investigate the relationship between the rural-urban migration and the position of the rural women and rural economy. Numerous scholars have analyzed who migrate and to a certain extent what cause migration and the economic effect of migration.

There has been little index study of the effect of rural-urban migration on women and the role of women on the reproduction of migrant labour force. Migrant labour system had been studied as a rural-urban studied. Their position has never been centralized.

The role of women in this oscillatory migrant system has always been analyzed in terms of impact to migrant labour within the impact of rural-urban migration on rural economy in rural villages.

The demographic household, whilst it is an established fact that the high rate of male migration has led to modification of the structure of family life and has transformed women social and economic position to their detriment. The central role the women played in the migrant labour system has been undermined the intention in this article is to identify the migrant labour system.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

National development witnessed rural migration to become urban migration in Nigeria economy because of some problems which this research work is aimed at exposing these problems are as follows:

  1. Lack of good road for transportation of items produce to the market.
  2. High mortality rate amongst the jobless.
  3. Lack of mechanized system of agriculture
  4. Lack of capital for expansion
  5. Lack of educational facilities to improve the education standard of the rural dwellers.

These problems have led to the present predicaments.

This is imposing problem on the development of rural dwellers.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of the study is to identify the following.

  1. To examine the impact of rural-urban migration on Nigeria economy.
  2. To discover the effect and set backs of rural or rural-urban migration in Nigeria economy.
  3. To offer solution to the case of the urban migration and outline measures to develop the rural areas in order to improve the standard of living of rural dwellers and thereby reducing the rate of unemployment.
  4. To reduced the rate of rural-urban migration on Nigeria economy.

1.4 Scope And Limitation Of Study

The focus and scope of this work is limited to the impact of rural-urban migration in Nigeria economy the researchers questionnaire distributed were limited to the inhabitants of this nation and all questions relating to rural-urban migration on Nigeria economy were asked obtaining information for accurate work was not easy.

1.5 Significant Of Study

The essence of this study to find out the lasting solution to rural-urban drift and to facilitate the national development the rural development is essential if we are to have meaningful and sustainable development. Development of the rural area leads to the real development of the urban areas as well as since one cannot exist very well without the other.

Rural-urban migration has impact a mark association between the age sex structure and mostly children and their aged people are left in the rural as migrants and youths.

1.6 Research Question

For the purpose of this research, system theory will be applied.

This is because of the fact that the system is a collection of interrelated parts, which form a whole system theory examines the relationship between the sub-system such as industry and other sub-system such as family. And this will help a long way in explaining the fact that the urban centers constitute a sub-set of a large related components part (rural area).

An American sociologist (tacitly parse) in his theory of social system in this direction the approach is some how focus on the structure of healthy organism and how the variation parts of their body function to mention the organism such as how the heart supply blood to the body and central nervous system control.

In other words, the rural area is an indispensable part of the urban cities and both compliment each other.
A nation cannot be complete without the rural areas and their rural functions cannot be over looked.
The way government responds to development of the magnitude of stress inform of demand is capable of creating under development in the rural areas.

This also provides ethical explanation of rural under development, where poverty, disease and other problems become essential characteristic of rural area. The problem of rural under development can only (demand by rural dwellers) and feet back mechanism (output) (government responses to the demand made by the dwellers) which can only be delivered in an open system theory.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

For the purpose of understanding and reality, the following terms are defined in the content in which they apply in this work.


To pass information, knowledge e.t.c to other people.


Connected within a town or city damage to either urban or rural environments urban area, centers, population, urban life, population.


Connected with or like the country side rural area or rural way of life.


The movement of large numbers of people, birds or animals from one place to another: seasonal migration/mass migration.


The state of being poor: Conditions of object extreme poverty to alleviate/relieve.


Many elderly people live in poverty.


Feelings of insecurity .job insecurity we all have our fears and insecurities.


The fact of a number of people not having a job, the number of people without a job: an area of high unemployment.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This is aimed a investigating the impact of rural-urban migration and its effect on Nigeria economy. It equally made possible solution on have to curb rural-urban migration as to rural indigenes, the state and nation at large.

However, the impacts of rural-urban include:

  1. Unemployment
  2. Under development
  3. Lack of basic amenities like water good roads and electricity.
  4. Neglect of the development of our rural areas by governments.
  5. Unfavorable economic conditions.

Apart from this, we know that the out come of these causes is a drift to the urban centers and thereby imposing problems in the development of Nigeria.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this work the researcher recommends that:

  1. There is need to provide rural electrification pipe-born water and other basic amenities to stop further migration because the provisions of above facilities with improve the economy of he rural areas and make life meaningful.
  2. Government policies and programmer should be introduced in our rural areas to create employment opportunities it is necessary to recognize that about 70% of the Nigeria population living in the rural areas have benefited relating from the rapid economic growth for the past few years. The improvement in the welfare of the average Nigeria will therefore require a subset increase in rural income.
  3. Health centers facilities and qualified personnel’s should be provided in our rural areas as to educate our rural dwellers on child birth control.
  4. The development and industrialization of our rural areas should not be taken for granted because our rural areas are integral part of our nation and forms the bases of development.
  5. Education institution and programmer should not stop at urban centers, but extend to area so as to place a stop population which leads to migration and thereby encouraging under-development.

5.3 Conclusion

Thus, a conclusion was drawn in some factors that led to the rural-urban migration and thereby causing under development of rural areas.

However, the under development of the rural areas has been the cause of urban migration which in itself is a problem to developments.

An urban or city cannot be said to be developed when there is the problem of unemployment housing inadequate infrastructures, high crime wave etc.

Development of he rural areas leads to the real development of the urban areas as well as since one cannot exist very well without the other.

Rural-urban migration has caused increase in child dependency ratio as a factor imposing problem in development as those involved are not working neither do they contribute in any way to the development of the area in the consuming class.

Migration has led a high cost of agricultural production than to create due to lack of incentives in form of seeding loans tedious and poor method of planting cultivation, weeding, investigating and shortage socialites like sib for storing maize.

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