The Impact Of Rural Industrialization On Development In Nigeria
This study seeks to evaluate the impact of rural industrialization on development in Nigeria using Nnewi (Anambra State) as a case of study.
Rural industrialization is seen a antireform to the rapid urbanization of Nigeria urban center through the process of rural urban migration as migrants from rural areas drift to cities in search of jobs, high income, better living condition and infrastructural facilities present there. The above was made possible by the skewed regional imbalance of industrial location in the country which tends to be biased disappropriately in favour of the urban centers.
Nnewi is one of the major industrial cities in Nigeria. Noted for its automobile spare part business. Nnewi houses more than 30 functional industries with the industrialists taking full advantage of the Nkwo Market which is one of the biggest auto spare parts market in Africa.
Unfortunately, the rapid industrialization of Nnewi town seems to be creating some serious social and environment problem in the town. It is against this backdrop that this research was embarked on to identify this problem, evaluate there effect on the inhabitants of the Nnewi town and proffer solution to the identified problems.
The design used in this research is the case study, using twenty-three (23) itemized and validated questionnaires which was prepared to help the researcher elicit information from the respondents drawn from the town of study, Nnewi. A population sample of 335 made up of 200 males and 135 females were randomly drawn for the study.
The major finding of the study were at 0.05 probability level. T-test was also used in data analysis. The finding of the study revealed that in as much as rural industrialization is seemingly indispensable in Nigeria now, there is serious need to check the hazards and social ills that are associated with unplanned urbanization of the rural area through industrialization. This is a matter of necessity.
Finally, the finding of this study seems to have strong favour for rural industrialization but at the same time, strongly oppose unplanned rural industrialization.
Background to the Subject Matter
Nnewi, one of the three urban towns of Anambra State is located 37 kilometers sough of Awka the Anambra State Capital and 98 kilometers East of Enugu the old regional headquarters of Eastern Nigeria. It is the headquarters of Nnewi North Local Government Area.
Nnewi area landness of about 298o 80sq. and has an estimated population of about 300,000 people presently. (The 1991 population census figure was 201,203 people).
Nnewi shares a common boundary with Ozubulu in the West and is also bounded in the East by Ichi and Orikife in the South while Ufu and Ukpor bounded it at North.
Nnewi town is made up of four administrative interdependent autonomous communities namely:
- Umadi and
All of which in corporate many clings more than anything also, the origin of Nnewi is perhaps the most controversial in Nnewi history. Opinions on this differ widely and range form possibilities, hence my decision to side live the controversy and resume my study from the pre-industrial era of Nnewi.
Pre-Industrial Era In Nnewi
From very early times, the inhabitant of Nnewi were farmers. They cultivated yam, cassava, cocoyam, reaoton etc. they also engaged in other activities like animal husbandry, poultry, fishing, forestry and food processing. Nearly all were farmers or his hands while even they doctors, teachers, store-sceegess and blacksmiths were display involved in an agricultural as a way of life. All faced common hoplessness before the awesome natural forces, which lied beyond human control.
Nnewi people tried to produce nearly everything they consumed since in a rapidly expending economic with chronic shortage of money and credit, subsistence and economic was a socially useful adaptation. Status was measured in terms of hand barns and livestock.
Study Aim and Objectives
The aim of the study is to assess the impact of rural industrialization on development in Nnewi north Local Government Area.
The aim will be achieved through thefollowing specific objectives:
- To develop an inventory of the available rural industrialization in Nnewi north Local Government Area
- To determine the spatial distribution pattern of rural industrialization in the study area
- To determine the relationship between rural industrialization and level of development in the study area
Hypothesis of Study
There is no significant relationship between rural industrialization and development in Nnewi north LGA.
Scope and Limitation
The study is limited to Nnewi north Local Government Area, in Enugu state. A survey was conducted to take an inventory of the rural industrialization available in the different wards. However, this study was limited to the impact of the following infrastructure on rural development namely; commercial, education, administration, public utility, recreation, health, transport and communication infrastructure.
Justification of the Study
A survey of existing literature has revealed that a lot of studies have been conducted on rural industrialization and services in Nigeria. For example, Madu (2007) investigated the underlying factors of rural development pattern in the Nsukka Region of southeastern Nigeria. He was able to determine the strength of the various underlying factors by using factor analysis, and concluded that four factors (rural markets, land resources, accessibility and the influence of local government administration) accounted for more than 70% of the total variance.
Similarly, Ajala and Adeyinka (2005) indicated in their study of accessibility to healthcare facilities in Osun State, that serious inadequacy of health facilities and services exists in rural areas which results in many preventable deaths among rural people. Other studies carried out on rural industrialization and services include that of Olayiwola and Adeleye (2005) in which they investigated and documented a comprehensive report on rural infrastructural development in Nigeria between 1960 and 1990 pointing out the problems and challenges.
All these studies examined and explained the problem of rural industrialization and services while focusing more on either the availability of the physical infrastructure or their spatial distribution. The ‘social aspects’ of development which is always referred to as positive changes in relation to social conditions has received little attention. This research therefore serves as a guideline focusing on the social aspects of rural development planning at local level. It can be used as part of a broader planning approach, which recognizes the linkages between social and economic issues, between rural and urban areas, and between national, district and local planning.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study tries to assess the impact of rural industrialization on development in Nnewi north local government area of Anambra state. This was done by assessing the available rural industrialization provided in all the eleven wards of the local government. The categories of rural industrialization considered in the study are education, commercial, public utility, administration, transport and communication, health and recreation. The result of this analysis shows that there is uneven distribution of rural industrialization in the study area; the findings show that there are considerable numbers of rural industrialization in all the wards, although there are variation and differences in their number. For example, there is an over-concentration of these facilities in the two major towns of Nnewi north while others are predominantly rural in nature are neglected.
Population size is an important factor in rural development, when government provides social amenities; communities with large populations are usually favoured because it is more economical and viable to establish them in populous communities with large demands for goods and services. More importantly, the emergence or establishment of a service in a locality depends on whether the locality can produce the population threshold for the service.
This threshold is the minimum population size required to support the existence of a service. This is further confirmed by the result of the analysis conducted using location quotients (LQ) in which wards with large populations but small number of infrastructure recorded LQ of less than 1.0 and so are disadvantaged. While those wards with small populations but large number of infrastructure recorded LQ greater than 1.0, implying that the wards have achieved a comparatively more significant level of development.
Also, the result for multiple regression shows a strong relationship between rural industrialization and development. This implies that, availability of rural industrialization has impact on the level of development of the study area. This finding is further conformed when the information obtained was tabulated, where the summary provided evidence that the available rural industrialization have greatly impacted on their social life.
rural industrialization is central to development. Improved infrastructure not only expands opportunities for growth but also help ensure that such growth is more diffused and equitable. Many developing countries, especially in Africa, still have woefully inadequate levels of rural industrialization, and this is a major constraint to their socio-economic development. This study has tried to assess the impact of rural industrialization on development, the infrastructure considered in the study are educational facilities, commercial facilities, administrative facilities, public utilities (electricity and water supply), transport and communication facilities, health facilities and recreation facilities. The nature of this study entails the use of social indicators as this would give the research a proper structure as well as sense of direction, moreover, the social indicators also served as the independent or x variables while scores for level of development served as the dependent or y variable. The result of the analysis conducted using Location Quotient (LQ) shows that there is uneven distribution of rural industrialization in the study area. The findings have shown that most of the wards particularly those that are highly populated have inadequate facilities.
Also, multiple regression was used to determine the relationship between rural industrialization and development in the study area, the result of the analysis which is expressed as the coefficient of determination R2 shows a strong and positive relationship. Therefore, it can be clearly stated that the provision of rural industrialization do have great impact on the development of the study area. On the other hand, the contribution of the individual x variables towards development varies, the most significant variable is public utilities (electricity and water supply) followed by transport and communication facilities and then recreational facilities. The contribution of education and commercial facilities seem to be of little or no significance in the regression analysis. This in on surprising looking at the fact that there are inadequate schools in the study area, secondary schools in particular. That is why a large number of students have to travel long distance before getting to school, also the study area has a population of over 200,000 people, but have only two banks which are all located in the local government headquarters; this has definitely reduced access and patronage of the facilities thus making their impact insignificant.
Finally, this study concludes by suggesting that future researches should examine in more detail the role of rural industrialization on development of rural areas by laying emphasis on the quality of the infrastructure rather than quantity, so as to be able to figure out the true dimension of the development.
The study shows that rural industrialization are very crucial to the socioeconomic development of rural areas. Access to infrastructure such as education, transport and communication, health and recreational facilities greatly improve the welfare of rural dwellers. Additionally, the supply of these basic amenities will go a long way in improving the social life of rural areas. This study reveals that attention to rural industrialization is highly indispensable for high level of development in the study area and Nigeria as a whole.
Based on the study, it is recommended that:
More schools should be constructed in order to reduce the distance students have to travel to school, and more facilities should be provided for qualitative education also,
More banks should open branches in the study area not only in the local government headquarters but also in the predominantly rural wards as this would help farmers to have access to various services offered by the banks.
Rural areas are generally characterized with lack of accessibility due to bad roads conditions. The provision of motorable roads therefore will help not only farmers in transporting their produce to markets but also, students who have to travel long distance every day.
Deliberate efforts should be made by government to change the policies concerning the provision of infrastructural facilities in the study area by focusing more on adequacy and even distribution. It is believed that if this is done the facilities so provided will have a greater impact on the local communities.
There is also a greater need for the involvement of the private sector and nongovernmental organizations in the provision of such facilities. The private sector can invest substantial capital in providing for example, recreational facilities, health and communication as well as commercial infrastructure such as banks and super markets etc.
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