The Impact Of Road Transport On Tourism Development In Ebonyi State (A Study Of Peace Transit Limited)

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The Impact Of Road Transport On Tourism Development In Ebonyi State (A Study Of Peace Transit Limited)


This study examined the impact of road transport system on tourism development in Ebonyi state, with particular reference to peace transmit limited. Specifically, the study was aimed at assessing the current state of road transport in Ebonyi and how it affects tourism, to examine the impact of road transport irregular scheduling, and to examine coping strategies that are used by tourists and tour guides to deal with challenging road transport system in Ebonyi state. Tourism is considered as a driver of economic development globally. It is complex sector that touches almost all other sectors in terms of strategy, institutional framework, and actual implementation.

As a result sustainable tourism development needs huge investment whereby financing may become very difficult for developing countries with increased population that needs basic infrastructure and public service like transportation. government usually suggested as a viable model to finance tourism development where tourism projects are financed and operated through between government and one or more private sector companies.

The study concluded with recommendations which include: the need to review the tourism master plan, provision of adequate funding, formulation of Ebonyi state tourism policy and most importantly, a second look at the transport system in Ebonyi state as it is in total mishap, as well as hospitality.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Research
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Definitions
  • 2.1.1 General Challenges of Peace transit
  • 2.1.2 Sustainable Tourism Development
  • 2.2 Types of tourism
  • 2.2.1 Cultural Tourism
  • 2.2.2 Eco-Tourism
  • 2.2.3 Medical Tourism:
  • 2.2.4 Sports Tourism
  • 2.2.5 Music Tourism
  • 2.2.6 Culinary Tourism
  • 2.2.7 Wine Tourism:
  • 2.2.8 Heritage Tourism
  • 2.3 Tourism planning
  • 2.3.1 Perspectives of Tourism Planning
  • 2.3.2 The Need for Tourism Master Planning (a) investment funds to private sector with certain stability.
  • 2.3.3 Levels of Tourism Master Planning:-
  • 2.3.4 Availability of adequate publicity
  • 2.4 History of Tourism Development
  • 2.4.1 Benefits of Tour buses
  • 2.4.2 Role of Reliable Transport in Tourists’ Performance
  • 2.4.3 Outcome of Poor Transport System on Tourism

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Area of Research
  • 3.4 Study Population
  • 3.5 Sample size and Sampling Design
  • 3.5.1 Sample Size
  • 3.5.2 Sampling Design
  • 3.6 Variables and Measurement Procedures
  • 3.7 Data Collection Methods
  • 3.8 Data Collection Tools
  • 3.9 Reliability and Validity of Data
  • 3.10 Data Analysis
  • 3.11 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis And Discussion Of The Findings

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Respondents Characteristics

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of the Main Findings
  • 5.3 Implications of the Finding
  • 5.4 Conclusions
  • 5.5 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Tourism is defined as the short term movement of people from their usual place of residence (origin) to other places (destination) for the purpose of leisure and recreational activities without any intention of securing a permanent resident or job at the destination; Cooper and Boniface (2006). It is also seen as the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering for their needs and wants; Mentosh and Gupta (2008). Since the early 70s, tourism has grown to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world, ranking only after petroleum and auto trades. Tourism today plays a significant role in the balance of payment of many countries both in the developed and developing worlds.

Tourism therefore, brings huge economic and social benefits to many nations, especially those that carefully plan and manage their potential attractions or resources (UNTWO, 2010). It has become the world’s largest growing industry, statistics by the world Tourism organizations shows that there are no signs of this growth slowing down in the next Millennium. To benefit from this global trend, tourism is been adopted by governments as a vehicle for poverty alleviation, employment generation and wealth creation. It is also seen as a veritable tool for the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Various countries in Asia have also considered improving tourists transportation using tour buses instead of road transport. In Hong Kong, most tourists use trains that are managed by specific organizations. But there are also special buses for tourists that are called tour buses. These buses are not managed by the government but they are owned by the government but they are designated for tourists only.

According to Howe and Bryceson (2000) tourists transportation has been a challenge in many African countries. Popular transport for tourists used to be road transport in most of African countries. But this started to change in 1980s where some organizationstour sites operated tour buses for tourists.

Most public tour sites in African countries have no tour buses. Tourists use public buses and other means of transport. These tourists are facing many challenges including arriving late to tour site and rough treatments from bus conductors. These challenges are not bothering tourists who use tour buses within same countries (ibd).

Tour buses are chosen because generally tour buses and other special buses for tourists are considered to be safer than other public buses. Considering how many tourists the buses carry and the distance they cover, deaths on the road are extremely rare. Tour buses in America have a rate of 0.2 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The rate of deaths in other automobiles transport is eight times higher. Statistics provides a good way of comparing risks involved. In a period of 11 years, from 1994-2004, a total of 71 passengers on tour buses died in crashes. But in one year, 2004 alone, traffic accidents killed 31,693 people traveling in cars and light trucks in America (Forkenbrock, 2004).

In Nigeria, Ebonyi state residents travel under difficult conditions from one part of the city to another. Available information shows that daily travel in the city is facing many difficulties. These difficulties include the split between residential areas and places of work or areas where people get services, expansion of urbanized area and deficient transport system. As a result of these factors, transport remains to be a critical need for city residents (Sliuzas, 2001).

Werlin (1999) explain that generally lack of adequate transport system, is potential to create complicated daily life by making access to various destinations and services difficulty for majority of people especially the poor. Privileged section of the population has access to good transport infrastructure but on the other hand, the low income population is facing poor urban road transportation.

According to Howe and Bryceson (2000), city transport in Ebonyi state was initially provided by the urban road transport company named Shirika la UsafiriEbonyi state (UDA). But towards the end of 1980s, UDA started to fail to meet transport needs of the city residents. This is where private owned vehicles started to operate carrying passengers in the city. Private vehicles were popular known by name of daladala.

Briggs and Mwafumpe (2000) argue that even with the daladala support, transport in ebonyi state continued to be a challenge for residents. Increased population fuel furthers the problem of transport in the city. According to national census data, the population of Ebonyi state was 348,000 in 1968, 852,000 in 1978 and about 2,500,000 in 2002. The current number in 2012 is about 5,000,000
(National Bureau of Statistics, 2012).

Again Briggs and Mwafumpe (2000) report that increasing distance from residential areas to the city center has increased over time. For example, by the year 1968 the maximum distance from the furthest end was 6 to 10 kilometers. But the with city expansion, the distance increased to 15 kilometers in 1978 and then 30 kilometers in the middle of 1990s. With urbanization on the process, this distance continues to grow making transport even more complicated.

Such inadequate and unreliable transport in ebonyi state is also experienced by tourists. The tourists also need transport every day to go to various tourists destinations and back. It is common in Ebonyi state to see many tourists stranded at bus stands for long time waiting for transport. But there are other tourists who use special tour buses. This group may not be experiencing the same transport impact as their fellows who use public means (Nyirenda, 2012). This study examined the impact of peace transit on tourism development in Ebonyi state.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Touristattraction in ebonyi state is growing. According to Mjingo (2011), there are about 10,000 tourists in the city who need transport to go to tour site and travelling back home. But the safety of travelling for these tourists, most of them rely on the erratic road transport system, which is at stake most of the time. Mjingo (2011) also reports that Ebonyi state has about12tourist sites.

But most of these tour sites have no proper transport arrangements for their tourists. University of Ebonyi state (2008) observed that the tourists travel to various tour sites and back home with a lot of difficulty. When travelling from the outskirts of the city to their respective tour sites, tourists face the inconvenience of commuting unreliable road transport. This means that the future of transport system for tourists who use road transport system in ebonyi state is uncertain.

But on the other hand, University of Ebonyi state (2008) argues that some road transport systems like peace transit have an orderly way of transporting both tourists and citizens within and out of the city, these public transits although expensive, provide safe and comfortable movement giving tourism a positive effect as the problem of transportation is reduced Those who use tour buses are mainly those attending private tour sites in the city. This group is privileged with less difficulty in travelling compared with their fellows who use road transport system. One would wonder what happened to tourists who face such transport challenges both personally and in their social activities. At the same time one would want to know what are the benefits enjoyed by tourists who use tour buses to travel over those who use road transport system. This study examined the impact of road transport system on the tourism development of primary tourists in ebonyi state.

1.3 Research Objectives

1.3.1 General Research Objective

The general objective of the study was to assess the impact of peace transit on tourism development in Ebonyi state.

1.3.2 Specific Research Objectives

Specific objectives of the study were as follows:

  1. To assess the current system of road transport used by tourists in the city of Ebonyi state.
  2. To examine the impact of road transport irregular schedule on tourism development.
  3. To assess the outcome of careless handling of road transport system in Ebonyi.
  4. To examine coping strategies that are used by tourists to deal with challenging road transport system in ebonyi state.

1.4 Research Questions

1.4.1 General Research Question

What is the impact of peace transit system on tourism development in Ebonyi state?

1.4.2 Specific Research Questions

The proposed study was guided by the following specific research questions:

  1. What is the current system of road transport used by tourists in Ebonyi state?
  2. What is the impact of road transport irregular schedule on tourism development?
  3. What is the outcome of careless handling of road transport system?
  4. What are the coping strategies that are used by tourists to deal with challenging road transport system in Ebonyi state?

1.5 Significance of the Research

The study contributes towards the on-going discussions and initiatives taken by various stakeholders towards providing reliable transport to tourists. The study also adds on information about the impact of poor transport system on tourism.

peace transit owners will use the available information to up their management of their transport systems, passenger treatment and proper management of their vehicles.

Tourism organizers in Ebony will have a second look into the transport sector as a major factor in setting up a tourist event, as it will involve transporting tourists around.

This study provides information on the impact of those challenges on tourists‟ tourism development especially in ebonyi state.

1.6 Scope of the Study

In order to understand the impact of peace transit ontourism development of tourists in Ebonyi state, the study assessed type of challenges faced by tourists and their impact on the tourism. Peace transit Limitedwas used as the case study

1.7 Organization of the Study

The study has five chapters that present introduction and background of the research in chapter one, literature review of ideas and arguments from various authors related to the subject in chapter two, followed by chapter three that discussed research methodology that was followed on the research work. Chapter four presents study findings and analysis of the findings. Chapter five presents summary conclusions and recommendations.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

The section five presents the conclusions of the research, which are arrived from the objectives of the study. The study recommendations are also presented based on the study findings.

5.2 Summary of the Main Findings

The study found out that majority of tourists uses peace transit when travelling to and from tour site. But there are also tourists who use tour buses and those who walk to tour site. Tourists who use tour buses and who participated in the study reported that although they use peace transit, they have to walk from home to the bus stop to board buses and from the final bus stop to reach tour site. From the result, it is clear that there are many impact of peace transit system, which affects their tour site performance. Where the peace transit is not well coordinated and managed to support tourists transport, it contributes to the tourists‟ poor performance in tour site through the fact that tourists do not arrive to tour site on time and missing activities in the morning. They also arrive home late and tired such that they do not get enough time to complete homework and for private studies. They will not cover enough materials and therefore weak preparations for activity awards.

Tourists who use public buses said that they experience many challenges when travelling to and from tour site. The challenges include delays to reach their destinations because they have to wait for the buses that are not scheduled. Bus conductors most often do not accept tourists because they pay the lowest bus fares.
Then they have to wait for longer time to get buses that will take them in.

The challenges experienced on the way are among the causal factors for the tourists to get late to tour site. This means that they are also late to attend most of first activities in the morning. In all tour sites that participated in the study, tourists who use public buses said that they receive punishments from tour guides when they are late. It was noted from tour guides that punishments may not help because transport problem is beyond the tourists‟ control. The study has generally found out that improper handling of peace transit has an effect on tourists. The tourists who use public buses experience more challenges that those who use other form of transport to travelling to and from tour site. Tour site experiences are affected by the fact that the tourists miss some of first activities and they do not get enough time for private studies at home.

5.3 Implications of the Finding

As found out in the study, most tourists in Temeke district use public buses to travel to and from tour site. But the public buses are not well coordinated. They do not have known schedule of operations. Furthermore, the tourists‟ use of these buses has not been well managed. As a result, tourists do not have smooth access to reliable transport.
Tourists‟ participation in hotel room activities and learning in general is affected and finally tour siteexperiences are below expectations. There are no significant plans for the future that will assure reliable transport for the tourists. This means also that tourists who use public buses will continue to experience the same challenges. They will also continue to see their tour site performance below tour site average.

5.4 Conclusions

From the findings of the study the researcher concludes that peace transit system has an impact on tourism development. The study discovered that the current system of transport used by tourists in the city of Ebonyi state involves privately owned buses that community between different city streets and locations. These buses have been assigned specific routes but have no regular time schedule to provide services to passengers.

Irregular and poor control of peace transit system in has been proved to affect tourists who depend on the public buses in many ways. Tourists arrive to tour site late when first activities have started. When they arrive in tour site late they are punished by tour guides. It was also seen that tourists who travel on public buses do not get adequate time to do their homework or private studies at home because much time is used on the way.

From the study findings it is concluded that careless handling of peace transit system has a negative outcome on tourists. It partly contributes towards poor tourists‟ performance in tour site because of time waste on travel between tour site and home every day. Tourists whose travel on public buses formed their own coping strategies in order to cope with frustrations caused by poor coordinated peace transit system. They came out with coping strategies that include waiting for buses for a long time, begging bus fare from other passengers when they run out of money and some missing tour site completely when they cannot have bus fares on time.

5.5 Recommendations

  1. The government should make a close follow up to regulate the services provided by private bus owners especially on handling tourists who use these buses.
  2. Parents should register their children to nearby tour site from home so that they don’t have to travel long distances going to tour site and returning home after tour site.
  3. Parents should ensure that their children who use peace transit are given applicable bus fares to minimize harassments when travelling on private buses.
  4. Tour guides should identify tourists who face transport challenges and help them to catch up lessons where applicable, tour sites should not punish tourists who arrive to tour site late in the morning for reasons associated with lack of reliable transport.

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