The Impact Of Rural-Urban Drift On The Economic Development (A Case Of Ohaji/Egbeme Local Government Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


As much as development is desirable, urban drift should be considered a priority while other things follow. From the statement, it becomes pertinent that our urban area should be industrialized so as to urban an entire national development. Hence this study evaluates the role of urban drift as an effective strategy for economic development in a local government with particular reference to Ohaji/Egbene area of Imo state Nigeria. Apart from studying the role of drift towards development factors which have discussed.

The researcher has temporary stated the statement pf problem, objective of the study, research question, objective of the study, research question, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two deals with literature review, chapter three is on research methodology, chapter four base on data presentation and data analysis while chapter five finally base on summary, recommendation and conclusion.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

  • 1.1. Background of study
  • 1.2. Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 objective of the study
  • 1.4 research questions
  • 1.5. Significance of the study
  • 1.6. Scope of the study
  • 1.7 limitation of the study
  • 1.8. Definitions of terms

Chapter Two

2.0. Literature Review

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Economic development
  • 2.3. The concept of urban development
  • 2.4. Conceptual look of urban development
  • 2.5. The effect of urban drift on the socio-economic development of Nigeria
  • 2.6 The problem of urban drift
  • 2.7. The role of government in economic development

Chapter Three

3.0. Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Research design
  • 3.3. Sources/method of data collection
  • 3.4. Population and sample size
  • 3.5. Sampling technique
  • 3.6. Validity / reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7. Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0. Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Presentation of data
  • 4.3. Analysis of data
  • 4.4. Interpretation of result

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Summary of findings
  • 5.3. Recommendation
  • 5.4. Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

1.1. Background Of The Study

Nigeria as a democratic society has a vast area in terms of landmass and development of those vast areas should not only resolve round on a particular sector. In order for Urban communities to integrate into the development life and also contribute fully to national progress.

According to Imo state tripe vision seeds; about seventy-five percent of the Imo state population resides in the Urban area in which Ohaji/Egbema is one of its autonomous communities. Those urban areas are characterized by element of poverty, ignorance, illiteracy and unemployment. And for development to penetrate to Ohaji/Egbema, urban drift was considered as an effective strategy.

Drift is the bedrock of development in its entire ramification, it is a major index of measuring development in any economic. Thus urban drift is the art of moderning and transforming the national and human resource and as well as bringing about an increase . in urban income urban productivity diversification of economy and general enhancement of the quality of life in urban populace.

Ajibola Adams (2003:37) sees urban drift as the transformation urban areas through the process of manufacturing consumer and capital goods as well as creation of social overheads capitals for the enhancement of the urban life. More so, urban drift could be defined as setting up or establishing many economy and improves the standard of living of the urbanities.

From the foregoing Umebeli (2002;218) regards the establishment of industries especially in the urban areas as an important strategy for transforming urban economic, such industries generated.

  1. They encourage urbanization of the urban areas and increased dependence on agriculture production by the urban workers who are generally characterized by a high income elasticity of demand for food.
  2. Demand for agriculture and related product in many ways.
  3. Bridge the socio-economic and political gap between the urban areas.
  4. It generate increased in demand for specialist processor, and transportation and food distributors in the urban areas.
  5. Bridge the socio-economic and political gap between the urban and rural areas.
  6. Seek increase in employment opportunity.

Hence for urban drift to be favourable in Ohaji/Egbema drift as a strategy must not be biased in favour of large scale capital intensive projects. Drift should also stress measures for reducing the concentration of purchasing power. There should be a measure of protection of the domestic food produce by way of taxes and quantitative control of food imports, for the economic to enjoy the benefits of urban drift some which are provision of roads, electricity water supply and an increase in urban population creation body of educated people etc.

In sum, Ohaji/Egbema citizenry should be encouraged to invest in industries through credit disbursement and government should have it as policy that urban investment can only be effective in a local government through the conjunction of government effort, non-governmental organization and the effort of the urban people.

1.2 Statement Of Problems

In most of the developing democratic nations such as Nigeria, such sector as industrial commercial education etc constitute the core of development advancement. In any of the above activities bring about increased utilization of resource, stronger economic base which would have the resultant effect on development.

The Nigeria urban areas have been developing with such as retarded speed, that low results have been experienced. In the areas of better housing, employment opportunities provision of amenities job prospects, investments opportunities, increased public awareness and the collective effects on the nation economy; with the effective exploitation of the resources of urban areas would contribute immensely to the over all national development.

Inadequate resources utilization and urban resource drain have resulted in a very weak economic base in the various urban areas of Nigeria. This drain of human and natural resources in the major cause of downward development in Ohaji/Egbema. The stagnant nature or Ohaji/Egbema lacks quantitative and labour force, poor housing, poor service, amenities and utilities poverty and low income earning which restrict capital formations for investments outdates mode of production increasing income disparity when comparing urban-urban income, high propensity for out migration, low level participation communication and awareness in government programmes.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

Due to higher development concentration in the urban areas in Nigeria, it has been the desire of the researcher to make people know some of her discoveries and how it has caused Ohaji/Egbema to remain industrial under developed

The objectives of this research work are as follows;

  1. To show that the existence of encouragement of urban industrial in Ohaji/Egbema has contributed towards developing Ohaji/Egbema
  2. To show that urban drift is not the only acceptable approach for economic development.
  3. To prove that urban drift has been mapped out for increase in standard of living and urbanization of the urban area.
  4. To evaluate the factors that has directly and indirectly inhibit urban drift in Ohaji/Egbema.
  5. To prove that the rate of infrastructural facilities facilitate the establishment of urban industries in Ohaji/Egbema.
  6. To show that the levels of income affect the establishment of industries in Ohaji/Egbema.
  7. To prove that the rate of infrastructural facilities facilitate the establishment of urban industries in Ohaji/Egbema.
  8. To prove that Ohaji/Egbema local government have been encouraging urban drift through credit disbursement.
  9. To prove that the industries generate demand for agricultural products as well as provide agriculture with technical and chemical input.

1.4 Research Question

This research work has set out to ask some question which are of much important to this research. In the quest for the actualization on the research work.

  1. Does urban drift constitute the core of development in Ohaji/Egbema?
  2. Is urban development oriented?
  3. Is urban drift the only acceptable strategy for economic development?
  4. Is urban drift the only acceptable strategy for economic development?
  5. What impact does it makes towards agriculture
  6. Is there any factory that inhibits urban drift in Ohaji/Egbema?
  7. Is there any programme embarked by Ohaji/Egbema local government to supporting urban drift in its jurisdiction?
  8. Does the income level of the citizens affect the establishment of industries?
  9. Do infrastructural facilities determine the rate of urban industry in Ohaji/Egbema?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

Obviously the significance of this study has been known right from the background of this study, but it is vital and valid to state the importance of this project for clearer understanding. As much as all other essentials of life are desirable, the developing countries should consider drift a priority while all other things shall follow. The above being case, it becomes vital that our urban area should be industrialized so as to achieve an entire national development.

Apart from studying the role of drift towards urban development, would also enumerate some of these urban industries factors which has directly or indirectly affected urban drift. It is also hoped that by the end of this study, the reaction of the people morale on the programme must have been achieved. This will lead to the formation of agencies association etc responsible for the establishment of industries in the urban areas. Base on these facts the researcher drew her conclusion on the study to include the following.

  1. It brought about a decrease in the rate of urban migration in Ohaji/ Egbema.
  2. To enlighten the public that urban drift brings about modernization and transformation of urban areas.
  3. Urban drift brought about increase in the demand of Ohaji/Egbema agricultural produce.
  4. The existence of some factors in Ohaji/Egbema can hinder the progress of industrialization of the area.
  5. The existence of the new industrial development programme in Ohaji/Egbema has brought new hopes to the learning unemployed school leavers of Ohaji/Egbema.
  6. To make the government know that urbab drift generates revenue for the government.
  7. To encourage the effort of the people together with the government towards a cooperatively establishment in urban industries.

1.6. Scope Of The Study

The scope of the study is already in the proposed research topic “Urban drift and economic development in a local government. A case of Ohaji/Egbema”. This study shall primarily focus on the impact of urban drift in the socio-economic development of Ohaji/Egbema.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

In the course of carrying out the research, the researcher encountered some difficulties which acted as limitation to the successful completion and generalization of the work these are;

Time Constraint:

This research work was carried out during holidays with all its social activities including other problems thereby necessitating the disruption and jam-packing of academic work.


Because of the financial problem encountered in the course of this work limited the researcher from getting more text books, journals, seminar work, magazine relating to urban drift and economic development. Moreso, the researcher was conducted at a time when cost of most commodities were highly expensive coupled with the Easter holiday which invariably led to high cost of transportation and to and fro the case study area.

Attitude Of Respondent:

Another difficulty was that respondents unwillingness and some times blunt refused to furnish necessary information similar to most of those who are in possession of the research materials could not do it.

Library Insufficiency:

The insufficient textbook at the school library also constitute a problem to the research. The library lack books relating to the research topic at time. The re-arrangement of text at the library reference room also constitute a limitation.

Work Overload:

The pressing need to attend lectures coupled with the fact that the departmental load is enormous did militate against a through and highly intensive research work.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

The following concept are defined within the context of this research work.


Umali (2004:197) defined development as a process of sustained increase in total and per-capital incomes accompanied by structural transformation and modernization of socio-economic environment.


From class lecture on urban development PAD 324 economic is seen as any process of social interaction which gives raise to a more intensive or more extensive attribute and practice of interdependent, cooperation collaboration and unification.

Economic Development:

Owuamalam (2003;24) quoted united nations organization (1662) which defines economic development as the processes by which the effort of the people themselves are united with those of the governmental authorities to improve the economic to integrate those communities into the life of the nation to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.

Urban Development:

Osy (2006) defines urban development as sustained attempts to transform the urban areas in such a way that the problems in urban areas which make life very difficult and uncomfortable are minimized to ensure improved living conditions.

Urban Drift:

Mainly for the study. Ajibola Adams (2003:40) defined urban drift as the art of locating setting up or establishing many industries. In the urban areas so as to diversify the urban economy and improve the standard of living of the urban dwellers.

Democratic Government:

Osy (2006) sees a democratic government as that government which gives periodic opportunity for its masses to choose their leaders.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

At the end of the presentation of a data obtained from the field study, a presentation of the summary of these findings were of great importance and of course a recommendation which the researcher thinks will be of help to economic development as well as students.

5.2 Summary Of Finding

It is the intent of the researcher to investigate analysis and determine if Ohaji/Egbema is industrialized. In the first chapter of this very study. The researcher introduced the topic and provided the background of the study. In this same chapter the researcher stated the problem that induced in her spirit of studying and writing about this topic. Hence, in attempt to be focused in the study, she put forward certain question whose answer provided solution to the problem of the study.

In chapter two of this study, the researcher made comprehensive and detailed review of what many scholars have documented earlier before now about the topic under review. The chapter showcased people’s opinion and finding about urban drift and economic development as well as the impact of government in development issue.

In chapter three, the researcher showcased the method of data collection she used and her sources of data. From the data she collected she was to get some of the population of people in Ohaji/Egbema especially that of Opuoma and Abaesi autonomous communities. To make the work a bit easier’ she adopted a simple percentage and uses a sample size of (100) to generate her findings.

In general summary, urban drift is a very important aspect of economic opportunities, increase standard of living as generate income for the residents and revenue to the government.

5.3 Conclusion

Urban areas as the down town part of a nation occupies over 75% of its land mass as well as the population it has no meaningful social change, economically, educationally, politically or otherwise and since no nation can scale through without including its urban region, it is said that drift is regarded as the pinnacle for development.
Since urban drift is an effective tool for economic development and based on research finding and certain recommendation that were made when rigorously pursed wholly facilitate rapid urban industrial take off through out Ohaji/Egbema.

Urban drift is a dynamic activity. As it progress it brings about urban transformation change by setting other sub-sequent activities into motion in other related sectors of the urban area and at the same time developing them. This study had shown that through an effective and constant pursuit of urban drift as economic development programmes, the ultimate result will bring urban changes

5.4 Recommendation

Urban drift is a very effective tool for development of the urban area and for rapid drift of Ohaji/Egbema that following recommendation which strictly based on the finding are found necessary.

  1. Urban areas should be adequately provided with necessary infrastructures and facilities should be well outlined and guarded.
  2. Government should not over look the crucial role played by the citizens in identifying their basic need and priority.
  3. Government should ensure that states goals and objectives as well as fund allocated towards achieving goals and objectives are safe guarded against loopholes that will drain their resources into unprofitable and unintended ventures.
  4. Constant monitory evaluation and mobilization of funds and personnel are essential to the success of urban development programmes. thus emphasis should be given to this by relevant agencies.
  5. The monthly income of the respondents citizenry re related to the percentage of people participation in urban drift. The government should therefore help by financially ask or instruct banks to give out loans to industrialist at very reasonable interest rate.
  6. To maintain order and standard quality in setting up urban industries the government should bring out policy guidelines in urban set up.
  7. Since poverty is dominant in urban setting, the urban it should be mandated from co-operative societies in order to jointly own a business. Succinctly put, if the above recommendation will be carried out drift of Ohaji/Egbema will be a dream come true. This will lead to creation of job, increased income, better educational attainment, improvement in the social economic, cultural and political spheres of the urban areas as well as eradication of criminal activities.

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